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Nitrous oxide

Nitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous, nitro, or NOS is a chemical compound with the formula. [1]

236 relations: Acute coronary syndrome, Addiction, Adiabatic process, Adipic acid, Air pollution, Aircraft engine, Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor, Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor, Amateur rocketry, Ammonium nitrate, AMPA receptor, Amphetamine, Anaesthetic machine, Anaesthetic vaporizer, Analgesic, Anesthesia, Anesthetic, Antibody, Anxiety, Anxiolytic, Australia, Auto racing, Azide, Bacteria, Battle of New Market, Benzodiazepine, Beta-Endorphin, Bismuth(III) oxide, Blood–gas partition coefficient, Boston, Brainstem, California, Carbon dioxide, Catalysis, Chelation, Chemical compound, Chemical formula, Childbirth, Chloroform, CHRNB2, Clinical trial, Cocaine, Colloid, Conditioned place preference, Consumers Union, Cooking spray, Critical point (thermodynamics), Debye, Deflagration, Denitrification, ..., Dental extraction, Dentistry, Depersonalization, Derealization, Desflurane, Detonation, Diethyl ether, Dinitrogen pentoxide, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Dinitrogen trioxide, Dipolar bond, Dissociative, Diving regulator, Dizziness, Dopamine, Dopaminergic, Drug Enforcement Administration, Emulsion, Encephalopathy, Enthalpy of vaporization, Ethanol, Ether, Euphoria, Excitotoxicity, Exothermic reaction, Explosive material, Fertilizer, Fink effect, Flammability, Flow measurement, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, GABAA receptor, GABAA-rho receptor, Gardner Quincy Colton, Gas, Gas cylinder, General anaesthetic, George Poe, Global-warming potential, Glycine receptor, GM-1, Greenhouse gas, Half-life, Hallucinogen, Hartford, Connecticut, Health system, High-power rocketry, Horace Wells, Hotwells, Human impact on the environment, Humphry Davy, Hybrid rocket, Hydrazine, Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, Hydroxylammonium chloride, Hypergolic propellant, Hyponitrous acid, Hypoxia (medical), Imagination, India, Inhalation, Inlet manifold, Interceptor aircraft, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Intoxicative inhalant, Iron(II) sulfate, James Watt, John Mankey Riggs, Joseph Priestley, Joseph Thomas Clover, Kainate receptor, Ketamine, Lambeth London Borough Council, Laparoscopic surgery, Lecithin, Ligand-gated ion channel, Liquid-propellant rocket, Local anesthetic, Luftwaffe, Major trauma, Manganese dioxide, Maryland, Mechanism of action, Medical ventilator, Mesolimbic pathway, Methanol, Michigan, Minimum alveolar concentration, Ministry of Health (New Zealand), Monopropellant rocket, Montreal Protocol, Morphine, MW 50, Myelopathy, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural philosophy, Neuron, Neuroprotection, Neurotoxicity, New Haven, Connecticut, New York City, New Zealand, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nitric acid, Nitric oxide, Nitrification, Nitrogen, Nitrogen dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Nitrous oxide and oxygen, Nitrous oxide engine, Nitrous oxide fuel blend, Nitrous-oxide reductase, NMDA receptor, NMDA receptor antagonist, Norepinephrine, NOx, Nucleus accumbens, Nylon, Olney's lesions, Operating temperature, Organic compound, Ostwald process, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Ozone, Ozone depletion, Paul J. Crutzen, Peripheral neuropathy, Petrol engine, Phlogiston theory, Phosphate, Pneumatic Institution, Potato chip, Propane, Propellant, Psychomotor learning, Racing, Rancidification, Receptor antagonist, Reconnaissance aircraft, Recreational drug use, Relative analgesia machine, Respiratory system, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Rocketry, Scavenger system, Schnellbomber, Sevoflurane, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium nitrite, SpaceShipOne, Specific impulse, Spinal cord, Splint (laboratory equipment), Stratosphere, Substance abuse, Suggestibility, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfuric acid, Surgery, Tandem pore domain potassium channel, Thomas Beddoes, Transcendental Meditation, Trenton, New Jersey, Tuberculosis, Turnkey, United Kingdom, United States, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Urban Dictionary, Vancouver, Ventilation (architecture), Ventral tegmental area, Virginia Military Institute, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Water injection (engine), Whipped cream, Whipped-cream charger, WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, World War II, 5-HT3 receptor. Expand index (186 more) »

Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to a group of conditions due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

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Addiction

Addiction is a state characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli, despite adverse consequences.

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Adiabatic process

An adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a system and its surroundings; energy is transferred only as work.

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Adipic acid

Adipic acid is the organic compound with the formula (CH2)4(COOH)2.

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Air pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.

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Aircraft engine

An aircraft engine is the component of the propulsion system for an aircraft that generates mechanical power.

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Alpha-2 adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2 (α2) adrenergic receptor (or adrenoceptor) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) associated with the Gi heterotrimeric G-protein.

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Alpha-2B adrenergic receptor

The alpha-2B adrenergic receptor (α2B adrenoceptor), is a G-protein coupled receptor.

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Amateur rocketry

Amateur rocketry, sometimes known as experimental rocketry or amateur experimental rocketry, is a hobby in which participants experiment with fuels and make their own rocket motors, launching a wide variety of types and sizes of rockets.

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Ammonium nitrate

The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate salt of ammonium, has the chemical formula NH4NO3, simplified to N2H4O3.

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AMPA receptor

The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (also known as AMPA receptor, AMPAR, or quisqualate receptor) is a non-NMDA-type ionotropic transmembrane receptor for glutamate that mediates fast synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Amphetamine

Amphetamine (contracted from) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Anaesthetic machine

The anaesthetic machine (UK English) or anesthesia machine (US English) or Boyle's machine is used by anaesthesiologists, nurse anaesthetists, and anaesthesiologist assistants to support the administration of anaesthesia.

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Anaesthetic vaporizer

An anaesthetic vaporizer is a device generally attached to an anaesthetic machine which delivers a given concentration of a volatile anaesthetic agent.

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Analgesic

An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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Anesthesia

In the practice of medicine, especially surgery, and dentistry, anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek ἀν-, an-, "without"; and αἴσθησις, aisthēsis, "sensation"; see American and British English spelling differences) is an induced, temporary state with one or more of the following characteristics: analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain), paralysis (extreme muscle relaxation), amnesia (loss of memory), and unconsciousness.

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Anesthetic

An anesthetic (anaesthetic or anæsthetic in British English) is a drug that causes anesthesia, which is a reversible loss of sensation.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shape protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.

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Anxiolytic

An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Auto racing

Auto racing (also known as car racing, motor racing or automobile racing) is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition.

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Azide

Azide is the anion with the formula N3 −. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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Bacteria

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Battle of New Market

The Battle of New Market was a battle fought on May 15, 1864, in Virginia during Valley Campaigns of 1864 in the American Civil War.

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Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepines (BZD), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

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Beta-Endorphin

β-Endorphin is an endogenous opioid neuropeptide found in the neurons of both the central and peripheral nervous system.

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Bismuth(III) oxide

Bismuth(III) oxide is perhaps the most industrially important compound of bismuth.

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Blood–gas partition coefficient

Blood–gas partition coefficient, also known as Ostwald coefficient for blood–gas, is a term used in pharmacology to describe the solubility of inhaled general anesthetics in blood.

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Boston

Boston (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.

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Brainstem

In the anatomy of humans and of many other vertebrates, the brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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California

California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Chelation

Chelation describes a particular way that ions and molecules bind metal ions.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Childbirth

Childbirth, also known as labour, delivery, birth, partus, or parturition, is the culmination of a period of pregnancy with the expulsion of one or more newborn infants from a woman's uterus.

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Chloroform

Chloroform is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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CHRNB2

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB2 gene.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments done in clinical research.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as benzoylmethylecgonine or coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Colloid

A colloid, in chemistry, is a substance in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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Conditioned place preference

Conditioned place preference (CPP) is a form of Pavlovian conditioning used to measure the motivational effects of objects or experiences.

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Consumers Union

Consumers Union is a non-profit organization based in the United States whose mission is to advocate on policy issues related to telecommunications, mass media, vehicle safety, health care, product safety, financial services, investing, food safety, housing, and energy and utility deregulation.

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Cooking spray

Cooking spray is a spray form of an oil as a lubricant, lecithin as an emulsifier, and a propellant such as food-grade alcohol, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide or propane.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Debye

The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |1 statC ||.

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Deflagration

Deflagration (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is a term describing subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it.

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Denitrification

Denitrification is a microbially facilitated process of nitrate reduction (performed by a large group of heterotrophic facultative anaerobic bacteria) that may ultimately produce molecular nitrogen (N2) through a series of intermediate gaseous nitrogen oxide products.

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Dental extraction

A dental extraction (also referred to as tooth extraction, exodontia, exodontics, or historically, tooth pulling) is the removal of teeth from the dental alveolus (socket) in the alveolar bone.

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Dentistry

Dentistry is a branch of medicine that is involved in the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.

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Depersonalization

Depersonalization (or depersonalisation) is an anomaly of self-awareness.

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Derealization

Derealization or derealisation (sometimes abbreviated as DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems unreal.

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Desflurane

Desflurane (1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a highly fluorinated methyl ethyl ether used for maintenance of general anesthesia.

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Detonation

Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, also known as ethoxyethane, ethyl ether, sulfuric ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula.

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Dinitrogen pentoxide

Dinitrogen pentoxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O5.

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Dinitrogen tetroxide

Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.

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Dinitrogen trioxide

Dinitrogen trioxide is the chemical compound with the formula N2O3.

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Dipolar bond

A dipolar bond, also known as a dative covalent bond or coordinate bond is a kind of 2-center, 2-electron covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom.

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Dissociative

Dissociatives are a class of hallucinogen, which distort perceptions of sight and sound and produce feelings of detachment - dissociation - from the environment and self.

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Diving regulator

A diving regulator is a pressure regulator used in scuba or surface supplied diving equipment that reduces pressurized breathing gas to ambient pressure and delivers it to the diver.

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Dizziness

Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.

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Dopamine

Dopamine is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body, as well as elsewhere in biology.

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Dopaminergic

Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.

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Drug Enforcement Administration

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States.

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Emulsion

An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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Encephalopathy

Encephalopathy means disorder or disease of the brain.

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Enthalpy of vaporization

The enthalpy of vaporization, (symbol ∆Hvap) also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of evaporation, is the enthalpy change required to transform a given quantity of a substance from a liquid into a gas at a given pressure (often atmospheric pressure, as in STP).

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

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Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups—of general formula R–O–R'.

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Euphoria

Euphoria (from Ancient Greek εὐφορία, from εὖ eu, "well", and φέρω pherō, "to bear") (semantically opposite of dysphoria) is medically recognized as a mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement and joy.

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Excitotoxicity

Excitotoxicity is the pathological process by which nerve cells are damaged or killed by excessive stimulation by neurotransmitters such as glutamate and similar substances.

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Exothermic reaction

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

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Explosive material

An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.

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Fertilizer

A fertilizer (or fertiliser in British English) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.

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Fink effect

The Fink effect, also known as "diffusion anoxia", "diffusion hypoxia", or the "third gas effect", is a factor that influences the pO2 (partial pressure of oxygen) within the alveolus.

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Flammability

Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion.

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Flow measurement

Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement.

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Food additive

Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste and appearance.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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GABAA-rho receptor

The GABAA-rho receptor (previously known as the GABAC receptor) is a subclass of GABAA receptors composed entirely of rho (ρ) subunits.

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Gardner Quincy Colton

Gardner Quincy Colton (February 17, 1814, Georgia, Vermont – August 9, 1898, Rotterdam) was an American showman, lecturer, and former medical student who pioneered the use of nitrous oxide in dentistry.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas cylinder

A gas cylinder or tank is a pressure vessel used to store gases at above atmospheric pressure.

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General anaesthetic

A general anaesthetic (or anesthetic, see spelling differences) is a drug that has the ability to bring about a reversible loss of consciousness.

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George Poe

George Poe, Jr. (May 8, 1846 – February 3, 1914) was a pioneer of mechanical ventilation of asphyxiation victims.

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Global-warming potential

Global-warming potential (GWP) is a relative measure of how much heat a greenhouse gas traps in the atmosphere.

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Glycine receptor

The glycine receptor, or GlyR, is the receptor for the amino acid neurotransmitter glycine.

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GM-1

GM-1 (Göring Mischung 1), colloquially known as Haha-Gerät (Ha-Ha Device) was a system for injecting nitrous oxide (laughing gas) into aircraft engines that was used by the Luftwaffe in World War II.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas (sometimes abbreviated GHG) is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range.

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Half-life

Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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Hallucinogen

A hallucinogen is a psychoactive agent which can cause hallucinations, perception anomalies, and other substantial subjective changes in thoughts, emotion, and consciousness.The common types of hallucinogens are psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants.

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Hartford, Connecticut

Hartford is the capital of Connecticut and the historic seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960.

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Health system

A health system, also sometimes referred to as health care system or healthcare system, is the organization of people, institutions, and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations.

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High-power rocketry

High-power rocketry is a hobby similar to model rocketry.

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Horace Wells

Horace Wells (January 21, 1815 – January 24, 1848) was an American dentist who pioneered the use of anesthesia in dentistry, specifically nitrous oxide (or laughing gas).

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Hotwells

Hotwells is a district of the English port city of Bristol.

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Human impact on the environment

Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes impacts on biophysical environments, biodiversity, and other resources.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor.

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Hybrid rocket

A hybrid rocket is a rocket with a rocket motor which uses rocket propellants in two different phases.

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Hydrazine

Hydrazine (systematically named diazane or tetrahydridodinitrogen(N—N)) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written). It is a colourless flammable liquid with an ammonia-like odor.

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Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene

Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is an oligomer of butadiene terminated at each end with a hydroxyl functional group.

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Hydroxylammonium chloride

Hydroxylammonium chloride is the hydrochloric acid salt of hydroxylamine.

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Hypergolic propellant

A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one where the propellants spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.

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Hyponitrous acid

Hyponitrous acid is the chemical compound H2N2O2.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia (also known as hypoxiation or anoxemia) is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.

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Imagination

Imagination, also called the faculty of imagining, is the ability to form new images and sensations in the mind that are not perceived through senses such as sight, hearing, or other senses.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Inhalation

Inhalation (also known as inspiration) is the flow of air into an organism.

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Inlet manifold

In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold (in American English) is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders.

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Interceptor aircraft

An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to prevent successful missions by enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft.

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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments.

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Intoxicative inhalant

Intoxicative inhalants are a broad range of intoxicative drugs whose volatile vapors or gases are taken in via the nose and trachea.

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Iron(II) sulfate

Iron(II) sulfate (British English: iron(II) sulphate) or ferrous sulfate is a salt with the formula FeSO4.

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James Watt

James Watt, FRS, FRSE (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose Watt steam engine, an improvement of the Newcomen steam engine, was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.

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John Mankey Riggs

John Mankey Riggs (October 25, 1811 – November 11, 1885) was the leading authority on periodontal disease and its treatment in the United States, to the point that periodontal disease was known as "Riggs' disease."Shklar, G; Carranza, FA: The Historical Background of Periodontology.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and Liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Joseph Thomas Clover

Joseph Thomas Clover (born 28 February 1825 and baptised 7 May 1825 – 27 September 1882) was an English doctor and pioneer of anaesthesia.

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Kainate receptor

Kainate receptors, or KARs, are ionotropic receptors that respond to the neurotransmitter glutamate.

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Ketamine

Ketamine (INN) is a medication used mainly for starting and maintaining anesthesia.

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Lambeth London Borough Council

Lambeth London Borough Council is the local authority for the London Borough of Lambeth in Greater London, England.

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Laparoscopic surgery

Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery (MIS), bandaid surgery, or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique in which operations are performed far from their location through small incisions (usually 0.5–1.5 cm) elsewhere in the body.

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Lecithin

Lecithin is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues composed of phosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerol, glycolipids, triglycerides, and phospholipids.

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Ligand-gated ion channel

Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.

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Liquid-propellant rocket

A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.

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Local anesthetic

Local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes reversible absence of pain sensation, although other senses are often affected as well.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II.

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Major trauma

Major trauma is any injury that can potentially lead to serious outcomes.

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Manganese dioxide

Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Mechanism of action

In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.

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Medical ventilator

A medical ventilator (or simply ventilator in context) is a machine designed to mechanically move breathable air into and out of the lungs, to provide the mechanism of breathing for a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently.

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Mesolimbic pathway

The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.

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Methanol

No description.

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Michigan

Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes region of the Midwestern United States.

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Minimum alveolar concentration

Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is the concentration of the vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent movement (motor response) in 50% of subjects in response to surgical (pain) stimulus.

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Ministry of Health (New Zealand)

The Ministry of Health (Māori: Manatū Hauora) is the public service department of New Zealand charged with the public health of New Zealand.

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Monopropellant rocket

A monopropellant rocket (or "monoprop rocket") is a rocket that uses a single chemical as its propellant.

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Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion.

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Morphine

Morphine, sold under many trade names, is a pain medication of the opiate type.

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MW 50

MW 50 (Methanol-Wasser 50) was a 50-50 mixture of methanol and water (German: Wasser) that was often sprayed into the supercharger of World War II aircraft engines primarily for its anti-detonant effect, allowing the use of increased boost pressures.

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Myelopathy

Myelopathy refers to pathology of the spinal cord.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the U.S. federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Natural philosophy

Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.

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Neuron

A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neuroprotection

Neuroprotection refers to the relative preservation of neuronal structure and/or function.

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Neurotoxicity

Neurotoxicity occurs when exposure to natural or artificial toxic substances, which are called neurotoxins, alters the normal activity of the nervous system in such a way as to cause damage to nervous tissue.

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New Haven, Connecticut

New Haven, in the U.S. state of Connecticut, is the principal municipality in Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010.

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New York City

New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are neuron receptor proteins that signal for muscular contractions upon a chemical stimulus.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Nitric oxide

Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide, nitrogen monoxide) is a molecular, chemical compound with chemical formula of NO that is a colorless gas under standard conditions.

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Nitrification

Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nitrogen dioxide

Nitrogen dioxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Nitrogen oxide

Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.

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Nitrous oxide and oxygen

A mix of nitrous oxide 50% and oxygen 50% is a medical analgesic gas, commonly known as Entonox (a registered trademark of BOC) or Nitronox, or colloquially as "gas and air", and is frequently used in pre-hospital care, childbirth and emergency medicine situations by medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, midwives and paramedics.

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Nitrous oxide engine

A nitrous oxide engine is an engine in which the oxygen required for burning the fuel stems from the decomposition of nitrous oxide (N2O) rather than air.

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Nitrous oxide fuel blend

Nitrous Oxide Fuel Blend propellants are a class of liquid rocket propellants intended to replace hydrazine as the standard rocket fuel.

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Nitrous-oxide reductase

In enzymology, a nitrous oxide reductase also known as nitrogen:acceptor oxidoreductase (N2O-forming) is an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in bacterial denitrification, the reduction of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen.

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NMDA receptor

The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.

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NMDA receptor antagonist

NMDA receptor antagonists are a class of anesthetics that work to antagonize, or inhibit the action of, the ''N''-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR).

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Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine, also called noradrenaline, is an organic chemical in the catecholamine family that functions in the human brain and body as a hormone and neurotransmitter.

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NOx

NOx is a generic term for the mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide).

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Nucleus accumbens

The nucleus accumbens (NAc or NAcc), also known as the accumbens nucleus or as the nucleus accumbens septi (Latin for nucleus adjacent to the septum) is a region in the basal forebrain rostral to the preoptic area of the hypothalamus.

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Nylon

Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, more specifically aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.

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Olney's lesions

Olney's lesions, also known as NMDA receptor antagonist neurotoxicity (NAN), are a potential form of brain damage.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Ostwald process

The Ostwald process is a chemical process for making nitric acid (HNO3).

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, oxidizing agent has two meanings.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Ozone

Ozone (systematically named 1λ1,3λ1-trioxidane and catena-trioxygen), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two distinct but related phenomena observed since the late 1970s: a steady decline of about 4% in the total volume of ozone in Earth's stratosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Paul J. Crutzen

Paul Jozef Crutzen (born December 3, 1933) is a Dutch, Nobel Prize-winning, atmospheric chemist.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Petrol engine

A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.

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Phlogiston theory

The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

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Phosphate

A phosphate (PO43−) as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid.

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Pneumatic Institution

The Pneumatic Institution (also referred to as Pneumatic Institute) was a medical research facility in Bristol, England, in 1799–1802.

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Potato chip

A potato chip (American English) or crisp (British English) is a thin slice of potato that has been deep fried, baked, kettle cooked, or popped until crunchy.

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Propane

Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula, a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid.

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Propellant

A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.

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Psychomotor learning

Psychomotor learning is the relationship between cognitive functions and physical movement.

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Racing

In sport, racing is a competition of speed, against an objective criterion, usually a clock or to a specific point.

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Rancidification

Rancidification, the product of which can be described as rancidity, is the process which causes a substance to become rancid, that is, having a rank, unpleasant smell or taste.

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Receptor antagonist

A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens agonist-mediated responses rather than provoking a biological response itself upon binding to a receptor.

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Reconnaissance aircraft

A reconnaissance aircraft is a manned or unmanned military aircraft designed, or adapted, to carry out aerial reconnaissance.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention to alter the state of consciousness (through alteration of the central nervous system) in order to create positive emotions and feelings.

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Relative analgesia machine

A relative analgesia machine is used by dentists to induce inhalation sedation in their patients.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (called also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.

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Robert H. Goddard

Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket, which he successfully launched on March 16, 1926.

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Rocket

A rocket (Italian rocchetta‚ "little fuse") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

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Rocketry

Rocketry may refer to.

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Scavenger system

A scavenger system is a medical device used in hospitals.

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Schnellbomber

A Schnellbomber (German; literally "fast bomber") is a high-speed bomber.

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Sevoflurane

Sevoflurane (1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-(fluoromethoxy)propane; synonym, fluoromethyl hexafluoroisopropyl ether), is a sweet-smelling, nonflammable, highly fluorinated methyl isopropyl ether used as an inhalational anaesthetic for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound.

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Sodium nitrite

Sodium nitrite is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaNO2.

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SpaceShipOne

The SpaceShipOne is a suborbital air-launched spaceplane that completed the first manned private spaceflight in 2004.

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Specific impulse

Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of the efficiency of rocket and jet engines.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Splint (laboratory equipment)

A splint is a simple piece of equipment used in scientific laboratories.

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Stratosphere

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere.

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Substance abuse

Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse and substance use disorder, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.

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Suggestibility

Suggestibility is the quality of being inclined to accept and act on the suggestions of others.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

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Surgery

Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas (for example, a perforated ear drum).

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Tandem pore domain potassium channel

The two-pore-domain potassium channel (not to be confused with the small family of two-pore channels) a family of 15 members form what is known as "leak channels" which possess Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (open) rectification.

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Thomas Beddoes

Thomas Beddoes (13 April 1760 – 24 December 1808), English physician and scientific writer, was born in Shifnal, Shropshire.

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Transcendental Meditation

Transcendental Meditation (TM) refers to a specific form of mantra meditation called the Transcendental Meditation technique, and less commonly to the organizations that constitute the Transcendental Meditation movement.

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Trenton, New Jersey

Trenton is the capital city of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County, as well as briefly the former capital of the United States of America.

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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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Turnkey

A turnkey or a turnkey project (also spelled turn-key) is a type of project that is constructed so that it could be sold to any buyer as a completed product.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

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Urban Dictionary

Urban Dictionary is a crowdsourced online dictionary of slang words and phrases that was founded in 1999 as a parody of Dictionary.com by then-college freshman Aaron Peckham.

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Vancouver

Vancouver officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada.

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Ventilation (architecture)

Ventilating (the V in HVAC) is the process of "processing" or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality (i.e. to control temperature, replenish oxygen, or remove moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria and carbon dioxide).

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Ventral tegmental area

The ventral tegmental area (VTA), (tegmentum is Latin for covering), also known as the ventral tegmental area of Tsai, or simply ventral tegmentum, is a group of neurons located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain (mesencephalon).

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Virginia Military Institute

The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-supported military college in Lexington, Virginia, the oldest such institution in the United States.

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Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12, vitamin B12 or vitamin B-12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the brain and nervous system, and for the formation of blood.

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Vitamin B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as hypocobalaminemia, refers to low blood levels of vitamin B12.

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Water injection (engine)

In internal combustion engines, water injection, also known as anti-detonant injection (ADI), can spray water into the incoming air or fuel-air mixture, or directly into the cylinder, in order to cool certain parts of the induction system where "hot points" could produce premature ignition.

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Whipped cream

Whipped cream is cream that has been beaten by a mixer, whisk, or fork until it is light and fluffy.

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Whipped-cream charger

A whipped cream charger (also called whippits, whippets (from the brand name Whip-It), nossies, nangs, or chargers) is a steel cylinder or cartridge filled with nitrous oxide (N2O) that is used as a whipping agent in a whipped cream dispenser.

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WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines is published by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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5-HT3 receptor

The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.

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Redirects here:

ATC code N01AX13, ATCvet code QN01AX13, Dinitrogen Monoxide, Dinitrogen monoxide, E942, Effects of nitrous oxide on the body, Factitious airs, Happy gas, Hippie crack, Hippy crack, Inhaling Nitrous Oxide, Laugh-making gas, Laughing Gas, Laughing gas, Laughy gas, N 2 O, N2O, N2O-N, N2o, Nitrogen(I) oxide, Nitros, Nitrous Oxide, Nitrous oxide system, Nitrouse oxide, Nitroux oxide, Nitrus oxide, N₂O, Phlogisticated nitrous air, Recreational use of nitrous oxide.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide

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