604 relations: Absolute monarchy, Active duty, Adolf Hitler, Aegukka, African Renaissance Monument, Agitprop, Agreed Framework, Agricultural cooperative, Air Koryo, Al Jazeera, Alcohol, All-female band, Amnesty International, Andrei Lankov, Anthrax, Anthropocentrism, Anti-tank missile, Appellate court, Aquaculture, Arirang Festival, Armoured personnel carrier, Artillery, Ascribed status, Associated Press, Association football, Asymmetric warfare, August Faction Incident, Autarky, Axe murder incident, Baekje, Balhae, Ballistic missile, Banchan, Barack Obama, Basketball, BBC, BBC News, Beijing, Bertolt Brecht, Bill Clinton, Biological agent, Biomass, Bombardment of Yeonpyeong, Boxing, Brazil national football team, Brian Reynolds Myers, Brigade, Brinkmanship, Buddhism, Bulgogi, ..., Buyeo kingdom, Cabinet of North Korea, Cambodia, Capital punishment, Cardiovascular disease, Catholicism, Ceasefire, Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Cerebrovascular disease, Chagang Province, Chairman of the National Defence Commission, Changgeuk, Chemical weapon, Cheondoism, China, China–North Korea border, Chinese people, Cholera, Chondoist Chongu Party, Chongjin, Chongjin concentration camp, Christianity in Korea, Christopher Hitchens, Chung-guyok, Civil law (legal system), Classical music, Closed platform, Closed-circuit television, CNN, Coal, Cold War, Collective farming, Comfort women, Command and control, Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries, Common Era, Communism, Complex of Goguryeo Tombs, Confucianism, Constitution of North Korea, Coronary artery disease, Counterintelligence, Crime, Crimes against humanity, Criminal code, Cult of personality, Cultural assets of North Korea, Cultural assimilation, Cyberwarfare, Dangun, Death and state funeral of Kim Il-sung, Death and state funeral of Kim Jong-il, Defense industry of North Korea, Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, Demographics of North Korea, Dennis Rodman, Diamondback terrapin, Dictatorship, Digital library, Division (military), Division of Korea, Divorce, Dongye, Doosan Encyclopedia, DPR Korea League, Dutch East India Company, DVD, East Asia, Eastern Bloc, Economic freedom, Economist Intelligence Unit, Elections in North Korea, Electromagnetic pulse, Empire of Japan, Endemic (epidemiology), English language, Erich Kästner, Eternal President of the Republic, European Union, Executive (government), Exploration of the Moon, Extended family, Extensive growth, Famine, Fascism, Fertilizer, Fiber-optic communication, FIFA World Cup, Film, First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, First Sino-Japanese War, Foreign Policy, Four Commanderies of Han, Freedom House, Freedom of religion in North Korea, Galbitang, Gazprom, General state laws for the Prussian states, George W. 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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.
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Active duty refers to a full-time occupation as part of a military force, as opposed to reserve duty.
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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
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"Aegukka" ("Patriotic Song") is the national anthem of North Korea.
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The African Renaissance Monument (Le Monument de la Renaissance Africaine) is a 49 meter tall bronze statue located on top of one of the twin hills known as Collines des Mamelles, outside of Dakar, Senegal.
Agitprop (from Russian: агитпроп, derived from agitation and propaganda) is stage plays, pamphlets, motion pictures and other art forms with an explicitly political message.
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The Agreed Framework between the United States of America and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was signed on October 21, 1994 between North Korea (DPRK) and the United States.
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An agricultural cooperative, also known as a farmers' co-op, is a cooperative where farmers pool their resources in certain areas of activity.
Air Koryo (context, Koryo Hanggong; formerly Chosŏn Minhang, context) is the state-owned national flag carrier airline of North Korea, headquartered in Sunan-guyŏk, Pyongyang.
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Al Jazeera (الجزيرة, literally "The Peninsula", referring to the Arabian Peninsula), also known as Aljazeera and JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a Doha-based state-funded broadcaster owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network, which is partly funded by the House of Thani, the ruling family of Qatar.
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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.
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An all-female band is a musical group exclusively composed of female musicians.
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.
Andrei Nikolaevich Lankov (Андрей Николаевич Ланьков; born July 26, 1963) is a Russian scholar of Asia and a specialist in Korean studies.
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Anthrax is an acute disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis.
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Anthropocentrism (from Greek ἄνθρωπος, ánthrōpos, "human being"; and κέντρον, kéntron, "center") is the belief that human beings are the central or most significant species on the planet (in the sense that they are considered to have a moral status or value higher than that of other animals), or the assessment of reality through an exclusively human perspective.
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An anti-tank missile (ATM), anti-tank guided missile (ATGM), anti-tank guided weapon (ATGW) or anti-armor guided weapon, is a guided missile primarily designed to hit and destroy heavily armored military vehicles.
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An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.
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Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants.
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The Grand Mass Gymnastics and Artistic Performance Arirang (Chosŏn'gŭl: 아리랑 축제, Hancha: 아리랑 祝祭), also known as the Arirang Mass Games, or the Arirang Festival is a gymnastics and artistic festival held in the Rungrado May Day Stadium in Pyongyang, North Korea.
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An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
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Ascribed status is the social status a person is assigned at birth or assumed involuntarily later in life.
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The Associated Press (AP) is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Asymmetric warfare (or Asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
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August Incident (8월 종파 사건), officially coined as the "Second Arduous March", was an attempted removal of Kim Il-sung from power by leading North Korean figures from the Soviet-Korean faction and the Yanan faction, with support from the Soviet Union and China, at the 2nd Plenary Session of the 3rd Central Committee in 1956.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
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The axe murder incident (판문점 도끼살인사건; Hanja: 板門店도끼殺人事件,도끼蠻行事件; literally, Panmunjom axe murder incident) was the killing of two United States Army officers by North Korean soldiers on August 18, 1976, in the Joint Security Area (JSA) located in the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ).
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Baekje or Paekche (18 BC – 660 AD) was a kingdom located in southwest Korea.
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Balhae or Bohai (698–926) was a mixed ethnic Goguryeo–Mohe kingdom established in northern Korean Peninsula and Northeast China after the fall of Goguryeo.
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A ballistic missile is a missile (rocket) that follows a ballistic trajectory with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target.
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Banchan (also spelled panch'an) refers to small dishes of food served along with cooked rice in Korean cuisine.
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Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.
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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.
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Bertolt Brecht (born Eugen Berthold Friedrich Brecht; 10 February 1898 – 14 August 1956) was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director of the 20th century.
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William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
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A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
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Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms.
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The bombardment of Yeonpyeong was an artillery engagement between the North Korean military and South Korean forces stationed on Yeonpyeong Island on 23 November 2010.
Boxing is a martial art and combat sport in which two people throw punches at each other, usually with gloved hands.
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The Brazil national football team (Seleção Brasileira de Futebol) represents Brazil in international men's association football. Brazil is administered by the Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), the governing body for football in Brazil. They have been a member of the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) since 1923 and member of the South American Football Confederation (CONMEBOL) since 1916. Brazil is the most successful national football team in the FIFA World Cup with five championships: 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994 and 2002. Brazil also has the best overall performance in World Cup history in both proportional and absolute terms with a record of 70 victories in 104 matches played, 119 goal difference, 227 points and only 17 losses. Brazil is the only national team to have played in all FIFA World Cup editions without any absence nor need for playoffs. The seleção is also the most successful national team in the FIFA Confederations Cup with four titles: 1997, 2005, 2009 and 2013, being the holder of the last title of the tournament. Brazil have won a total of 62 official international titles to professional and grassroots level selections, what constitutes an unparalleled world record. Brazil has the all-time highest average Football Elo Ranking in the world with 2013.3, and the third all-time highest Football Elo Ranking in the world, with 2153 in 1962, only behind the Hungary's Golden Team of 1954 and Germany national team of 2014. Many distinguished commentators consider the Brazil team of 1970 to be the greatest association football team ever, although some argue the case for other teams, such as the Brazil team of 1958 or 1962, with honorary mentions being held for the gifted 1982 side. Following the conclusion of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, the national team is ranked number 3 in the World Football Elo Ratings and 6 in the FIFA World Ranking. Brazil is the only national team to have won the world cup on four different continents: once in Europe (1958 Sweden), once in South America (1962 Chile), twice in North America (1970 Mexico and 1994 United States) and once in Asia (2002 Korea/Japan). They also share with Spain a record of 35 consecutive official matches undefeated.
Brian Reynolds "B.R." Myers (born 1963) is an American journalist and associate professor of international studies at Dongseo University in Busan, South Korea, best known for his writings on North Korean propaganda.
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A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
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Brinkmanship (also brinksmanship) is the practice of trying to achieve an advantageous outcome by pushing dangerous events to the brink of active conflict.
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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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Bulgogi (불고기) is a Korean dish that usually consists of grilled marinated beef.
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Buyeo or Puyŏ (Korean: 부여; Hanja: 夫餘) was an ancient kingdom located in parts of southern Manchuria and northern Korea, from around the 2nd century BC to 494.
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The Cabinet of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is, according to the Constitution of North Korea, the administrative and executive body of the highest organ of state power and a general state-management organ in the Government of North Korea.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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Capital punishment, death penalty or execution is punishment by death.
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.
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A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
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The Central Bank of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is North Korea's central bank.
Cerebrovascular disease is a vascular disease of the cerebral circulation.
Chagang Province (Chagangdo) is a province in North Korea; it is bordered by China to the north, Ryanggang and South Hamgyong to the east, South P'yŏngan to the south, and North P'yŏngan to the west.
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The First Chairman of the National Defence Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the supreme commander of the armed forces of North Korea and the most powerful person in the government.
Changgeuk or ch'angguk is a traditional Korean opera, performed as a play but in the Korean folk song style known as pansori.
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A chemical weapon (CW) is a munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings.
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Cheondoism, spelled Chondoism in North Korean sources (Korean: Cheondogyo; hanja 天道教; hangul 천도교; literally "Religion of the Heavenly Way"), is a 20th-century Korean religious movement, based on the 19th century Donghak neo-Confucian movement founded by Choe Je-u and codified under Son Byeong-hui.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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The China–North Korea border is the international border separating China and North Korea.
Chinese people are the various individuals or groups of people associated with China, either by reason of ancestry or heredity, nationality, citizenship, place of residence, or other affiliations.
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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
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The Chondoist Chongu Party or Korean Chondoist Chongu Party (an approximate translation into English could be "Party of the Young Friends of the Heavenly Way") is a united front party in North Korea and is labeled as democratic by the government of the country.
Chŏngjin (청진시 Cheongjin-si) is the capital of North Korea's North Hamgyong Province and the country's third largest city.
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Chongjin concentration camp (Chosŏn'gŭl: 청진 제25호 관리소, also spelled Ch'ŏngjin) is a labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners.
The practice of Christianity in Korea revolves around two of its largest branches, Protestantism and Catholicism, accounting for 8.6 millionAccording to figures compiled by the South Korean National Statistical Office.
Christopher Eric Hitchens (13 April 1949 – 15 December 2011) was a British author, literary critic, and journalist who spent much of his career in the United States and became an American citizen.
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Chung-guyŏk (Central District) is one of the 19 guyok which constitute the city of Pyongyang, North Korea.
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Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
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A closed platform, walled garden or closed ecosystem is a software system where the carrier or service provider has control over applications, content, and media, and restricts convenient access to non-approved applications or content.
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Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors.
The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.
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Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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Collective farming and communal farming are various types of agricultural production in which several farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise.
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Comfort women were women and girls who were forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
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Older versions of U.S. Army FM 3-0 state: Command and control, or C2, in a military organization is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission.
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The Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries is based in North Korea (DPRK).
Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis – common, universal) is a social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money, and the state.
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The Complex of Goguryeo Tombs (Complex of Koguryo Tombs) lie in North Korea.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of philosophical and "ethical-sociopolitical teachings" sometimes described as a religion.
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The Socialist Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is the constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), atherosclerotic heart disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease, is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden coronary death.
Counterintelligence (CI) refers to information gathered and activities conducted to protect against espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons or international terrorist activities, but not including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
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In ordinary language, the term crime denotes an unlawful act punishable by a state.
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Crimes against humanity are certain acts which are committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population.
A criminal code (or penal code) is a document which compiles all, or a significant amount of, a particular jurisdiction's criminal law.
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A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
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Designated cultural assets of North Korea are tangible artifacts, sites, and buildings deemed to have significant historical or artistic value.
Cultural assimilation is the process by which a person or a group's language and/or culture come to resemble those of another group.
Cyberwarfare has been defined as "actions by a nation-state to penetrate another nation's computers or networks for the purposes of causing damage or disruption,"Clarke, Richard A. Cyber War, HarperCollins (2010) ISBN 9780061962233 but other definitions also include non-state actors, such as terrorist groups, companies, political or ideological extremist groups, hacktivists, and transnational criminal organizations.
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Dangun Wanggeom or Tangun, was the legendary founder of Gojoseon, the first Korean kingdom, around present-day Liaoning, Manchuria, and the Korean Peninsula.
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Kim Il-sung died on 8 July 1994 at age 82.
The death of Kim Jong-il was reported by North Korean state television news on 19 December 2011.
North Korea's defense industry predates the Korean War, but has emerged as a supplier to the North Korean armed forces beginning in the 1970s, but more so after the fall of the Soviet Union and to supplement those purchased from China.
The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, formed on 22 July 1946, is a North Korean united front led by the Workers' Party of Korea.
The demographics of North Korea, a country in eastern Asia, are known through national censuses and international estimates.
Dennis Keith Rodman (born May 13, 1961) is a retired American professional basketball player, who played for the Detroit Pistons, San Antonio Spurs, Chicago Bulls, Los Angeles Lakers, and Dallas Mavericks in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
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The diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) or simply terrapin, is a species of turtle native to the brackish coastal swamps of the eastern and southern United States. It belongs to the monotypic genus, Malaclemys. It has one of the largest ranges of all turtles in North America, stretching as far south as Florida Keys and as far north as Cape Cod. The name "terrapin" is derived from the Algonquian word torope. It applies to Malaclemys terrapin in both British English and American English. The name originally was used by early European settlers in North America to describe these brackish-water turtles that inhabited neither freshwater habitats nor the sea. It retains this primary meaning in American English. In British English, however, other semi-aquatic turtle species, such as the red-eared slider, might be called a terrapin.
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Dictatorship is a form of government where political authority is monopolized by a person (dictator) or political entity, and exercised through various mechanisms to ensure the entity's power remains strong.
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A Digital Library (also referred to as digital library or digital repository) is a special library with a focused collection of digital objects that can include text, visual material, audio material, video material, stored as electronic media formats (as opposed to print, microform, or other media), along with means for organizing, storing, and retrieving the files and media contained in the library collection.
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A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
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The division of Korea into South Korea and North Korea was the result of the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending the Empire of Japan's 35-year colonial rule of Korea by General Order No. 1.
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Divorce (or dissolution of marriage) is the termination of a marriage or marital union, the canceling and/or reorganizing of the legal duties and responsibilities of marriage, thus dissolving the bonds of matrimony between a married couple under the rule of law of the particular country and/or state.
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Dongye, which means the Eastern Ye, was a Korean chiefdom which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 3rd-century BC to around early 5th-century.
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Doosan Encyclopedia is a Korean language encyclopedia published by Doosan Donga (두산동아).
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Highest Class Football League (Chosŏn'gŭl: 최상급축구련맹전; Hanja: 最上級蹴球聯盟戰) is the football league-system championship in North Korea.
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The United East Indian Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.
DVD ("digital versatile disc" or "digital video disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995.
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East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
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Economic freedom or economic liberty or right to economic liberty is the ability of members of a society to undertake economic direction and actions.
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The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is an independent business within The Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Elections in North Korea are held every five years for the Supreme People's Assembly (SPA) — the country's national legislature — and every four years for local people's assemblies.
An electromagnetic pulse (EMP), also sometimes called a transient electromagnetic disturbance, is a short burst of electromagnetic energy.
The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Emil Erich Kästner (23 February 1899 – 29 July 1974) was a German author, poet, screenwriter and satirist, known primarily for his humorous, socially astute poems and for children's books including Emil and the Detectives.
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The appellation Eternal President of the Republic (공화국의 영원한 주석, literally "Eternal Chairman of the Republic") was established by a line in the preface to the Constitution of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as amended on September 5, 1998.
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959.
An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of aunts, uncles, and cousins all living nearby or in the same household.
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Extensive Growth, in economics, is based on the expansion of the quantity of inputs in order to increase the quantity of outputs, opposite to that of intensive growth.
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A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including crop failure, population unbalance, or government policies.
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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
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A fertilizer (or fertiliser in British English) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
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Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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A film, also called a movie, motion picture or photoplay, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images due to the phi phenomenon.
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First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea is the title given to the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea.
The First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea.
Foreign Policy is a news publication, founded in 1970, that is focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
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The Four Commanderies of Han (漢四郡, 한사군) are Lelang, Lintun, Xuantu and Zhenfan commanderies in northern Korean Peninsula and part of the Liaodong Peninsula.
Freedom House is a U.S. based government fundedGiannonea, Diego (2010)."Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case".
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In North Korea, the Constitution provides for "freedom of religious belief"; the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is an atheist state.
Galbitang (also spelled as kalbi tang) is a variety of guk, or Korean soup, made primarily from beef short ribs along with stewing beef, daikon, onions, and other ingredients.
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Public Joint Stock Company Gazprom (Публичное Акционерное Общество «Газпром», abbreviated PAO Gazprom, ОАО «Газпром») is the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and one of the world's largest companies.
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The General state laws for the Prussian states (Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preußischen Staaten, often abbreviated to ALR) were an important civil code of Prussia, promulgated in 1794 and codified by Carl Gottlieb Svarez and Ernst Ferdinand Klein, under the orders of Frederick II.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.
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Gija Joseon (?–194 BC) describes the period after the alleged arrival of Gija in the northwest of Korean peninsula.
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The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites.
Global Telecom Holding S.A.E. (formerly Orascom Telecom Holding S.A.E.) is an international telecommunications company operating GSM networks in the Middle East, Africa, Canada, and Asia.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), or Goryeo, was one of the ancient Three Kingdoms of Korea, located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of inner and outer Manchuria.
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Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom.
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The Gojoseon–Han War was a campaign launched by the Han empire against Wiman Joseon of the Gojoseon kingdom between 109 and 108 BC.
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Goryeo, also known as Koryŏ (918–1392), was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by King Taejo.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP) plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44).
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1998 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous U.S. editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of exercises requiring flexibility, balance and control.
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Haeju is a city located in South Hwanghae Province near Haeju Bay in North Korea.
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The Hamgyong Mountains (Gangbaekjeonggan) is a mountainous range running northeastward for 350 km in the northeastern part of North Korea.
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Hamhŭng (Hamhŭng-si) is North Korea's second largest city, and the capital of South Hamgyŏng Province.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
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Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters (hanzi).
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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Hendrick Hamel (1630 – 12 February 1692) was the first Westerner to write and experience first-hand in the Joseon Dynasty era in Korea (1666).
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Hermit kingdom is a term applied to any country, organization or society which willfully walls itself off, either metaphorically or physically, from the rest of the world.
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The Heroes' Acre is an official war memorial of the Republic of Namibia.
A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method not guaranteed to be optimal or perfect, but sufficient for the immediate goals.
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High-speed rail is a type of rail transport that operates significantly faster than traditional rail traffic, using an integrated system of specialized rolling stock and dedicated tracks.
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Higher education, post-secondary education, tertiary education or third level education is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after secondary education.
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The term highland or upland is used to denote any mountainous region or elevated mountainous plateau.
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The history of the Khitans dates back to the 4th century.
Hoeryong concentration camp (or Haengyong concentration camp) is a political prison camp in North Korea.
Hong Gildong is a fictional character in an old Korean novel, Tale of Hong Gildong, written in the Joseon Dynasty.
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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The reports of North Korean human experimentation describe suffocation of prisoners in gas chambers, testing deadly chemical weapons, and surgery without anesthesia.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.
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Human rights in North Korea are severely limited.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
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Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft.
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Human torpedoes or manned torpedoes are a type of rideable submarine used as secret naval weapons in World War II.
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A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters.
Hwasong concentration camp (Chosŏn'gŭl: 화성 제16호 관리소, also spelled Hwasŏng or Hwaseong) is a labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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Hyesan is a city in the northern part of Ryanggang province of North Korea.
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IAAF Road Race Label Events are races that the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) designates as one of the "leading road races around the world." The classification was first introduced for the 2008 running season, upon the suggestion of the IAAF Road Running Commission.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor.
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Immortality is the ability to live forever or eternal life.
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Imperialism is a type of advocacy of empire.
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Improved sanitation is a way of categorizing certain types or levels of sanitation.
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This page list topics related to North Korea.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Industry is the production of goods or services within an economy.
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An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), or mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct fire support.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
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Intelligence has been defined in many different ways such as in terms of one's capacity for logic, abstract thought, understanding, self-awareness, communication, learning, emotional knowledge, memory, planning, creativity and problem solving.
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Inter-Korean Summits are meetings between the leaders of North Korea and South Korea.
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The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire (UIP)) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of more than primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Coalition to Stop Crimes Against Humanity in North Korea (ICNK) was formed on September 8, 2011.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.
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An intranet is a private network, accessible only to an organization's staff.
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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
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Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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The Italian national football team (Nazionale di calcio dell'Italia) represents Italy in association football and is controlled by the Italian Football Federation (FIGC), the governing body for football in Italy.
The Ivory Coast national football team (Équipe de Côte d'Ivoire de football), nicknamed Les Éléphants (The Elephants), represents Ivory Coast in international football and is controlled by the Fédération Ivoirienne de Football (FIF).
Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.
The are an ethnic group native to Japan.
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The Jeju Uprising (followed by the Jeju Massacre) was a rebellion from April 3, 1948 until May 1949 on the South Korean Jeju island that followed the brutal suppression of Korean protesters, some of whom had been marching against the elections that were held only in South Korea (including Jeju Province), by national police employed by the US military government.
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King Jeongjo (28 October 1752 – 18 August 1800) was the 22nd ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea (r. 1776-1800).
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Jikji is the abbreviated title of a Korean Buddhist document, whose title can be translated "Anthology of Great Buddhist Priests' Zen Teachings".
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Johannes Brahms (7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist.
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Joseon (also Chosŏn, Choson, Chosun) was a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for approximately five centuries, from July 1392 to October 1897. It was officially renamed the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the Yalu and Tumen Rivers through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty. During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, science, literature, and technology. However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and the first and second Manchu invasions of 1636 nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolationist policy for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom". After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined rapidly in the late 19th century. The Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and the modern Korean language and its dialects derive from the culture and traditions of Joseon.
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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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Juche, usually translated as "self-reliance", is the official political ideology of North Korea, described by the regime as Kim Il-Sung's "original, brilliant and revolutionary contribution to national and international thought".
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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
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Juk is a predominantly Korean porridge made of grains such as cooked rice, beans, sesame, and azuki beans.
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The June 15th North–South Joint Declaration was adopted between leaders of North and South Korea in June 2000 after various diplomatic meetings between the North and South.
K-pop (an abbreviation of Korean pop) is a musical genre originating in South Korea that is characterized by a wide variety of audiovisual elements.
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Kaechon internment camp (Hangeul: 개천 제14호 관리소, also spelled Kae'chŏn or Gaecheon) is a forced labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners.
Kaesong (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province in the southern part of North Korea, a former Directly-Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Taebong and subsequent Goryeo kingdoms.
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The Kaesong Industrial Region (KIR) is a special administrative industrial region of North Korea (DPRK).
Kanggye is the provincial capital of Chagang, North Korea and has a population of 251,971.
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Kangwon Province (Kangwŏndo) is a province of North Korea, with its capital at Wŏnsan.
Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Kim Dae-jung (3 December 192518 August 2009) was the 8th President of South Korea from 1998 to 2003, and the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient.
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The Kim dynasty is a three-generation lineage of North Korean leadership descending from the country's first leader, Kim Il-sung, in 1948.
Kim Il-sung (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly referred to as North Korea, for 46 years, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
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Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, commonly referred to as North Korea, for 46 years, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Kim Il-sung Square is a large city square in the center of Pyongyang, DPRK (North Korea), and is named after the country's founding leader, Kim Il-sung.
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Kim Il-sung Stadium is the name of a large association football stadium located in Pyongyang, the capital city of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
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Kim Il-sung University, founded on 1 October 1946, is the first university built in North Korea.
Kim Jong-il (16 February 1941/1942 – 17 December 2011) was the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly referred to as North Korea, from 1994 to 2011.
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Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983; also romanized as Kim Jong-eun, Kim Jong Un or Kim Jung-eun) is the supreme leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
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Kim Un-guk (born 28 October 1988) is a North Korean weightlifter, a Labor Hero and People's Sportsman.
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Kim Yong-nam (born 4 February 1928) is the President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly of North Korea, a position he has held since 1998.
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Kimchi, also spelled kimchee or gimchi, is a traditional fermented Korean side dish made of vegetables with a variety of seasonings.
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A kindergarten (German), literally children's garden, is a preschool educational approach traditionally based on playing, singing, practical activities such as drawing, and social interaction as part of the transition from home to school.
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The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
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Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).
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The Korea Bay, sometimes the West Korea Bay is a northern extension of the Yellow Sea, between Liaoning Province of China and North P'yŏngan Province of North Korea.
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The Korea Computer Center (KCC) is the leading North Korean government information technology research center.
Korea under Japanese rule is the culmination of a process that began with the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, whereby a complex coalition of Meiji government, military, and business officials sought to integrate Korea both politically and economically into the Empire of Japan, first as a protectorate through the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1905, and then officially annexed in the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1910.
Korean Air Flight 858 was a scheduled international passenger flight between Baghdad, Iraq and Seoul, South Korea.
The Korean Armistice Agreement is the armistice which ended the Korean War.
Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism.
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The Korean Central News Agency (KCNA) is the state news agency of North Korea that was established on December 5, 1946.
Korean Central Television (KCTV) is a television service operated by Korean Central Broadcasting Committee, a state-owned broadcaster in North Korea.
The Korean Committee of Space Technology (KCST;, Hanja: 朝鮮宇宙空間技術委員會) is the agency of the government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) responsible for the country's space program.
Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism that emerged and developed in Korea.
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Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change.
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The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) is a strip of land running across the Korean Peninsula; it was established at the end of the Korean War to serve as a buffer zone between North and South Korea.
The Korean Empire (대한제국; Hanja: 大韓帝國; Daehan Jeguk; literally "Greater Korean Empire") was proclaimed in October 1897, after the Joseon dynasty officially exited the Imperial Chinese tributary system.
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Korean ethnic nationalism, or racial nationalism, is a political ideology and a form of ethnic identity that is prevalent in modern Korea.
The Korean Friendship Association (Spanish: Asociación Coreana de Amistad), headed by Spanish citizen Alejandro Cao de Benós de Les y Pérez, is an organization working with the Committee for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), as well as an organ of promotion/public relations for the Juche movement.
The Korean independence movement was a military and diplomatic campaign to achieve the independence of Korea from Japan.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
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The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia.
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The Korean People's Army Air Force, (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 공군; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 空軍), is the appellation of the unified aviation forces of North Korea.
The Korean People's Army (KPA; Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군; Chosŏn inmin'gun) constitutes the military defence forces of North Korea.
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The Korean People's Army Ground Force (KPAGF; Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 육군; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 陸軍) is the main branch of the Korean People's Army responsible for land-based military operations.
The Korean People's Army Naval Force (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 해군; Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 海軍, Joseon-inmingun Haegun, literally "Korean People's Military Navy"), also known as the Korean People's Navy (KPN), is the naval service branch of the Korean People's Army; the de facto navy of North Korea.
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The Arch of Reunification year 2001,Symbol of June 15th North–South Presidential Joint Declaration, Direction to Kae-Song City Highway, in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun and North Korean leader Kim Jong Il 2nd National Summit, actively implement the the existing June 15th North–South Joint Declaration, Agreed with four neighbouring country presidential peace talks on the Korean peninsula measures, North Korea capital of Pyongyang Korean reunification refers to the potential future reunification of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea), the Republic of Korea (commonly known as South Korea), and the Korean Demilitarized Zone under a single government.
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Revolutionary opera in North Korea is a genre of the culture of North Korea best known through the "Five Great Revolutionary Operas" (5대 혁명가극).
Korean shamanism, also known as Muism (무교 Mugyo "mu religion") or Sinism (신교 Singyo "religion of the shin ", is the ethnic religion of Korea and the Koreans.Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 4 Although used synonymously, the two terms aren't identical: Jung Young Lee describes Muism as a form of Sinism - the shamanic tradition within the religion.Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 5 Other names for the religion are Sindo ("Way of the Gods"), Sindoism (Sindogyo "religion of the Way of the Gods"), Gosindo ("Way of the Ancestral Gods"), and Pungwoldo ("Way of Brightness"). It has approximately 5-15 million followers. In contemporary Korean language the shaman-priest or mu is known as a mudang if female or baksu if male, although other names and locutions are used. Korean mu "shaman" is synonymous with Chinese wu, which defines priests both male and female. The role of the mudang is to act as intermediary between the spirits or gods, and the human plain, through gut (rituals), seeking to resolve problems in the patterns of development of human life. Central to the faith is the belief in Haneullim or Hwanin, meaning "source of all being",Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 18 and of all gods of nature, the utmost god or the supreme mind.Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 17 The mu are mythically described as descendants of the "Heavenly King", son of the "Holy Mother ", with investiture often passed down through female princely lineage. However, other myths link the heritage of the traditional faith to Dangun, male son of the Heavenly King and initiator of the Korean nation.Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 13 Korean Muism has similarities with Chinese Wuism,Jung Young Lee, 1981. p. 21 Japanese Shinto, and with the Siberian, Mongolian, and Manchurian religious traditions. As highlighted by anthropological studies, the Korean ancestral god Dangun is related to the Ural-Altaic Tengri "Heaven", the shaman and the prince.Jung Young Lee, 1981. pp. 17-18 In some provinces of Korea the shaman is still called dangul dangul-ari. The mudang is similar to the Japanese miko and the Ryukyuan yuta. Muism has exerted an influence on some Korean new religions, such as Cheondoism and Jeung San Do. According to various sociological studies, many Christian churches in Korea make use of practices rooted in shamanism.
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The Korean Social Democratic Party (KSDP) is a political party in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, allied with the ruling Workers' Party.
The Korean War (in South Korean Hangul: 한국전쟁, Hanja: 韓國戰爭, Hanguk Jeonjaeng, "Korean War"; in North Korean Chosungul: 조국해방전쟁, Joguk Haebang Jeonjaeng, "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North and South Korea, in which a United Nations force led by the United States of America fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union.
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The Koreans (alternatively, see names of Korea) are a historic people based in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria.
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Koryolink (고려링크, styled as koryolink) is a North Korean wireless telecommunications provider.
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North Korea's political penal labour colonies, transliterated kwalliso or kwan-li-so, constitute one of three forms of political imprisonment in the country, the other two being what Hawk (2012) which is translated as "short-term detention/forced-labor centers" and "long-term prison labor camps" for misdemeanour and felony offences respectively.
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The Kwangmyŏngsŏng programme is a class of experimental satellites developed by North Korea.
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 or Gwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi (English: Bright Star-3 Unit 2 or Lodestar-3 Unit 2) is the first satellite successfully launched from North Korea, an Earth observation spacecraft that was launched on 12 December 2012, 00:49 UTC, in order to replace the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, which failed to reach orbit on 13 April 2012.
Kwangmyong (Bright) is a North Korean "walled garden" national intranet opened in 2000.
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A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor.
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Laos ((or) ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) (République démocratique populaire lao), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.
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Later Silla (668–935) or Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, when it conquered Baekje in 660 and Goguryeo in 668, unifying the southern and middle portion of the Korean peninsula.
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In spaceflight, a launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface into outer space.
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Lee Myung-bak (born December 19, 1941) was the 10th President of South Korea from February 25, 2008, to February 25, 2013.
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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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Lelang was one of the Chinese commanderies which was established after the fall of Wiman Joseon in 108 BC until Goguryeo conquered it in 313.
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The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
The belligerents participating in limited war do not expend all of the resources at their disposal, whether human, industrial, agricultural, military, natural, technological, or otherwise in a specific conflict.
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Linux (pronounced or, less frequently) is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computer operating system (OS) assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and distribution.
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This is a list of animals that have been cloned in alphabetical order.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This is a list of films that involve North Korea.
The following is a list of heads of state of North Korea since its founding in 1948.
The following is a list of political leaders of North Korea, officially called the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the DPRK).
This is a list of newspapers in North Korea.
This is a list of proposed state mergers, including both current and historical proposals.
The following is a list of notable sports stadiums, ordered by their capacity, which refers to the maximum number of spectators they can normally accommodate.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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The Los Angeles Times, commonly referred to as the Times, is a paid daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California, since 1881.
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Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis.
Man-portable air-defense systems (MANPADS or MPADS) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles (SAMs).
Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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The Mansudae Art Studio is an art studio in Phyongchon District, Pyongyang, North Korea.
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Mansudae Overseas Projects is a construction company from North Korea.
Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
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The March 1st Movement, also known as Sam-il (3·1) Movement was one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the occupation of Korea by Japan.
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Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognized union or legal contract between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws.
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Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Marxism and Leninism, and seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further.
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Masikryong Ski Resort (마식령 스키 리조트) is a ski resort at the summit of the Taehwa Peak (대황산) some outside Wonsan City in Kangwon Province, North Korea.
Mass surveillance in North Korea is a routine practice employed throughout the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
McCune–Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune–Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000.
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In economics and sociology, the means of production are physical, non-human inputs used in production, such as machinery, tools and factories, infrastructural capital and natural capital.
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Media coverage of North Korea (officially named the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) is hampered by a lack of reliable information.
A midget submarine (also called a mini submarine) is any submarine under 150 tons typically operated by a crew of one or two but sometimes up to 6 or 9, with little or no on-board living accommodation.
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The military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens.
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A military reserve force is a military organization composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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A minister is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Ministry of People’s Armed Forces (MPAF) is the government agency tasked with general administrative and logistical coordination of the Korean People’s Army (KPA).
The Ministry of People’s Security is a law enforcement agency in North Korea.
The Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (Korean:체신성 Hanja: 遞信省) is a government ministry in North Korea which is responsible for the North Korean postal service, telephone system and media such as television and print press.
The mobile Web refers to the use of browser-based Internet services from handheld mobile devices, such as smartphones or feature phones, through a mobile or other wireless network.
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Monetization is the process of converting or establishing something into legal tender.
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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
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The Mongol invasions of Korea (1231–1259) comprised a series of campaigns between 1231 and 1270 by the Mongol Empire against the Kingdom of Goryeo (the proto-state of modern-day Korea).
Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
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The Moranbong Band, also known as Moran Hill Orchestra, is an all-female music group in North Korea whose members were selected by the country's supreme leader Kim Jong-un.
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Kŭmgangsan is a -high mountain in Kangwon-do, North Korea.
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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
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A mountain range (also mountain barrier/belt/chain/system) is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains.
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The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) and order of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water.
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A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface.
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Naenara (literally "my country" in Korean) is the official web portal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).
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Naengmyeon (Korean: 랭면 (North Korea), 냉면 (South Korea), also known as raengmyeon (in North Korea), naeng-myeon, naengmyun, or naeng-myun, meaning "cold noodles") is a Korean noodle dish of long and thin handmade noodles made from the flour and starch of various ingredients: buckwheat (메밀, memil), potatoes, sweet potatoes, 칡냉면, naengmyun made with the starch from arrowroot (darker color and chewier than buckwheat noodles), and kudzu (칡, chik).
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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), and formerly German South-West Africa and then South West Africa, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.
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The National Defence Commission of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (NDC) is defined by the 1998 constitution as "the highest guiding organ of the military and the managing organ of military matters".
Designated national treasures of North Korea are tangible artifacts, sites, and buildings deemed to have significant historical or artistic value.
The Nautilus Institute for Security and Sustainability is a public policy think tank founded in 1992.
Naver (Hangul: 네이버) is a popular sponsored advertisement portal in South Korea, owned by Naver Corporation.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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The "No Motherland Without You" (or "Ode to Kim Jong-il"), is a song from the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) which is about the country's deceased leader Kim Jong-il.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
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Noodles are a staple food in many cultures made from unleavened dough which is stretched, extruded, or rolled flat and cut into one of a variety of shapes.
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Nordpolitik (German for "Northern Policy") was the signature foreign policy of South Korean president Roh Tae-woo.
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North Hamgyong Province (Hamgyŏngbukdo) is the northernmost province of North Korea.
North Hwanghae Province (Hwanghaebuk-to) is a province of North Korea.
North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or DPRK) declared in 2009 that it had developed a nuclear weapon, and probably possesses a small stockpile of relatively simple nuclear weapons.
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of Korea) first participated at the Olympic Games in 1964, appearing only in the Winter Olympic Games that year.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea national basketball team (recognized as DPR Korea by FIBA and known colloquially and in the media as North Korea) represents the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in international basketball and is controlled by the Amateur Basketball Association of DPR of Korea, the governing body for basketball in North Korea.
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea national football team (recognized as Korea DPR by FIFA and known colloquially and in the media as North Korea) represents the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in international association football and is controlled by the DPR Korea Football Association, the governing body for football in North Korea.
North Korea Uncovered is a comprehensive set of mappings of North Korea.
The abductions of Japanese citizens from Japan by agents of the North Korean government happened during a period of six years from 1977 to 1983.
The North Korean calendar or Juche calendar is the system of year numbering used in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The North Korean cult of personality surrounding North Korea's ruling family, the Kims, has existed in North Korea for decades and can be found in many examples of North Korean culture.
Since the division of Korea after World War II and the end of the Korean War (1950–1953), some North Koreans have managed to defect for political, ideological, religious and economic reasons. Since the North Korean famine of the 1990s, more North Koreans have defected. The usual strategy is to cross the border into Jilin and Liaoning provinces in northeast China before fleeing to a third country, due to China being a close ally of North Korea. China, being the biggest of few economic partners of North Korea while the country has been under U.N. sanctions for decades, is also the largest and continuous aid source of the country. To avoid worsening the already tense relations of the Korea Peninsula, China refuses to grant North Korean defectors refugee status and considers them illegal economic migrants. About 76% to 84% of defectors interviewed in China or South Korea came from the Northeastern provinces bordering China. If the defectors are caught in China, they are repatriated back to North Korea to face harsh interrogations and years of punishment, or even death in political prison camps such as Yodok camp or reeducation camps such as Chungsan camp or Chongori camp. A prominent defection occurred shortly after the signing of the armistice at the end of the Korean War, on September 21, 1953, when 21-year-old No Kum-Sok, a senior lieutenant in the North Korean air force, flew his MiG-15 to the South. His act, affiliated with Operation Moolah, was considered an intelligence bonanza because his fighter plane was the best in the Communist bloc. No was awarded a sum of $100,000 or ₩13,170,200 and the right to reside in the United States. An offer to return the MiG was ignored. The aircraft is now on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force, Dayton, Ohio.
The North Korean famine, which together with the accompanying general economic crisis are known as the Arduous March (Hangul: 북한기근; Chosŏn'gŭl: 고난의 행군) in North Korea, occurred in North Korea from 1994 to 1998.
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The North Korean Special Operation Force (NKSOF) consists of specially equipped and trained elite military units trained to perform military, political, or psychological operations for North Korea.
The won (symbol: ₩; code: KPW) or Korean People's Won is the official currency of North Korea.
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North Pyongan Province (Phyŏnganbukto) is a province of North Korea.
The Korean language has changed between the two states due to the length of time that North and South Korea have been separated.
North–South States Period (698–926 CE) is the period in Korean history when Silla and Balhae coexisted in the south and north of the peninsula, respectively.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine praevia lege poenali (Latin, " no crime no punishment without a pre-existing penal law ") is a basic maxim in continental European legal thinking.
An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
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An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.
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Okjeo was a Korean tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps the 2nd century BC to the 5th century AD.
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The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
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Olympic weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.
Okryugwan or Okryu Restaurant is a restaurant in Pyongyang, North Korea, founded in 1960.
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Open Doors is a non-denominational mission supporting, what the organization considers to be, persecuted Christians in over 60 countries where Christianity is socially or legally discouraged or oppressed.
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OS X (pronounced; originally Mac OS X) is a series of Unix-based graphical interface operating systems (OS) developed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is designed to run on Macintosh computers, having been pre-installed on all Macs since 2002.
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The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to North Korea: North Korea – sovereign country located on the northern half of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.
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Mount Paektu, Baekdu, or Changbai is an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China.
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Pak Pong-ju (born October 24, 1939) is the current Premier of North Korea, serving in that office since April 2013.
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The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
Panmunjom, now located in North Hwanghae Province, is an abandoned village just north of the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement that paused the Korean War was signed.
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A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, and which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
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In geography, a plain is a flat area.
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A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.
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Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.
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The Pochonbo Electronic Ensemble is an orchestra from North Korea.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder.
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A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose.
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Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important (real or ideal) features of democratic societies.
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Political rehabilitation is the process by which a member of a political organization or government who has fallen into disgrace is restored to public life.
Polymer chemistry is a multidisciplinary science that deals with the chemical synthesis and chemical properties of polymers which were considered by Hermann Staudinger as macromolecules.
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Pop music (a term that originally derives from an abbreviation of "popular") is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the Western world during the 1950s and 1960s, deriving from rock and roll.
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The Portugal national football team (Seleção Portuguesa de Futebol) represents Portugal in association football and is controlled by the Portuguese Football Federation, the governing body for football in Portugal.
A poster is any piece of printed paper designed to be attached to a wall or vertical surface.
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Potato production in North Korea, is the cultivation of potatoes in North Korea, it is important to the livelihood of the country's people.
The Prehistoric Korea is the era of human existence in the Korean Peninsula for which written records did not exist.
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The Premier of North Korea (officially Premier of the Cabinet of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea) is the head of government of North Korea.
A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside the US and UK) is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school.
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The presidency of George W. Bush began on January 20, 2001, when he was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States of America.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organization's assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
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Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
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Private property is a legal designation of the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
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Proto–Three Kingdoms of Korea (or Samhan) refers to the proto-historical period in the Korean Peninsula, after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a partially recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, China, and later in Chongqing (then spelt Chungking), during the Japanese Korean period.
The Provisional People’s Committee for North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl: 북조선인민위원회, Hancha: 北朝鮮人民委員會, Revised Romanization: Bukjoseon Inmin Wiwonhoe, McCune–Reischauer: Pukchosǒn Inmin Wiwŏnhoe), was the official name of the provisional government governing the northern portion of the Korean Peninsula following its post-World War II partition by the United States and the Soviet Union after the defeat of the Empire of Japan in 1945.
A proxy war is a conflict between two nations where neither country directly engages the other.
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A public execution is a form of capital punishment in which "members of the general public may voluntarily attend." The standard definition normally excludes the presence of a limited number of "passive citizens" that "witness the event to assure executive accountability." While today the great majority of the world considers public executions to be uncivilized and distasteful and most countries have outlawed the practice, throughout much of history executions were performed publicly as a means for the state to demonstrate "its power before those who fell under its jurisdiction be they criminals, enemies, or political opponents." Additionally, it afforded the public a chance to witness "what was considered a great spectacle." According to Amnesty International, in 2012 "public executions were known to have been carried out in Iran, North Korea, Saudi Arabia and Somalia.".
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This is a list of Public holidays in North Korea.
Pukch'ang concentration camp (Hangeul: 북창 제18호 관리소, also spelled Bukchang) is a labor camp in North Korea for political prisoners.
P'yŏngsŏng (평성) is a city in North Korea, the capital city of the province South Pyongan in western North Korea.
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Pyongyang (literally: "Flat Land" or "Peaceful Land", approved: P’yŏngyang; several variants) is the capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea) and the largest city in the country.
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Pyongyang is a chain of restaurants named after the capital of North Korea.
Pyongyang Marathon, also known as Mangyongdae Prize International Marathon, is an annual marathon race contested each April in Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea.
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Pyongyang Station (평양역) is the central railway station of Pyongyang, North Korea.
Pyongyang Time or Standard Time of Democratic People's Republic of Korea is 8.5 hours ahead of UTC (UTC+08:30) and has been the standard time zone in North Korea since 15 August 2015.
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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;r; often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English. His names are also transliterated "Piotr" or "Petr"; "Ilitsch", "Il'ich" or "Illyich"; and "Tschaikowski", "Tschaikowsky", "Chajkovskij" and "Chaikovsky" (and other versions; the transliteration varies among languages). The Library of Congress standardized the usage Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893),Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, rendering his lifespan as 25 April 1840 – 25 October 1893.
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods, by way of wheeled vehicles running on rails.
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Rajin-guyŏk) is a North Korean district on Rason in the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) in the North Pacific Ocean on the northeast tip of North Korea. It is in the Kwanbuk region and location in the south of Rason. North of it lies the North Korea–Russia border.
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The Rangnim Mountains are a mountain range stretching from north to south, west of the Kaema Highlands, in central North Korea.
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The Rangoon bombing of October 9, 1983, was an assassination attempt against Chun Doo-hwan, the fifth President of South Korea, orchestrated by North Korea.
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Rason (formerly Rajin-Sŏnbong) is a North Korean city and ice-free port in the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea) in the North Pacific Ocean on the northeast tip of North Korea.
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The Rason Special Economic Zone, earlier called the Rajin-Sonbong Economic Special Zone, was established in the early 1990s by the North Korean government near Rason to promote economic growth through foreign investment.
Re-education through labor (RTL), abbreviated laojiao is a system of administrative detentions in the People's Republic of China which is generally used to detain persons for minor crimes such as petty theft, prostitution, and trafficking illegal drugs, as well as religious or political dissidents such as Falun Gong adherents.
Recitative (also known by its Italian name "recitativo") is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms of ordinary speech.
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Recycling is a process to convert waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.
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Red Star OS is a North Korean Linux-based operating system.
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A regiment is a title used by some military units.
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Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or teams of 5 or more manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: clubs, hoop, ball, ribbon, rope and freehand (no apparatus).
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Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
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Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.
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Righteous armies, sometimes called irregular armies or militias, have appeared several times in Korean history, when the national armies were in need of assistance.
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Robotics is the branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering and computer science that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
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Rodong Sinmun is a North Korean newspaper that is the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Workers' Party of Korea.
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Rogue state is a controversial term applied by some international theorists to states they consider threatening to the world's peace.
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Roh Moo-hyun GOM (1 September 1946 – 23 May 2009) was the ninth President of the Republic of Korea (2003–2008).
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The ROKS Cheonan sinking occurred on 26 March 2010, when the Cheonan, ''Pohang''-class corvette of the Republic of Korea Navy, carrying 104 personnel, sank off the country's west coast near Baengnyeong Island in the Yellow Sea, killing 46 seamen.
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The romanization of Korean is a system for representing the Korean language using the Latin script.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
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The Rungrado 1st of May Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Pyongyang, North Korea, completed on May 1, 1989.
Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
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The ruble or rouble (рубль,, plural рубли́, rubli; see note on English spelling) (code: RUB) is the currency of Russia and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.
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The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
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Ryanggang Province (Ryanggangdo; 량강도, Ryanggang-do, or) is a province in North Korea.
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The Samhan period of Korean history (also Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea) comprises confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan in central and southern Korean peninsula, during the final century BCE and the early centuries CE.
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Sariwŏn is the capital of North Hwanghae Province, North Korea.
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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
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Sōshi-kaimei (創氏改名) was a policy of pressuring Koreans under Japanese rule to adopt Japanese names. It consisted of two parts. Ordinance No. 19, issued in 1939, required sōshi, literally "creation of a; unlike Japan, Korea had not adopted the Western practice of universally using family names (see). Ordinance No. 20, issued in 1940, permitted kaimei, change of one's given name; this was voluntary and the applicant was charged a fee. These ordinances, issued by General Jirō Minami, Governor-General of Korea, effectively reversed an earlier government order which forbade Koreans to take up Japanese names. There are various explanations for the purpose of the ordinances.
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Science fiction is a genre of fiction dealing with imaginative content such as futuristic settings, futuristic science and technology, space travel, time travel, faster than light travel, parallel universes and extraterrestrial life.
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Sea of Blood is the title of a North Korean opera credited to Kim Il-sung.
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The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Asian mainland, the Japanese archipelago and Sakhalin.
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The second Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1636, when the Manchu Qing Empire defeated Korea's Joseon dynasty, forcing it to recognize the Qing Empire as the rightful dynasty of China, instead of the previous Ming Dynasty.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), so named due to the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.
Sejong the Great (May 15, 1397 – April 8, 1450, r. 1418–1450) was the fourth king of Joseon-dynasty Korea.
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Senegal (le Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
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Seoul – officially the Seoul Special City – is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea, forming the heart of the Seoul Capital Area, which includes the surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, the world's second largest metropolitan area with over 25.6 million people.
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Sexual abuse, also referred to as molestation, is forcing undesired sexual behavior by one person upon another.
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In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
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, also kami-no-michi, is the ethnic religion of the people of Japan.
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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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Silla (57 BC57 BC according to the Samguk Sagi; however Seth 2010 notes that "these dates are dutifully given in many textbooks and published materials in Korea today, but their basis is in myth; only Goguryeo can be traced back to a time period that is anywhere near its legendary founding." – 935 AD) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, and one of the world's longest sustained dynasties.
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A single-party state, one-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
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The Sino-Soviet split (1960–1989) was the worsening of political and ideological relations between the neighboring states of People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War.
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Sinseollo or yeolguja tang is an elaborate dish consisting of meatballs, small and round jeonyueo (전유어), mushrooms, and vegetables cooked in a rich broth in Korean royal court cuisine.
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Sinŭiju (Shinŭiju-si) is a city in North Korea, neighboring with Dandong City, China via international border and is the capital of North Pyeongan Province.
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The six-party talks aim to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program.
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Slate is an English-language online current affairs and culture magazine in the United States created in 1996 by former New Republic editor Michael Kinsley, initially under the ownership of Microsoft as part of MSN.
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Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
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Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
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Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.
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Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in various other socialist countries.
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The term socialist state or socialist republic usually refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the construction of a socialist society.
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Sohae Satellite Launching Station (also known as Tongch'ang-dong Space Launch Center and Pongdong-ri) is a rocket launching site in Cholsan County, North Pyongan Province, North Korea.
Soju is a distilled beverage containing ethanol and water.
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Songbun (출신성분, chulsin sŏngbun, from Sino-Korean 出身, "origin" and 成分,"constituent") is the system of ascribed status used in North Korea.
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Songun (or, alternatively, Seon'gun) is North Korean "military first" policy, prioritizing the Korean People's Army in the affairs of state and allocation of resources.
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South Hamgyong Province (Hamgyŏngnamdo) is a province of North Korea.
South Hwanghae Province (Hwanghaenamdo) is a province in western North Korea.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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South Pyongan Province is a province of North Korea.
The Soviet Civil Administration (SCA) functioned as the "parallel government" to North Korea from October 3, 1945 until the setup of the Provisional People's Committee for North Korea in 1946.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology.
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A spaceport or cosmodrome (Космодро́м, kosmodrom) is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy with seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.
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Special cities are one of the first-level administrative division within North Korea.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented by Joseph Stalin.
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The standard gauge (also Stephenson gauge after George Stephenson, International gauge or normal gauge) is a widely used railway track gauge.
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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake.
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The State Security Department of North Korea or the Ministry of State Security is an autonomous agency of the North Korean government reporting directly to the Supreme Leader.
"State Sponsors of Terrorism" is a designation applied by the United States Department of State to countries which the Department alleges to have "repeatedly provided support for acts of international terrorism." Inclusion on the list imposes strict unilateral sanctions.
The State Symphony Orchestra of DPRK (SSO) is the only large orchestra of Western style in North Korea and was the first arts group to be established there.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) otherwise known as a: state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, crown corporation, government-owned corporation, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking, or parastatal is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government.
was a political syncretism of Japanese right-wing political ideologies, developed over a period of time from the Meiji Restoration.
Stealth technology also termed LO technology (low observable technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods.
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The Strategic Rocket Forces (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선인민군 전략로케트군, Hanja: 朝鮮人民軍 戰略로케트軍), also known as Missile Guidance Bureau (Chosŏn'gŭl: 미사일지도국; Hanja: 미사일指導局) is the strategic missile defence branch of North Korea.
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
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The Sunshine Policy was the foreign policy of South Korea towards North Korea from 1998 until Lee Myung-bak's election to presidency in 2007.
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A superpower is a state with a dominant position in international relations and is characterised by its unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
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The Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army is the highest post in command of the Korean People's Army (KPA), the armed forces of North Korea, and is in charge of one of the largest standing armies in the world with around 5.9 million active duty personnel and reserves.
The Supreme People's Assembly (Chosongul: 최고 인민 회의) is the unicameral legislature of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), commonly known as North Korea.
The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
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Syncretism is the combining of different, often contradictory beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
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Syngman Rhee (I Seungman,; April 18, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was a South Korean statesman, the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and the first president of South Korea.
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Table tennis, also known as ping pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight ball back and forth across a table using a small, round bat.
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The Taebaek Mountains are a mountain range that stretches across North Korea and South Korea.
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Taejo of Goryeo (January 31, 877 – July 4, 943), also known as Taejo Wang Geon (Wang Kon, 왕건), was the founder of the Goryeo Dynasty, which ruled Korea from the 10th to the 14th century.
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Taejo of Joseon (October 27, 1335 – June 18, 1408), born Yi Seong-gye, whose changed name is Yi Dan, was the founder and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea reigning from 1392 to 1398, and the main figure in overthrowing the Goryeo Dynasty.
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Tales from Shakespeare also known as All the Tales from Shakespeare is an English children's book written by Charles Lamb with his sister Mary Lamb in 1807.
A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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Taoism or "Do" is thought to be the earliest state philosophy for the Korean people spanning several thousand years.
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Telephone numbers in North Korea are regulated by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications.
Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.
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Terentii Fomich Shtykov (Russian:Терентий Штыков; Korean:테렌티 스티코프; – 25 October 1964) was the preeminent representative of the Soviet Union's political authority over the nascent North Korea from October 1945 until December 1950.
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The Boston Globe is an American daily newspaper based in Boston, Massachusetts.
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The Chosun Ilbo (literally "Korea Daily") is one of the major newspapers in South Korea.
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The Cleanest Race: How North Koreans See Themselves and Why it Matters is a 2010 book by Brian Reynolds Myers.
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The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.
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The First Post is a British daily online news magazine based in London.
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The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The Journal of Asian Studies is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Association for Asian Studies, covering Asian studies, ranging from history, the arts, social sciences, to philosophy of East, South, and Southeast Asia.
The Korea Times is the oldest of three English-language newspapers published daily in South Korea.
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The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London.
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The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.
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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
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The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (百濟), Silla (新羅) and Goguryeo (高句麗).
This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.
Titanic is a 1997 American epic romantic disaster film directed, written, co-produced, and co-edited by James Cameron.
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The Tonghae Satellite Launching Ground, also known as Musudan-ri, is a rocket launching site in North Korea.
Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.
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was a preeminent daimyo, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier".
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The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan.
In trigonometry and geometry, triangulation is the process of determining the location of a point by measuring angles to it from known points at either end of a fixed baseline, rather than measuring distances to the point directly (trilateration).
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Tuberculosis, MTB, or TB (short for tubercle bacillus), in the past also called phthisis, phthisis pulmonalis, or consumption, is a widespread, infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
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The Tumen River, also called the Tuman River (called the Duman in South Korea), is a long river that serves as part of the boundary between China, North Korea and Russia, rising on the slopes of Mount Paektu and flowing into the Sea of Japan.
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The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium-range jet airliner capable of carrying 210 passengers, designed by Tupolev and produced by Aviastar SP and Kazan Aircraft Production Association.
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A turtle ship, also known as Geobukseon (거북선), was a type of large Korean warship that was used intermittently by the Royal Korean Navy during the Joseon dynasty from the early 15th century up until the 19th century.
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Twitter is an online social networking service that enables users to send and read short 140-character messages called "tweets".
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
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The Unha or Eunha (은하, 銀河, "Galaxy") is a North Korean expendable carrier rocket, which partially utilizes the same delivery system as the Taepodong-2 long-range ballistic missile.
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The United Daily News is a newspaper published in the Taiwan in Traditional Chinese.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United Nations Command (UNC) is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces supporting South Korea (the Republic of Korea or ROK) during and after the Korean War.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1695, adopted unanimously on July 15, 2006, after recalling resolutions 825 (1993) and 1540 (2004) concerning North Korea and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction respectively, the Council banned the selling of material that would further the ability of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (the DPRK, or North Korea) to bolster its ballistic missiles programme.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1718 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on October 14, 2006.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1874 was adopted unanimously by the United Nations Security Council on 12 June 2009.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 2087, adopted unanimously on January 22, 2013, after recalling all previous relevant resolutions on the situation concerning North Korea, including resolutions 825 (1993), 1540 (2004), 1695 (2006), 1718 (2006), and 1874 (2009), the Council condemned the December 12, 2012 rocket launch by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK; Korean: 재조선 미육군 사령부 군정청 Jaejoseonmiyuggunsalyeongbugunjeongcheong; Hanja: 在朝鮮美陸軍司令部軍政廳 Jaejoseonmilyuggunsalyeongbugunjeongcheong) was the official ruling body of the southern half of the Korean Peninsula from September 8, 1945 to August 15, 1948.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
United States Forces Korea (USFK) is a sub-unified command of United States Pacific Command (USPACOM).
Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.
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The University of Colorado Boulder (UCB, also commonly referred to as CU-Boulder, CU, Boulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
In studies of the ecology of freshwater rivers, habitats are classified as upland and lowland.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Uriminzokkiri is a state-controlled website that provides news from North Korea's Central News Agency.
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A valley is a low area between hills, often with a river running through it.
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Victory over Japan Day (also known as Victory in the Pacific Day, V-J Day, or V-P Day) is the day on which Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect ending the war.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
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Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation", although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of "the use of power" in its definition expands on the conventional meaning of the word.
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A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
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The Wangjaesan Light Music Band was a light music (gyeongeumak) group in North Korea.
The Men's 62 kg weightlifting event at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, United Kingdom, took place at ExCeL London on 30 July.
Wiman Joseon (194–108 BC) was part of the Gojoseon period (2333 BC? - 108 BC) of Korean history.
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Wŏnsan is a port city and naval base located in Kangwon Province, North Korea, on the westernmost shore of the Sea of Japan (East Korean Sea) and the provincial capital.
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The Workers' Party of Korea (WPK) is the founding and ruling political party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).
The Workers' Party of North Korea (북조선로동당) was a communist party in North Korea from 1946 to 1949 and was a predecessor of the current Workers' Party of Korea.
The World Food Programme (WFP; French: Programme Alimentaire Mondial; Italian: Programma Alimentare Mondiale; Spanish: Programa Mundial de Alimentos) is the food assistance branch of the United Nations and the world's largest humanitarian organization addressing hunger and promoting food security.
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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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A world record is usually the best global performance ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill or sport.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The Yakovlev Yak-18 (Як-18, also transcribed as Jak-18, NATO reporting name Max) was a Soviet tandem two-seat military primary trainer aircraft.
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The Yalu River, also called the Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.
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The Yan'an faction were a group of pro-China communists in the North Korean government after the division of Korea following World War II.
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The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
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Yeongjo (31 October 1694 – 22 April 1776, reigned 16 October 1724 – 22 April 1776) was the 21st king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
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Yi Sun-sin (April 28, 1545 – December 16, 1598) was a Korean naval commander, famed for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Imjin war in the Joseon Dynasty, and is well-respected for his exemplary conduct on and off the battlefield not only by Koreans, but by Japanese Admirals as well.
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Yodok concentration camp (also romanized Yodŏk, Yodeok, or Yoduk) is a political prison camp in North Korea.
Yonhap News Agency is South Korea's largest news agency.
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YouTube is a video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California, United States.
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.kp is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of North Korea.
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The meridian 124° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, Australia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The meridian 131° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, Australia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games (French: Les IXes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (German: Olympische Winterspiele 1964), was a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in Innsbruck, Austria, from January 29 to February 9, 1964.
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The 1966 FIFA World Cup, the eighth staging of the World Cup, was held in England from 11 to 30 July.
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The 1972 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1972), officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972.
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The 1984 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Los Angeles, California, United States in 1984.
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The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event celebrated from 17 September to 2 October 1988 in Seoul, in which 2 years before, the Asian Games were celebrated, which took place from 20 September – 5 October 1986.
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The 2006 North Korean nuclear test was the detonation of a nuclear device conducted by North Korea on October 9, 2006.
The 2008 North Korea Census was a census conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics over a period of 15 days from 1-15 October 2008.
On March 17, 2009, North Korean border guards detained two American journalists, Euna Lee and Laura Ling, who were working for the U.S. independent cable television network Current TV (defunct since August 2013), after they crossed into North Korea from the People's Republic of China without a visa.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
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The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was a major international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games, as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).
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The following lists events that happened in 2013 in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
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The 37th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 37 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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3G, short form of third generation, is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology.
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The 43rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 43 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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Bukjoseon, Choson Minjujuui Inmin Konghwaguk, Chosun Minjujuui Inmin Gonghwaguk, Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk, Communist Korea, Communist korea, D P R of Korea, D.P.R. Korea, D.P.R.K., DPR Korea, DPR Of Korea, DPR of Korea, DPRK, DPRNK, DPRoK, DR Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Choson, Democratic People's Republic of Corea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), Democratic People's Republic of North Korea, Democratic People's Repulic of Korea, Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Democratic Republic of Korea, Dprk, ISO 3166-1:KP, Jangmadang, Janmadang, Joseon Democratic People's Republic, Joseon Minjujuui Inmin Gonghwagug, Joseonminjujuuiinmingonghwagug, Kim's Joseon Dynasty, Korea (D.P.R.K.), Korea (DPRK), Korea (Democratic Republic of), Korea (North), Korea (Pyongyang), Korea DPR, Korea North, Korea dpr, Korea north, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of, Korea, North, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Korean People's Democratic Republic, N Korea, N. Korea, N. Korean, N. Koreans, N. korea, N.Korea, NKorea, NKorean, North Corea, North Korean, North Korean people, North Koreans, North Kroea, North korea, North-Korea, People's Democratic Republic of Korea, Pukchoson, Pukchosŏn, Red Korea, Soviet korea, The Democratic People's Republic of Korea, 北朝鮮, 北韓, 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國, 북조선, 북한, 조선민주주의인민공화국.