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Nicolae Xenopol

Nicolae Dimitrie Xenopol (or, also Nicu Xenopol; Francized Nicolas Xenopol; October 11, 1858 – December 1917) was a Romanian politician, diplomat, economist and writer, the younger brother of historian Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol and, like him, a member of Junimea society. [1]

189 relations: A. C. Cuza, Academic art, Alexandru Averescu, Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești, Alexandru Davila, Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol, Alexandru Macedonski, Alliance Israélite Universelle, Allies of World War I, Antisemitism, Auguste Comte, Austria-Hungary, Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye, Babeș-Bolyai University, Balkans, Băneasa, Bucharest, Belgium, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Boarding house, Bourgeoisie, Boyar, Bucharest, Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies, Bukovina, Bulgarians in Romania, C. A. Rosetti, Carol I of Romania, Căile Ferate Române, Central Powers, Cezar Petrescu, Chamber of Deputies (Romania), Choir, Cincinat Pavelescu, Ciprian Porumbescu, Class conflict, Conservatism, Conservative Party (Romania, 1880–1918), Conservative-Democratic Party, Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea, Contemporanul, Convorbiri Literare, Corneliu Moldovanu, Cosmopolitanism, Crowd psychology, Dilema veche, Dimitrie Gusti, Doctor of law, Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia, Dragoman, Duiliu Zamfirescu, ..., Editura Minerva, Elena Văcărescu, Elitism, Empire of Japan, Erna, Evenimentul Zilei, Evolutionism, Șerban Cioculescu, Familia (magazine), Francization, French language, French Third Republic, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Galați, Gândirea, George Călinescu, George Panu, German Empire, German idealism, Germans of Romania, Gheorghe Bâgulescu, Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino, Gheorghe Tașcă, Greater Romania, Greeks in Romania, Henri Cihoski, History of the Jews in Greece, History of the Jews in Romania, Humanitas (publishing house), I. Dragoslav, I.B. Tauris, Iacob Negruzzi, Iași, Ioan Slavici, Ion C. Brătianu, Ion Luca Caragiale, Irredentism, Japan, Judicial disqualification, Junimea, Kingdom of Greece, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Romania, Land reform in Romania, Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service, Le Temps (Paris), Left-wing politics, Legion of Honour, Leon C. Negruzzi, Leon Feraru, Liberalism and radicalism in Romania, Literary language, Literary realism, Luceafărul (magazine), Lucian Boia, Lyric poetry, Magazin Istoric, Marxism, Mehedinți County, Metaphysical naturalism, Mihai Cimpoi, Mihai Eminescu, Mihail Dragomirescu, Mihail Sadoveanu, Mina Minovici, Ministry of Economy (Romania), Misanthropy, Modernization theory, Moldavia, Montesquieu, National Liberal Party (Romania), Nationalism, Nicolae Filimon, Nicolae Filipescu, Nicolae Gane, Nicolae Iorga, Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen, Oberösterreichische Rundschau, Octavian Goga, Ottoman Empire, Paris, Parody, Pastiche, Patriotism, Persian Letters, Petre P. Carp, Plagiarism, Positivism, Prefect (Romania), Prime Minister of Romania, Progressivism, Protectionism, Protestantism in Greece, Romania, Romania during World War I, Romanian Athenaeum, Romanian Land Forces, Romanian language, Romanian Orthodox Church, Romanians, Romanticism, Românul, Rosetti family, Russian Empire, Satire, Senate of Romania, Slavic name suffix, Socialist Republic of Romania, Street organ, Sud-Est (magazine), Take Ionescu, Timpul, Titu Maiorescu, Tokyo, Trade union, Transylvania, Travel literature, Treaty of Bucharest (1916), Tudor Vianu, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, University of Bucharest, University of Galați, University of Liège, University of Michigan Library, University of Paris, Universul, Valahia University of Târgoviște, Victor Eftimiu, West Coast of the United States, Workers' compensation, World War I, World War II, Yankee, Ziarul Financiar, Zigu Ornea, Zollverein, 1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia, 19th-century French literature. Expand index (139 more) »

A. C. Cuza

Alexandru C. Cuza (November 8, 1857—1947), also known as A. C. Cuza, was a Romanian far right politician and theorist.

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Academic art

Academic art is a style of painting and sculpture produced under the influence of European academies of art.

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Alexandru Averescu

Alexandru Averescu (1859–1938) was a Romanian marshal and populist politician.

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Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești

Alexandru Bogdan-Pitești (born Alexandru Bogdan, also known as Ion Doican, Ion Duican and Al. Dodan; June 13, 1870 – May 12, 1922) was a Romanian Symbolist poet, essayist, and art and literary critic, who was also known as a journalist and left-wing political agitator.

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Alexandru Davila

Alexandru Davila (February 12, 1862 – October 19, 1929) was a Romanian dramatist, diplomat, public administrator, and memoirist.

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Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol

Alexandru Dimitrie Xenopol (March 23, 1847, Iaşi – February 27, 1920, Bucharest) was a Romanian scholar, economist, philosopher, historian, professor, sociologist, and author.

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Alexandru Macedonski

Alexandru Macedonski (also rendered as Al. A. Macedonski, Macedonschi or Macedonsky; March 14, 1854 – November 24, 1920) was a Wallachian-born Romanian poet, novelist, dramatist and literary critic, known especially for having promoted French Symbolism in his native country, and for leading the Romanian Symbolist movement during its early decades.

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Alliance Israélite Universelle

The Alliance israélite universelle (כל ישראל חברים) is a Paris-based international Jewish organization founded in 1860 by the French statesman Adolphe Crémieux to safeguard the human rights of Jews around the world.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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Antisemitism

Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group.

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Auguste Comte

Isidore Auguste Marie François Xavier Comte (19 January 1798 – 5 September 1857), better known as Auguste Comte, was a French philosopher.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.

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Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye

Émile Louis Victor de Laveleye (5 April 1822 – 3 January 1892) was a Belgian economist.

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Babeș-Bolyai University

The Babeș-Bolyai University (Universitatea Babeș-Bolyai, Babeș-Bolyai Tudományegyetem, Babeș-Bolyai Universität), commonly known after its abbreviation, UBB, is a public university in Cluj-Napoca, Romania.

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Balkans

The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.

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Băneasa, Bucharest

Băneasa is a borough in the north side of Bucharest, near the Băneasa Lake (0.45 km²).

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Belgium

Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.

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Bibliothèque nationale de France

The (BnF) is the National Library of France, located in Paris.

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Boarding house

A boarding house is a house (frequently a family home) in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and sometimes for extended periods of weeks, months, and years.

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Bourgeoisie

The bourgeoisie (Eng.), is a polysemous French term, because it means.

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Boyar

A boyar was a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Moscovian, Kievan Rus'ian, Wallachian, and Moldavian aristocracies, second only to the ruling princes (in Bulgaria, tsars), from the 10th century to the 17th century.

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Bucharest

Bucharest (București) is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania.

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Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies

The Bucharest University of Economic Studies (Academia de Studii Economice din București, abbreviated ASE) is a public university in Bucharest, Romania.

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Bukovina

Bukovina (Bucovina; Буковина Bukovyna; Hungarian: Bukovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe, divided between modern-day Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.

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Bulgarians in Romania

Bulgarians (bulgari) are a recognized minority in Romania (Румъния, Rumaniya), numbering 8,025 according to the 2002 Romanian census, down from 9,851 in 1992.

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C. A. Rosetti

Constantin Alexandru Rosetti (2 June 1816 – 8 April 1885) was a Romanian literary and political leader, born in Bucharest into Rosetti family.

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Carol I of Romania

Carol I (20 April 1839 – 27 September (O.S.) / 10 October (N.S.) 1914), born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was the ruler of Romania from 1866 to 1914.

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Căile Ferate Române

Căile Ferate Române (abbreviated as the CFR) is the state railway carrier of Romania.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Cezar Petrescu

Cezar Petrescu (December 1, 1892, Cotnari, Iaşi County–March 9, 1961) was a Romanian journalist, novelist and children's writer.

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Chamber of Deputies (Romania)

The Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaților) is the lower house in Romania's bicameral parliament.

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Choir

A choir (also known as a chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Cincinat Pavelescu

Cincinat Pavelescu (–November 30, 1934) was a Romanian poet and playwright.

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Ciprian Porumbescu

Ciprian Porumbescu (born Ciprian Gołęmbiowski on October 14, 1853 – June 6, 1883) was a Romanian composer born in Şipotele Sucevei in Bukovina (now Shepit, Putyla Raion, Ukraine).

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Class conflict

Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.

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Conservatism

Conservatism as a political and social philosophy promotes retaining traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Conservative Party (Romania, 1880–1918)

The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) was between 1880 and 1918 one of Romania's two most important parties, the other one being the Liberal Party.

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Conservative-Democratic Party

The Conservative-Democratic Party (PCD) was a political party in Romania.

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Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea

Constantin Dobrogeanu-Gherea (born Solomon Katz; 1855, near Yekaterinoslav (modern Dnipropetrovsk), then in Imperial Russia – 1920, Bucharest) was a Romanian Marxist theorist, politician, sociologist, literary critic, and journalist.

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Contemporanul

Contemporanul (The Contemporary) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Iaşi, Romania from 1881 to 1891.

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Convorbiri Literare

Convorbiri Literare (meaning Literary Talk in English) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Romania.

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Corneliu Moldovanu

Corneliu Moldovanu (pen name of Corneliu Vasiliu; August 15, 1883 – September 2, 1952) was a Romanian poet, prose writer and playwright.

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Cosmopolitanism

Cosmopolitanism is the ideology that all human beings belong to a single community, based on a shared morality.

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Crowd psychology

Crowd psychology, also known as mob psychology, is a branch of social psychology.

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Dilema veche

Dilema veche (English: "Old Dilemma") is a Romanian weekly magazine that covers culture, social topics, and politics.

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Dimitrie Gusti

Dimitrie Gusti (13 February 1880 – 30 October 1955) was a Romanian sociologist, ethnologist, historian, and voluntarist philosopher; a professor at the University of Iaşi and the University of Bucharest, he served as Romania's Minister of Education in 1932-1933.

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Doctor of law

Doctor of Law or Doctor of Laws is a degree in law.

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Dragoș, Voivode of Moldavia

Dragoș, also known as Dragoș Vodă, or Dragoș the Founder was the first Voivode of Moldavia, who reigned in the middle of the, according to the earliest Moldavian chronicles.

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Dragoman

A dragoman was an interpreter, translator, and official guide between Turkish, Arabic, and Persian-speaking countries and polities of the Middle East and European embassies, consulates, vice-consulates and trading posts.

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Duiliu Zamfirescu

Duiliu Zamfirescu (October 30, 1858 – June 3, 1922) was a Romanian novelist, poet, short story writer, lawyer, nationalist politician, journalist, diplomat and memoirist.

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Editura Minerva

Editura Minerva is one of the largest publishing houses in Romania.

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Elena Văcărescu

Elena Văcărescu or Hélène Vacaresco (September 21, 1864 in Bucharest – February 17, 1947 in Paris) was a Romanian-French aristocrat writer, twice a laureate of the Académie française.

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Elitism

Elitism is the belief or attitude that some individuals who form an elite—a select group of people with a certain ancestry, intrinsic quality or worth, high intellect, wealth, specialized training or experience, or other distinctive attributes—are those whose influence or authority is greater than that of others; whose views on a matter are to be taken more seriously or carry more weight; whose views or actions are more likely to be constructive to society as a whole; or whose extraordinary skills, abilities, or wisdom render them especially fit to govern.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Erna

In Norse mythology according to the Eddic poem Rígsþula, Erna was the mother of eleven sons by Jarl, the ancestors of the class of warriors in Norse society.

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Evenimentul Zilei

Evenimentul zilei is one of the leading newspapers in Romania.

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Evolutionism

Evolutionism was a common 19th century belief that organisms inherently improve themselves through progressive inherited change over time, and increase in complexity through evolution.

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Șerban Cioculescu

Şerban Cioculescu (7 September 1902 – 25 June 1988) was a Romanian literary critic, literary historian and columnist, who held teaching positions in Romanian literature at the University of Iaşi and the University of Bucharest, as well as membership of the Romanian Academy and chairmanship of its Library.

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Familia (magazine)

The Romanian-language Familia literary magazine was first published by Iosif Vulcan in Budapest from 5 June 1865 to 17 April 1880.

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Francization

Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced or desired by the concerned population.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.

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G. P. Putnam's Sons

G.

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Galați

Galați (Galatz; Galac; Kalas; Малий Галич) is the capital city of Galați County, in the historical region of Moldavia, eastern Romania.

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Gândirea

Gândirea ("The Thinking"), known during its early years as Gândirea Literară - Artistică - Socială ("The Literary - Artistic - Social Thinking"), was a Romanian literary, political and art magazine.

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George Călinescu

George Călinescu (June 19, 1899 – March 12, 1965) was a Romanian literary critic, historian, novelist, academician and journalist, and a writer of classicist and humanist tendencies.

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George Panu

George Panu (March 9, 1848–November 6, 1910) was a Moldavian-born Romanian memoirist, literary critic, journalist and politician.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.

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German idealism

German idealism was a speculative philosophical movement that emerged in Germany in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

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Germans of Romania

The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche are an ethnic group of Romania.

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Gheorghe Bâgulescu

Gheorghe Bagulescu (1886–1963) was a Romanian Major-General during World War II, writer and art collector.

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Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino

Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino, or Cantacuzino-Nababul (22 September 1833 – 22 March 1913), was a Romanian politician and lawyer, pone of the leading Conservative Party policymakers.

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Gheorghe Tașcă

Gheorghe Taşcă (born Iorgu Taşcă, January 30, 1875 in Bălăbăneşti Tutova County, now in Galați County) was a Romanian economist and politician.

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Greater Romania

The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.

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Greeks in Romania

There has been a Greek presence in Romania for at least 27 centuries.

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Henri Cihoski

Henri Cihoski (born October 2, 1871, Tecuci, died May 18, 1950, Sighet) was a Romanian Lieutenant-General during World War II, of Polish origin.

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History of the Jews in Greece

Jews have been present in Greece since at least the fourth century BC.

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History of the Jews in Romania

The history of the Jews in Romania concerns the Jews both of Romania and of Romanian origins, from their first mention on what is present-day Romanian territory.

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Humanitas (publishing house)

Humanitas (Editura Humanitas) is an independent Romanian publishing house, founded on February 1, 1990 (after the Romanian Revolution) in Bucharest by the philosopher Gabriel Liiceanu, based on a state-owned publishing house, Editura Politică.

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I. Dragoslav

I.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) is an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York.

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Iacob Negruzzi

Iacob C. Negruzzi (December 31, 1842–January 6, 1932) was a Moldavian-born Romanian poet and prose writer.

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Iași

Iași (also referred to as Jassy or Iassy) is the largest city in eastern Romania and the seat of Iași County.

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Ioan Slavici

Ioan Slavici (January 18, 1848 – August 17, 1925) was a Transylvanian-born Romanian writer and journalist.

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Ion C. Brătianu

Ion Constantin Brătianu (June 2, 1821 – May 16, 1891) was one of the major political figures of 19th century Romania.

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Ion Luca Caragiale

Ion Luca Caragiale (commonly referred to as I. L. Caragiale; According to his birth certificate, published and discussed by Constantin Popescu-Cadem in Manuscriptum, Vol. VIII, Nr. 2, 1977, p.179-184 – July 9, 1912) was a Wallachian-born Romanian playwright, short story writer, poet, theater manager, political commentator and journalist.

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Irredentism

Irredentism (from Italian irredento for "unredeemed") is any political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Judicial disqualification

Judicial disqualification, also referred to as recusal, refers to the act of abstaining from participation in an official action such as a legal proceeding due to a conflict of interest of the presiding court official or administrative officer.

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Junimea

Junimea was a Romanian literary society founded in Iaşi in 1863, through the initiative of several foreign-educated personalities led by Titu Maiorescu, Petre P. Carp, Vasile Pogor, Theodor Rosetti and Iacob Negruzzi.

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Kingdom of Greece

The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος, Vasílion tis Elládos) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, France and the Russian Empire).

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic.

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Kingdom of Romania

The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866, 1923, 1938).

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Land reform in Romania

Four major land reforms have taken place in Romania: in 1864, 1921, 1945 and 1991.

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Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service

Law Enforcement and Public Safety Service (Hungarian "Rendészeti Biztonsági Szolgálat") is a part of the Hungarian National Police which is very similar to Western-European Gendarmerie-type police forces.

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Le Temps (Paris)

Le Temps (Time) was one of Paris's most important daily newspapers from 25 April 1861 to 30 November 1942.

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Left-wing politics

Left-wing politics are political positions or activities that accept or support social equality, often in opposition to social hierarchy and social inequality.

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Legion of Honour

The Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte on 19 May 1802.

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Leon C. Negruzzi

Leon C. Negruzzi (June 5, 1840 – July 15/16, 1890) was a Moldavian-born Romanian politician and writer.

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Leon Feraru

Leon Feraru (born Leon Enselberg,Aurel Sasu (ed.), Dicționarul biografic al literaturii române, Vol. I, p. 580. Pitești: Editura Paralela 45, 2004. ISBN 973-697-758-7Ghena Pricop, "Personalități ale Comunității Evreiești din Brăila", in Hristian et al., p. 238 also credited as L. Schmidt; 1887 – 1961 or 1962) was a Romanian and American poet, literary historian and translator.

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Liberalism and radicalism in Romania

This article gives an overview of Liberalism and Radicalism in Romania.

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Literary language

A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing.

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Literary realism

Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Luceafărul (magazine)

Luceafărul ("The Evening Star") was a Romanian-language literary and cultural magazine that appeared in three series: 1902-1914 and 1919-1920; 1934-1939; and 1941-1945.

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Lucian Boia

Lucian Boia (born 1 February 1944, Bucharest) is a Romanian historian.

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Lyric poetry

Lyric poetry is a form of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.

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Magazin Istoric

Magazin Istoric (The Historical Magazine) is a Romanian monthly magazine.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Mehedinți County

Mehedinți is a county (județ) of Romania on border with Serbia and Bulgaria.

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Metaphysical naturalism

Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism and scientific materialism is a worldview which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences, i.e., those required to understand our physical environment by mathematical modelling.

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Mihai Cimpoi

Mihai Cimpoi (born September 3, 1942, Larga) is a Moldovan politician.

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Mihai Eminescu

Mihai Eminescu (born Mihail Eminovici; 15 January 1850 – 15 June 1889) was a Romantic poet, novelist and journalist, often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet.

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Mihail Dragomirescu

Mihail Dragomirescu (March 22, 1868 – November 25, 1942) was a Romanian aesthetician, literary theorist and critic.

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Mihail Sadoveanu

Mihail Sadoveanu (occasionally referred to as Mihai Sadoveanu; November 5, 1880 – October 19, 1961) was a Romanian novelist, short story writer, journalist and political figure, who twice served as acting head of state for the communist republic (1947–1948 and 1958).

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Mina Minovici

Mina Minovici (1857 – April 25, 1933) was a Romanian forensic scientist, famous for his extensive research regarding cadaverous alkaloids, putrefaction, simulated mind diseases, and criminal anthropology.

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Ministry of Economy (Romania)

The Ministry of Economy of Romania (Ministerul Economiei) is one of the ministries of the Government of Romania.

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Misanthropy

Misanthropy is the general hatred, distrust or disdain of the human species or human nature.

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Modernization theory

Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.

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Moldavia

Moldavia (Moldova) is a geographic and historical region and former principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between the Eastern Carpathians and the Dniester river.

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Montesquieu

Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment.

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National Liberal Party (Romania)

The National Liberal Party (Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) is a liberal political party in Romania.

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Nationalism

Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.

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Nicolae Filimon

Nicolae Filimon (6 September 1819 – 19 March 1865) was a Wallachian Romanian novelist and short-story writer, remembered as the author of the first Realist novel in Romanian literature, Ciocoii vechi şi noi ("The Old and the New Parvenus"), which was centered on the self-seeking figure Dinu Păturică (who drew comparisons with Stendhal's Julien Sorel).

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Nicolae Filipescu

Nicolae Filipescu (December 5, 1862 – September 30, 1916) was a Romanian politician.

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Nicolae Gane

Nicolae Gane (February 1, 1838 – April 16, 1916) was a Moldavian-born Romanian prose writer, poet and politician.

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Nicolae Iorga

Nicolae Iorga (sometimes Neculai Iorga, Nicolas Jorga, Nicolai Jorga or Nicola Jorga, born Nicu N. Iorga;Iova, p. xxvii. January 17, 1871 – November 27, 1940) was a Romanian historian, politician, literary critic, memoirist, poet and playwright.

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Nicolae Vasilescu-Karpen

Nicolae Vasilescu Karpen (December 10 (O.S.)/December 22 (N.S.), 1870, Craiova – March 2, 1964, Bucharest) was a Romanian engineer and physicist, who worked in telegraphy and telephony and had achievements in mechanical engineering, elasticity, thermodynamics, long distance telephony, electrochemistry, and civil engineering.

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Oberösterreichische Rundschau

Oberösterreichische Rundschau is a weekly newspaper in Upper Austria, published in 13 regional editions.

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Octavian Goga

Octavian Goga (1 April 1881 – 7 May 1938) was a Romanian politician, poet, playwright, journalist, and translator.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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Paris

Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.

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Parody

A parody (also called spoof, send-up or lampoon), in use, is a work created to imitate, make fun of, or comment on an original work, its subject, author, style, or some other target, by means of satiric or ironic imitation.

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Pastiche

A pastiche is a work of visual art, literature, theatre, or music that imitates the style or character of the work of one or more other artists.

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Patriotism

Patriotism is, generally speaking, emotional attachment to a nation which an individual recognizes as their homeland.

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Persian Letters

Persian Letters (Lettres persanes) is a literary work, written in 1721, by Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, recounting the experiences of two Persian noblemen, Usbek and Rica, who are traveling through France.

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Petre P. Carp

Petre P. Carp (also Petrache Carp, Francized Pierre Carp, Ioana Pârvulescu,, in România Literară, Nr. 25/2010 occasionally Comte Carpe; June 28 Mircea Dumitriu,, in România Liberă, September 22, 2007 or 29,Călinescu, p.440 1837 – June 19, 1919) was a Moldavian-born Romanian statesman, political scientist and culture critic, one of the major representatives of Romanian liberal conservatism, and twice the country's Prime Minister (1900–1901, 1910–1912).

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Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "stealing and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions" and the representation of them as one's own original work.

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Positivism

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that positive knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.

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Prefect (Romania)

A prefect (prefect) in Romania represents the Government in each of the country's 41 counties, as well as the Municipality of Bucharest.

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Prime Minister of Romania

The Prime Minister of Romania (Prim-ministrul României) is the head of the Government of Romania.

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Progressivism

Progressivism is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.

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Protectionism

Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) fair competition between imports and goods and services produced domestically.

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Protestantism in Greece

Protestants in Greece, including Greek Evangelical Church and Free Evangelical Churches, stand at about 30,000.

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Romania

RomaniaIn English, Romania was formerly often spelled Rumania or sometimes Roumania.

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Romania during World War I

The Romanian campaign was part of the Balkan theatre of World War I, with Romania and Russia allied against the armies of the Central Powers.

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Romanian Athenaeum

The Romanian Athenaeum (Ateneul Român) is a concert hall in the center of Bucharest, Romania and a landmark of the Romanian capital city.

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Romanian Land Forces

The Romanian Land Forces (Forțele Terestre Române) is the army of Romania, and the main component of the Romanian Armed Forces.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Romanian Orthodox Church

The Romanian Orthodox Church (Biserica Ortodoxă Română in Romanian) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox church, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox churches, and ranked seventh in order of precedence.

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Romanians

Romanians (dated: Rumanians or Roumanians; in români or — historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism — rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a nation and ethnic group native to Romania that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language as a mother tongue, as well as by citizenship or by being subjects to the same country.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Românul

Românul (meaning "The Romanian"; originally spelled Romanulu or Românulŭ, also known as Romînul, Concordia, Libertatea and Consciinti'a Nationala), was a political and literary newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania, from 1857 to 1905.

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Rosetti family

The Rosetti family (also spelled Ruset, Roset, Rosset), was a Moldavian boyar Princely family of Byzantine and Italian (from Genoa) origins.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.

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Satire

Satire is a genre of literature, and sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government or society itself, into improvement.

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Senate of Romania

The Senate (Senat) is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania.

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Slavic name suffix

A Slavic name suffix is a common way of forming patronymics, family names, and pet names in the Slavic languages (also called the Slavonic languages).

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Socialist Republic of Romania

The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a single-party socialist state that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.

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Street organ

A street organ is an automatic mechanical pneumatic organ designed to be mobile enough to play its music in the street.

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Sud-Est (magazine)

Sud-Est (Romanian for "South-East") is a magazine from Chişinău, Moldova.

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Take Ionescu

Take or Tache Ionescu (born Dumitru Ghiţă Ioan and also known as Demetriu G. Ionnescu; – June 2, 1922) was a Romanian centrist politician, journalist, lawyer and diplomat, who also enjoyed reputation as a short story author.

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Timpul

Timpul (Romanian for "The Time") was a newspaper published in Romania between 1876 and 1914; it was the official platform of the Conservative Party.

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Titu Maiorescu

Titu Liviu Maiorescu (15 February 1840 – 18 June 1917) was a Romanian literary critic and politician, founder of the Junimea Society.

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Tokyo

(), officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, and is both the capital and largest city of Japan.

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Trade union

A trade union (British EnglishAustralian EnglishNew Zealand EnglishSouth African English / Caribbean English; also trades union), labour union (Canadian English) or labor union (American English) is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve common goals such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, achieving higher pay and benefits such as health care and retirement, increasing the number of employees an employer assigns to complete the work, and better working conditions.

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Transylvania

Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Polish: Siedmiogród, Latin: Transsilvania, Turkish: Erdel) is a historical region in the central part of Romania.

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Travel literature

The genre of travel literature includes outdoor literature, exploration literature, adventure literature, nature writing, and the guide book, as well as accounts of visits to foreign countries.

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Treaty of Bucharest (1916)

The Treaty of Bucharest of 1916 was signed between Romania and the Entente Powers on 4 (Old Style)/17 (New Style) August 1916 in Bucharest.

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Tudor Vianu

Tudor Vianu (January 8, 1898 – May 21, 1964) was a Romanian literary critic, art critic, poet, philosopher, academic, and translator.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.

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University of Bucharest

The University of Bucharest (Universitatea din București), in Romania, is a university founded in 1864 by decree of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza to convert the former Saint Sava Academy into the current University of Bucharest.

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University of Galați

The Dunarea de Jos University of Galati (Romanian Universitatea Dunărea de Jos din Galați) is a public university located in Galaţi, Romania.

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University of Liège

The University of Liège (ULg), in Liège, Wallonia, Belgium, is a major public university in the French Community of Belgium.

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University of Michigan Library

The University of Michigan Library is the university library system of the University of Michigan, based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the United States.

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University of Paris

The University of Paris (L'Université de Paris), metonymically known as the Sorbonne, was a French university, founded circa 1150 in Paris, France, recognised 1200 by King Philip II and 1215 by Pope Innocent III, as one of the first universities.

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Universul

Universul was a mass-circulation newspaper in Romania.

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Valahia University of Târgoviște

The Valahia University of Târgovişte is a university in Targoviste, Dambovita, Romania.

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Victor Eftimiu

Victor Eftimiu (24 January 1889 – 27 November 1972) was a Romanian poet and playwright.

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West Coast of the United States

The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the term for the westernmost coastal states of the United States.

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Workers' compensation

Workers' compensation is a form of insurance providing wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment in exchange for mandatory relinquishment of the employee's right to sue his or her employer for the tort of negligence.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Yankee

The term "Yankee" and its contracted form "Yank" have several interrelated meanings, all referring to people from the United States.

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Ziarul Financiar

Ziarul Financiar is a daily financial newspaper published in Bucharest, Romania.

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Zigu Ornea

Zigu Ornea (born Zigu Orenstein Andrei Vasilescu,, in, Vol. II, Nr. 1, January-June 2008, p.85 or OrnsteinGeorge Ardeleanu,, in Observator Cultural, Nr. 363, March 2007 and commonly known as Z. Ornea; August 28, 1930 – November 14, 2001) was a Romanian cultural historian, literary critic, biographer and book publisher.

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Zollverein

The Zollverein or German Customs Union was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.

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1 Decembrie 1918 University, Alba Iulia

"1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia is a public higher education and research institution founded in 1991 in Alba Iulia, Romania.

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19th-century French literature

19 th-century French literature concerns the developments in French literature during a dynamic period in French history that saw the rise of Democracy and the fitful end of Monarchy and Empire.

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Redirects here:

N D Xenopol, N. D. Xenopol, N. Xenopol, N. Xenopoulos, Nicolae D. Xenopol, Nicolae Dimitrie Xenopol, Nicolas Xenopol, Nicu Xenopol.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Xenopol

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