404 relations: Aerial refueling, Aerodynamic drag, Aerosol, African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone Treaty, Aircraft, Albert Einstein, Aldermaston, Aldermaston Marches, Almería, Alpha Centauri, Americium, Andrei Sakharov, Angstrom, Anti-submarine warfare, Antimatter, Antimatter-catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion, Apartheid, Artillery, Asteroid, Atmospheric sciences, Atomic Age, Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Atomic spies, Atomic Weapons Establishment, B28 nuclear bomb, B43 nuclear bomb, B61 nuclear bomb, B83 nuclear bomb, Ballistics, Barack Obama, Battle, Belarus, Berkshire, Bertrand Russell, Beta decay, Biological agent, Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker, BOMARC Missile Accident Site, Bomber, Boosted fission weapon, Boston, British Columbia, Brookings Institution, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Caesium-137, Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, Caribbean, Castle Bravo, Casus belli, ..., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central Asian Nuclear Weapon Free Zone, CERN, Charles de Gaulle, Chemical element, Chemical weapon, China and weapons of mass destruction, Chuck Hansen, CIM-10 Bomarc, Civil defense, Civil engineering, Civilian, Climatology, CNN, Cobalt, Cold War, Collider, Columbia University, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, Conventional weapon, Critical mass, Cyrus S. Eaton, Daigo Fukuryū Maru, David Albright, Debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Depleted uranium, Depth charge, Deterrence theory, Deuterium, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Douglas A-4 Skyhawk, Earthquake, Easter, Edward Teller, Effects of nuclear explosions, Effects of nuclear explosions on human health, Einsteinium, Ejection seat, Electric charge, Electromagnetic coil, Enriched uranium, Environmental remediation, Ethics, Exploration geophysics, Explosive lens, Explosive material, Explosively pumped flux compression generator, Exponential growth, Fat Man, Federation of American Scientists, Fermium, Fighter-bomber, Fissile material, Force de dissuasion, Fractional Orbital Bombardment System, France and weapons of mass destruction, Friedrich Bassler, Fusion power, Game theory, Gamma ray, Geneva Conventions, George P. Shultz, German nuclear weapon project, Global Zero (campaign), Gold, Goldsboro, North Carolina, Graham T. Allison, Gravity tractor, Greenland, Ground burst, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Hanford Site, Hans Bethe, Head of government, Head of state, Heat engine, Henry DeWolf Smyth, Henry Kissinger, High-altitude nuclear explosion, Hiroshima, History of nuclear weapons, Hugh Gusterson, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydroelectricity, Hydrogen, Hydrology, Impact event, India and weapons of mass destruction, Institute for Science and International Security, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, Internal combustion engine, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Court of Justice, International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, International law, International relations, Interstellar travel, Interventionism (politics), Iraq, Iraq War, Isotopes of neptunium, Israel and weapons of mass destruction, Ivy Mike, James Van Allen, Japan, Japanese nuclear weapon program, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, John Mearsheimer, Joule, Kazakhstan, Kenneth Waltz, Kinetic energy, Kofi Annan, Land mine, Laser ablation, Laser propulsion, Latin America, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence M. Krauss, LCROSS, Letters of last resort, Lightcraft, Linus Pauling, List of laser applications, List of nuclear weapons, List of states with nuclear weapons, Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents, Lithium hydride, London, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Macroscopic scale, Magnetosphere, Manhattan Project, Mantle (geology), Mark 39 nuclear bomb, Mark 4 nuclear bomb, Mark Diesendorf, Matter, Mediterranean Sea, Military personnel, Military strategy, Misnomer, Missile, Missile defense, Missile launch facility, Mordechai Vanunu, Mortar (weapon), Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, Mutual assured destruction, Nagasaki, NASA, National Cancer Institute, National Command Authority, Natural gas, Natural nuclear fission reactor, Near-Earth object, Neorealism (international relations), Neutron, Neutron activation, Neutron bomb, Neutron radiation, Nevada Test Site, New START, Nickel, Niger uranium forgeries, Nobel Peace Prize, North Korea and weapons of mass destruction, Nth Country Experiment, Nuclear and radiation accidents and incidents, Nuclear bunker buster, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy, Nuclear explosive, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear forensics, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear peace, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear reaction, Nuclear strategy, Nuclear technology, Nuclear terrorism, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear warfare, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclear weapons and the United Kingdom, Nuclear weapons and the United States, Nuclear weapons delivery, Nuclear weapons in popular culture, Nuclear weapons testing, Nuclear-weapon-free zone, Nucleosynthesis, Oklo, OPANAL, Operation Argus, Operation Opera, Operation Orchard, Operation Plowshare, Operation Plumbbob, Orbital speed, Pacific Proving Grounds, Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction, Paranuclear, Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, Particle, Particle accelerator, Peaceful nuclear explosion, Petroleum, Pierre Marie Gallois, Plasma (physics), Plutonium, Plutonium-239, Polarity (international relations), Policy of deliberate ambiguity, Portable Document Format, Prague, Pre-emptive nuclear strike, Project A119, Project Excalibur, Project Gnome, Project Orion (nuclear propulsion), Project PACER, Propulsion, Prospecting, Proton, Proximity fuze, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, Pugwash, Nova Scotia, Pure fusion weapon, Qattara Depression, Qattara Depression Project, R-process, Radiation, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Radiation Exposure Compensation Act, Radioactive contamination, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radioactive waste, Radiophobia, Reflection seismology, Reuters, Richard Rhodes, Rinaldo Brutoco, Robert Gallucci, Russell–Einstein Manifesto, Russia and weapons of mass destruction, Salt dome, Salted bomb, Sam Nunn, Satellite, Sea ice, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Seismic source, September 11 attacks, Shaped charge, Small arms, Smyth Report, Solar sail, Solenoid, South Africa and weapons of mass destruction, Soviet atomic bomb project, Soviet Union, Spain, Special Atomic Demolition Munition, Speed of light, Spencer R. Weart, Sputnik 1, Stability–instability paradox, START I, START II, Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, Strategic bomber, Strategic nuclear weapon, Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty, Strontium-90, Submarine, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Suitcase nuclear device, Superconducting magnet, Superconductivity, Supernova, Surrender of Japan, Syria, Tactical nuclear weapon, Terrorism, Testbed, The Butter Battle Book, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, The New York Times, The Pentagon, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Washington Post, Theguardian.com, Thermonuclear weapon, Three Non-Nuclear Principles, Tight gas, TNT equivalent, Torino scale, Torpedo, Total war, Trafalgar Square, Transporter erector launcher, Treaty of Tlatelolco, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trinitrotoluene, Trinity (nuclear test), Tritium, Tsar Bomba, Tuna, Ukraine, Ultraviolet, Underground nuclear weapons testing, Unguided bomb, United Kingdom and weapons of mass destruction, United Nations, United Nations Charter, United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Secretariat, United States, United States Air Force, United States Army Air Forces, United States Atomic Energy Commission, United States Department of Energy, United States military nuclear incident terminology, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, Uranium, Uranium-233, Uranium-235, Uzbekistan, Van Allen radiation belt, Variable yield, War, Watt, Weapon of mass destruction, Wellhead, William Perry, World War II, X-ray, X-ray laser, 1950 British Columbia B-36 crash, 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash, 1965 Philippine Sea A-4 incident, 1966 Palomares B-52 crash, 1968 Thule Air Base B-52 crash. 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Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
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In aerodynamics, aerodynamic drag is the fluid drag force that acts on any moving solid body in the direction of the fluid freestream flow.
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An aerosol is a colloid of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
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The African Nuclear Weapon Free Zone Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Pelindaba, establishes a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Africa.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet.
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.
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Aldermaston is a mostly rural, dispersed settlement, civil parish and electoral ward in Berkshire, South-East England.
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The Aldermaston marches were anti-nuclear weapons demonstrations in the 1950s and 1960s, taking place on Easter weekend between the Atomic Weapons Research Establishment at Aldermaston in Berkshire, England, and London, over a distance of fifty-two miles, or roughly 83 km.
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, situated in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea.
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Alpha Centauri (α Cen), also known as Rigil Kent or Toliman, is the closest star system to the Solar System at.
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Americium is a radioactive transuranic chemical element with symbol Am and atomic number 95.
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Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; May 21, 1921December 14, 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, Soviet dissident and human rights activist.
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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or.
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Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage or destroy enemy submarines.
In particle physics, antimatter is material composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but opposite charges, as well as other particle properties such as lepton and baryon numbers and quantum spin.
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Antimatter catalyzed nuclear pulse propulsion is a variation of nuclear pulse propulsion based upon the injection of antimatter into a mass of nuclear fuel which normally would not be useful in propulsion.
Apartheid (an Afrikaans word meaning "the state of being apart", literally "apart-hood") was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994.
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Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
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Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
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Atmospheric sciences is an umbrella term for the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
The Atomic Age, also known as the Atomic Era, is the period of history following the detonation of the first nuclear ("atomic") bomb, Trinity, on July 16, 1945 during World War II.
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The United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945, during the final stage of the Second World War.
"Atomic spies" or "Atom spies" were people in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada who are known to have illicitly given information about nuclear weapons production or design to the Soviet Union during World War II and the early Cold War.
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The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is responsible for the design, manufacture and support of warheads for the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent.
The B28, originally Mark 28, was a thermonuclear bomb carried by U.S. tactical fighter bombers and bomber aircraft.
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The B43 was a United States air-dropped variable yield nuclear weapon used by a wide variety of fighter bomber and bomber aircraft.
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The B61 nuclear bomb is one of the primary thermonuclear weapons in the U.S. Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War.
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The B83 thermonuclear weapon is a variable-yield gravity bomb developed by the United States in the late 1970s, entering service in 1983.
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Ballistics (from Greek βάλλειν ballein, "to throw") is the science of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.
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Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.
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Generally, a battle is a conceptual component in the hierarchy of combat in warfare between two or more armed forces, or combatants.
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Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
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Berkshire (or, abbreviated Berks) is a county of south east England, located to the west of London.
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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.
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In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
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A biological agent—also called bio-agent, biological threat agent, biological warfare agent, biological weapon, or bioweapon—is a bacterium, virus, protozoan, parasite, or fungus that can be used purposefully as a weapon in bioterrorism or biological warfare (BW).
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The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, subsonic, jet-powered strategic bomber.
The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is a military aerial refueling aircraft.
The BOMARC Missile Accident Site ("BOMARC Site RW-01") is a fenced-off radiological waste site of the United States Air Force Installation Restoration Program contaminated primarily with "weapons-grade plutonium (WGP), highly-enriched and depleted uranium." The accident occurred at Launcher Shelter 204, which stored the CIM-10 Bomarc missile (one of fifty-four at the base) that caused a Cold War nuclear accident in the Launch Area on the Fort Dix military reservation.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and sea targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry, firing torpedoes or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
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A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction.
Boston (pronounced) is the capital and largest city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
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British Columbia, also commonly referred to by its initials BC, is a province located on the west coast of Canada.
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The Brookings Institution is an American think tank based on Embassy Row in Washington, D.C., USA.
The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical online magazine that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and diseases.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
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The Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (CND) is an organisation that advocates unilateral nuclear disarmament by the United Kingdom, international nuclear disarmament and tighter international arms regulation through agreements such as the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.
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Castle Bravo was the code name given to the first United States test of a dry fuel hydrogen bomb, detonated on March 1, 1954, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as the first test of Operation Castle.
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Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "An act or event that provokes or is used to justify war".
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The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Central Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (CANWFZ) treaty is a legally binding commitment by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan not to manufacture, acquire, test, or possess nuclear weapons.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see ''History'') is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
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Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general, resistant, writer and statesman.
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A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).
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A chemical weapon (CW) is a munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on human beings.
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The People's Republic of China has developed and possessed weapons of mass destruction, including chemical and nuclear weapons.
Chuck Hansen (May 13, 1947 - March 26, 2003) compiled, over a period of 30 years, the world's largest private collection of unclassified documents on how America developed the atomic bomb.
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The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic ramjet powered interceptor for Cold War air defense of North America which, in addition to being the first long-range anti-aircraft missile (cf. proposed WIZARD predecessor), was the only SAM deployed by the United States Air Force.
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Civil defense, civil defence (see spelling differences) or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attack.
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Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.
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A civilian under the laws of war (also known as international humanitarian law) is a person who is not a legitimate member of the armed forces to a conflict.
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Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
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The Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Turner Broadcasting System division of Time Warner.
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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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A collider is a type of particle accelerator involving directed beams of particles.
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Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.
The terms conventional weapons or conventional arms generally refer to weapons that are in relatively wide use that are not weapons of mass destruction (e.g. nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons).
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
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Cyrus Stephen Eaton, Sr. (December 27, 1883 – May 9, 1979) was a Canadian-American investment banker, businessman and philanthropist, with a career that spanned seventy years.
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was a Japanese tuna fishing boat, with a crew of 23 men, which was exposed to and contaminated by nuclear fallout from the United States' Castle Bravo thermonuclear device test on Bikini Atoll, on March 1, 1954.
David Albright, M.Sc., is the founder of the non-governmental Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS), its current president, and author of several books on proliferation of atomic weapons.
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The debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki concerns the ethical, legal and military controversies surrounding the United States' atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 August and 9 August 1945 at the close of the World War II (1939–45).
Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
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A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon intended to destroy or cripple a target submarine by being dropped into the water close to its target and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock.
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Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.
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Deuterium (symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen.
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The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.
The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk is a single seat carrier-capable attack aircraft developed for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the perceptible shaking of the surface of the Earth, which can be violent enough to destroy major buildings and kill thousands of people.
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EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.
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Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist who, although he claimed he did not care for the title, is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb".
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The energy released from a nuclear weapon detonated in the troposphere can be divided into four basic categories.
The medical effects of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima upon humans can be put into the four categories below, with the effects of larger thermonuclear weapons producing blast and thermal effects so large that there would be a negligible number of survivors close enough to the center of the blast who would experience prompt/acute radiation effects, which were observed after the 16 kiloton yield Hiroshima bomb, due to its relatively low yield:http://www.remm.nlm.gov/RemmMockup_files/radiationlethality.jpg.
Einsteinium is a synthetic element with symbol Es and atomic number 99.
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In aircraft, an ejection seat (or ejector seat) is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency.
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Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
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An electromagnetic coil is an electrical conductor such as a wire in the shape of a coil, spiral or helix.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
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Environmental remediation deals with the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, groundwater, sediment, or surface water.
Ethics, or moral philosophy, is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
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Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods (such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electrical and electromagnetic) at the surface of the Earth to measure the physical properties of the subsurface, along with the anomalies in those properties.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized explosive charge, a special type of a shaped charge.
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An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
An explosively pumped flux compression generator (EPFCG) is a device used to generate a high-power electromagnetic pulse by compressing magnetic flux using high explosive.
Exponential growth occurs when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the type of atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
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The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Fermium is a synthetic element with symbol Fm and atomic number 100.
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A fighter-bomber is a fighter aircraft that is modified or used primarily as a light bomber in the tactical bombing and ground attack roles.
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In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
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The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961Gunston, Bill.
The Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM program in the 1960s that after launch would go into a low Earth orbit and would then de-orbit for an attack.
France is known to have an arsenal of weapons of mass destruction.
Friedrich Bassler (21 June 1909, Karlsruhe - 7 September 1992, Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German hydraulic engineer.
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Fusion power is the generation of energy by nuclear fusion.
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Game theory is the study of strategic decision-making.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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Original document, single pages as PDF, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for the humanitarian treatment of war.
George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, statesman, and businessman.
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The German nuclear weapon project (Uranprojekt; informally known as the Uranverein; Uranium Society or Uranium Club), was a clandestine scientific effort led by Germany to develop and produce nuclear weapons during World War II.
Global Zero is an international non-partisan group of 300 world leaders dedicated to achieving the elimination of nuclear weapons.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.
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Goldsboro is a city in Wayne County, North Carolina, United States.
Graham Tillett Allison, Jr. (born 23 March 1940) is an American political scientist and professor at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard.
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A gravity tractor (GT) is a theoretical spacecraft that would deflect another object in space, typically a potentially hazardous asteroid that might impact Earth, without physically contacting it, using only its gravitational field to transmit the required impulse.
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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat; Grønland) is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
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A ground burst is the detonation of an explosive device such as an artillery shell, nuclear weapon or air-dropped bomb that explodes upon hitting the ground.
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The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Hanford Site is a mostly decommissioned nuclear production complex operated by the United States federal government on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington.
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Hans Albrecht Bethe (July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005) was a German and American nuclear physicist who, in addition to making important contributions to astrophysics, quantum electrodynamics and solid-state physics, won the 1967 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis.
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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.
A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
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Henry DeWolf "Harry" Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and bureaucrat.
Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger; May 27, 1923) is an American diplomat and political scientist.
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High-altitude nuclear explosions (HANE) have historically been nuclear explosions which take place above altitudes of 30 km, still inside the Earth's atmosphere.
tom() is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu, the largest island of Japan.
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Nuclear weapons possess enormous destructive power derived from nuclear fission or combined fission and fusion reactions.
Hugh Gusterson is an anthropologist at George Washington University, currently on leave at the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton.
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Hydraulic fracturing (also hydrofracturing, hydrofracking, fracking or fraccing) is a well-stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the hydrologic cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
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An impact event is a collision between celestial objects causing measurable effects.
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India is known to possess weapons of mass destruction in the form of nuclear weapons and, in the past, chemical weapons.
The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) is a nonprofit, non-governmental institution to inform the public about "science and policy issues affecting international security." Founded in 1993, the group is led by founder and former United Nations IAEA nuclear inspector David Albright.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of more than primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF) is a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Court of Justice (Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as the World Court or ICJ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations.
International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons was an advisory opinion delivered by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) on 8 July 1996.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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International relations (IR) or international affairs, depending on academic institution, is either a field of political science or an interdisciplinary academic field similar to global studies, in which students take a variety of internationally focused courses in social science and humanities disciplines.
Interstellar space travel is manned or unmanned travel between stars.
Interventionism is a term for a policy of non-defensive (proactive) activity undertaken by a nation-state, or other geo-political jurisdiction of a lesser or greater nature, to manipulate an economy or society.
Iraq (or; العراق, Kurdish: Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq (Arabic: جمهورية العراق; كۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia.
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The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, Gulf War II, and Gulf War 2.
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Neptunium (Np) is an artificial element, and thus a standard atomic mass cannot be given.
Israel is widely believed to possess weapons of mass destruction, and to be one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).
Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
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James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa.
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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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The Japanese program to develop nuclear weapons was conducted during World War II.
The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation is the 10th largest private foundation in the United States.
John J. Mearsheimer (born December 14, 1947) is an American professor of political science at the University of Chicago.
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The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.
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Kenneth Neal Waltz (June 8, 1924 – May 12, 2013) was an American political scientist who was a member of the faculty at both the University of California, Berkeley and Columbia University and one of the most prominent scholars in the field of international relations.
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In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
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Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
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A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
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Laser ablation is the process of removing material from a solid (or occasionally liquid) surface by irradiating it with a laser beam.
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Laser propulsion is a form of beam-powered propulsion where the energy source is a remote (usually ground-based) laser system and separate from the reaction mass.
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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.
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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California, founded by the University of California in 1952.
Lawrence Maxwell Krauss (born May 27, 1954) is an American theoretical physicist and cosmologist who is Foundation Professor of the School of Earth and Space Exploration at Arizona State University and director of its Origins Project.
The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) was a robotic spacecraft operated by NASA.
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The letters of last resort are four identically-worded handwritten letters written by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to the commanding officers of the four British ballistic missile submarines.
A lightcraft is a space- or air-vehicle driven by laser propulsion.
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Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, and educator.
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Many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications have been developed since the invention of the laser in 1958.
This is a list of nuclear weapons listed according to country of origin, and then by type within the states.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
These are lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents.
Lithium hydride is the inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
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Los Alamos National Laboratory (or LANL; previously known at various times as Project Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is the only laboratory in the United States where classified work towards the design of nuclear weapons has been undertaken besides the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices.
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A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are controlled by that object's magnetic field.
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The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.
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The mantle is an interior part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body large enough to have differentiation by density.
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The Mark 39 nuclear bomb and W39 nuclear warhead were versions of an American thermonuclear weapon, which were in service from 1957 to 1966.
The Mark 4 nuclear bomb was an American nuclear bomb design produced starting in 1949 and in use until 1953.
Mark Diesendorf is an Australian academic and environmentalist, known for his work in sustainable development and renewable energy.
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Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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Military personnel are members of the armed forces.
Military strategy is a set of ideas implemented by military organizations to pursue desired strategic goals.
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A misnomer is a word or term that suggests a meaning that is known to be wrong.
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In modern usage, a missile is a self-propelled precision-guided munition system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
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Missile defense is a system, weapon, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception, and destruction of attacking missiles.
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A missile launch facility, also known as an underground missile silo or launch facility—LF, is a vertical cylindrical structure constructed underground, for the storage and launching of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
Mordechai Vanunu (מרדכי ואנונו; born 14 October 1954), also known as John Crossman, is an Israeli former nuclear technician who, citing his opposition to weapons of mass destruction, revealed details of Israel's nuclear weapons program to the British press in 1986.
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A mortar is a weapon that fires explosive projectiles known as (mortar) bombs at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories.
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A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a ballistic missile payload containing several warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit one of a group of targets.
Mutual assured destruction, or mutually assured destruction (MAD), is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender (see Pre-emptive nuclear strike and Second strike).
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
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The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is one of eleven agencies that are part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
National Command Authority (NCA) is a term used by the Department of Defense of the United States of America to refer to the ultimate lawful source of military orders.
Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of decomposing plant and animal matter are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.
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A natural nuclear fission reactor is a uranium deposit where self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions have occurred.
A near-Earth object (NEO) is a small Solar System body whose orbit brings it into proximity with Earth.
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Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations first outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book Theory of International Politics.
The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.
A neutron bomb, officially known as one type of Enhanced Radiation Weapon (ERW), is a low yield fission-fusion thermonuclear weapon (hydrogen bomb) in which the burst of neutrons generated by a fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components.
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Neutron radiation is a kind of ionizing radiation which consists of free neutrons.
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The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), previously the Nevada Test Site (NTS), is a United States Department of Energy reservation located in southeastern Nye County, Nevada, about 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas.
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New START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) (Russian: СНВ-III, SNV-III) is a nuclear arms reduction treaty between the United States of America and the Russian Federation with the formal name of Measures for the Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
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The Niger uranium forgeries were forged documents initially revealed by SISMI (Italian military intelligence), which seem to depict an attempt made by Saddam Hussein in Iraq to purchase yellowcake uranium powder from Niger during the Iraq disarmament crisis.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
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North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea or DPRK) declared in 2009 that it had developed a nuclear weapon, and probably possesses a small stockpile of relatively simple nuclear weapons.
The Nth Country Experiment was an experiment conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory starting in May 1964 which sought to assess the risk of nuclear proliferation.
A nuclear and radiation accident is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "an event that has led to significant consequences to people, the environment or the facility." Examples include lethal effects to individuals, large radioactivity release to the environment, or reactor core melt." The prime example of a "major nuclear accident" is one in which a reactor core is damaged and significant amounts of radioactivity are released, such as in the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
A nuclear bunker buster, also known as an earth-penetrating weapon (EPW), is the nuclear equivalent of the conventional bunker buster.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear Explosions for the National Economy (sometimes referred to as Program #7), was a Soviet program to investigate peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs).
A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions.
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Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an unshielded facility, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and shock wave have passed.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
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Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material.
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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.
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Nuclear peace is a theory of international relations that argues that under some circumstances nuclear weapons can induce stability and decrease the chances of crisis escalation.
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Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
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Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons.
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Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei.
Nuclear terrorism refers to an act of terrorism in which a person or persons belonging to a terrorist organisation detonates a nuclear device.
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Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another.
Nuclear warfare (sometimes atomic warfare or thermonuclear warfare) is a military conflict or political strategy in which nuclear weaponry is used to inflict damage on the enemy.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when a nuclear weapon is detonated, expressed usually in TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of TNT.
The United Kingdom was the third country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon, in October 1952.
The United States was the first country to develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in warfare, with the separate bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in World War II.
Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its target.
Since their public debut in August 1945, nuclear weapons and their potential effects have been a recurring motif in popular culture, to the extent that the decades of the Cold War are often referred to as the "atomic age".
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
A nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ) is defined by the United Nations as an agreement which a group of states has freely established by treaty or convention, that bans the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area, that has mechanisms of verification and control to enforce its obligations, and that is recognized as such by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
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Oklo is a region near the town of Franceville, in the Haut-Ogooué province of the Central African state of Gabon.
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The OPANAL (which stands for el Organismo para la Proscripción de las Armas Nucleares en la América Latina y el Caribe) is an international organization which promotes nuclear disarmament.
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Operation Argus was a series of United States nuclear weapons tests and missile tests secretly conducted during August and September 1958 over the South Atlantic Ocean.
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Operation Opera (אופרה.), also known as Operation Babylon, was a surprise Israeli air strike carried out on 7 June 1981, which destroyed an Iraqi nuclear reactor under construction 17 kilometers (10.5 miles) southeast of Baghdad.
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Operation Orchard (מבצע בוסתן., Mivtza bustan) was an Israeli airstrike on a suspected nuclear reactor Associated Press Latest Update: 04.28.11, 18:10 in the Deir ez-Zor region of Syria, which occurred just after midnight (local time) on September 6, 2007.
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Project Plowshare was the overall United States term for the development of techniques to use nuclear explosives for peaceful construction purposes.
Operation Plumbbob was a series of nuclear tests conducted between May 28 and October 7, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site, following Project 57, and preceding Project 58/58A.
The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body.
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The Pacific Proving Grounds was the name used to describe a number of sites in the Marshall Islands and a few other sites in the Pacific Ocean, used by the United States to conduct nuclear testing at various times between 1946 and 1962.
Pakistan is one of nine states to poses nuclear weapons, and the only Muslim majority country to do so. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of PAEC Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to have the bomb ready by the end of 1976.http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-9-296851-An-indomitable-man Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer, Munir Ahmad Khan was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material", so this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.Levy, Adrian and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States, and the Secret Trade in Nuclear Weapons. New York. Walker Publishing Company. 1977: page 112. Print.http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-9-252241-A-historic-day The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of ERL and the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). The Board consisted of Mr A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Mr Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence) and Mr Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs) and reported directly to Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Mr. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer, Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervison passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978. Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to neighboring India's development of its nuclear programme. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival. At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), who, until then, had been working as Director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed ''Smiling Buddha'' in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus. Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab/Jauharabad, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.
Paranuclear capacity is the condition of a country possessing the technology to quickly build nuclear weapons, without having actually yet done so.
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The Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) is a treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground.
A particle is a minute fragment or quantity of matter.
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A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals.
Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.
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Pierre Marie Gallois (29 June 1911 – 24 August 2010) was a French air force brigadier general and geopolitician.
Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
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Plutonium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
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Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
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Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.
A policy of deliberate ambiguity (also known as a policy of strategic ambiguity, strategic uncertainty) is the practice by a country of being intentionally ambiguous on certain aspects of its foreign policy or whether it possesses certain weapons of mass destruction.
Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.
Prague (Praha) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic.
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In nuclear strategy, a first strike is a preemptive surprise attack employing overwhelming force.
Project A119, also known as "A Study of Lunar Research Flights", was a top-secret plan developed in 1958 by the United States Air Force.
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Project Excalibur was a United States government nuclear weapons research program to develop a nuclear pumped x-ray laser as a directed energy weapon for ballistic missile defence.
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Project Gnome was the first nuclear test of the Plowshare program and was the first continental nuclear weapon test since Trinity to be conducted outside of the Nevada Test Site.
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Project Orion was a study of a spacecraft intended to be directly propelled by a series of explosions of atomic bombs behind the craft (nuclear pulse propulsion).
Project PACER, carried out at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in the mid-1970s, explored the possibility of a fusion power system that would involve exploding small hydrogen bombs (fusion bombs)—or, as stated in a later proposal, fission bombs—inside an underground cavity.
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Propulsion is a means of creating force leading to movement.
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Prospecting is the first stage of the geological analysis (second - exploration) of a territory; physical search for minerals, fossils, precious metals or mineral specimens, and is also known as fossicking.
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A proximity fuze is a fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.
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The Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs is an international organization that brings together scholars and public figures to work toward reducing the danger of armed conflict and to seek solutions to global security threats.
Pugwash (2006 population: 784) is a Canadian village in Cumberland County, Nova Scotia.
A pure fusion weapon is a hypothetical hydrogen bomb design that does not need a fission "primary" explosive to ignite the fusion of deuterium and tritium, two heavy isotopes of hydrogen (see thermonuclear weapon for more information about fission-fusion weapons).
The Qattara Depression (منخفض القطارة Munḫafaḍ al-Qaṭṭārah) is a depression in the north west of Egypt in the Matruh Governorate and is part of the Libyan Desert.
The Qattara Depression Project, or shortly the Qattara Project, is a concept for a large civil engineering project in Egypt, rivaling the Aswan High Dam, intended to develop the Qattara Depression by flooding it.
The r-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs in core-collapse supernovae (see also supernova nucleosynthesis) and is responsible for the creation of approximately half of the neutron-rich atomic nuclei heavier than iron.
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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
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The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) is the successor of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission.
The United States Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) is a federal statute providing for the monetary compensation of people, including atomic veterans, who contracted cancer and a number of other specified diseases as a direct result of their exposure to atmospheric nuclear testing undertaken by the United States during the Cold War, or their exposure to radon gas and other radioactive isotopes while undertaking uranium mining, milling or the transportation of ore.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from IAEA definition).
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
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A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radioisotope so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material.
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Radiophobia is an abnormal fear of ionizing radiation, in particular, fear of X-rays.
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Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, England, United Kingdom and a division of Thomson Reuters.
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Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, The Twilight of the Bombs (2010).
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Rinaldo S. Brutoco (born in Toronto, Canada on February 27, 1947) is a corporate executive, entrepreneur, and consultant.
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Robert L. Gallucci (born February 11, 1946) is an Italian American academic and diplomat, who formerly worked as President of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.
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The Russell–Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on 9 July 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War.
According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, in 2013, Russia possessed an estimated 8,500 total nuclear warheads of which 1,800 were strategically operational.
A salt dome is a type of structural dome formed when a thick bed of evaporite minerals (mainly salt, or halite) found at depth intrudes vertically into surrounding rock strata, forming a diapir.
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A salted bomb is a nuclear weapon designed to function as a radiological weapon, producing enhanced quantities of radioactive fallout, rendering a large area uninhabitable.
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Samuel Augustus "Sam" Nunn, Jr. (born September 8, 1938) is an American lawyer and politician.
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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
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Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
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The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.
A seismic source is a device that generates controlled seismic energy used to perform both reflection and refraction seismic surveys.
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The September 11 attacks (also referred to as September 11, September 11th, or 9/11)9/11 is pronounced "nine eleven".
A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosive's energy.
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In international arms control, small arms include revolvers and pistols, rifles and carbines, assault rifles, submachine guns and light machine guns.
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The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.
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Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a form of spacecraft propulsion using the radiation pressure (also called solar pressure) from stars to push large ultra-thin mirrors to high speeds.
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A solenoid (from the French solénoïde, derived in turn from the Greek solen "pipe, channel" + combining form of Greek eidos "form, shape") is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.
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From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb (Russian: Создание советской атомной бомбы) was a top secret research and development program begun during World War II, in the wake of the Soviet Union's discovery of the American, British, and Canadian nuclear project.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a family of man-portable nuclear weapons fielded by the US military in the 1960s, but never used in combat.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
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Spencer R. Weart (born 1942) was the director of the Center for History of Physics of the American Institute of Physics (AIP) from 1971 until his retirement in 2009.
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Sputnik 1 (Спутник-1 "Satellite-1", or ПС-1) was the first artificial Earth satellite.
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The stability–instability paradox is an international relations theory regarding the effect of nuclear weapons and mutually assured destruction.
START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms.
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START II (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) was a bilateral treaty between the United States of America and Russia on the Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
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The Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) were two rounds of bilateral conferences and corresponding international treaties involving the United States and the Soviet Union—the Cold War superpowers—on the issue of armament control.
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range bomber designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
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A strategic nuclear weapon refers to a nuclear weapon which is designed to be used on targets as part of a strategic plan, such as nuclear missile bases, military command centers, factories, and heavily populated areas such as cities and towns.
The Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Strategic Offensive Reductions (SORT), also known as the Treaty of Moscow, was a strategic arms reduction treaty between the United States and Russia that was in force from June 2003 until February 2011 when it was superseded by the New START treaty.
Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope of strontium produced by nuclear fission, with a half-life of 28.8 years.
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A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
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A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
A suitcase nuclear device (also suitcase bomb, backpack nuke, mini-nuke and pocket nuke) is a tactical nuclear weapon which uses, or is portable enough that it could use, a suitcase as its delivery method.
A superconducting magnet is an electromagnet made from coils of superconducting wire.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
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A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.
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The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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A tactical nuclear weapon (or TNW) also known as non-strategic nuclear weapon refers to a nuclear weapon which is designed to be used on a battlefield in military situations.
Terrorism is any act designed to cause terror.
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A testbed (also "test bed") is a platform for conducting rigorous, transparent, and replicable testing of scientific theories, computational tools, and new technologies.
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The Butter Battle Book is a rhyming story written by Dr. Seuss.
The Making of the Atomic Bomb is a contemporary history book written by the American journalist and historian Richard Rhodes, first published by Simon and Schuster in 1987.
The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia.
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The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney and is also an Australian national brand.
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.
theguardian.com, formerly known as Guardian Unlimited and guardian.co.uk, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.
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A thermonuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon that uses the energy from a primary nuclear fission reaction to compress and ignite a secondary nuclear fusion reaction.
Japan's are a parliamentary resolution (never adopted into law) that have guided Japanese nuclear policy since their inception in the late 1960s, and reflect general public sentiment and national policy since the end of World War II.
Tight gas is natural gas produced from reservoir rocks with such low permeability that massive hydraulic fracturing is necessary to produce the well at economic rates.
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TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions.
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The Torino Scale is a method for categorizing the impact hazard associated with near-Earth objects (NEOs) such as asteroids and comets.
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The modern torpedo is a self-propelled weapon with an explosive warhead, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater towards a target, and designed to detonate either on contact with its target or in proximity to it.
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Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, and justifies using weapons and tactics that result in significant civilian or other non-combatant casualties, whether collateral damage or not.
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Trafalgar Square is a public space and tourist attraction in central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.
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A transporter erector launcher (TEL) is a Missile vehicle with an integrated prime mover that can carry, elevate to firing position and launch one or more missiles.
The Treaty of Tlatelolco is the conventional name given to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trinitrotoluene (TNT), or more specifically 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3.
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Trinity was the code name of the first detonation of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States Army on July 16, 1945, as part of the Manhattan Project.
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
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Tsar Bomba (Царь-бомба; "Tsar of bombs") is the nickname for the AN602 hydrogen bomb, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated.
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A tuna is a saltwater finfish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae) – which together with the tunas, also includes the bonitos, mackerels, and Spanish mackerels.
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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Underground nuclear testing is the test detonation of nuclear weapons that is performed underground.
An unguided bomb, also known as a free-fall bomb, gravity bomb, dumb bomb, or iron bomb, is a conventional aircraft-delivered bomb that does not contain a guidance system and hence, simply follows a ballistic trajectory.
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The United Kingdom possesses, or has possessed, a variety of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the intergovernmental organization; the United Nations.
The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was established in 1959 (shortly after the launch of Sputnik) as an ad hoc committee.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA, GA, or, from the Assemblée Générale, "AG") is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation.
The United Nations Secretariat (French: le Secrétariat des Nations unies) is one of the six major organs of the United Nations (a) the General Assembly; (b) the Security Council; (c) the Economic and Social Council; (d) the defunct Trusteeship Council; and (e) the International Court of Justice.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF) were the military aviation service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, successor to the United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force.
The United States Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was an agency of the United States government established after World War II by Congress to foster and control the peacetime development of atomic science and technology.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Armed Forces uses a number of terms to define the magnitude and extent of nuclear incidents.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 10 December 1948 at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris.
The University of California, Berkeley (also referred to as Berkeley, UC Berkeley, California or simply Cal) is a public research university located in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago (U of C, Chicago, or UChicago) is a private research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
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Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
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Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi/Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.
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A radiation belt is a layer of energetic charged particles that is held in place around a magnetized planet, such as the Earth, by the planet's magnetic field.
Variable yield—or dial-a-yield—is an option available on most modern nuclear weapons.
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War is a state of armed conflict between societies.
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The watt (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736–1819).
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A weapon of mass destruction (WMD or WoMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g. buildings), natural structures (e.g. mountains), or the biosphere.
A wellhead is the component at the surface of an oil or gas well that provides the structural and pressure-containing interface for the drilling and production equipment.
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William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) is an American mathematician, engineer, and businessman who was the United States Secretary of Defense from February 3, 1994, to January 23, 1997, under President Bill Clinton.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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An X-ray laser (or Xaser) is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.
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On 14 February 1950, a Convair B-36B, Air Force Serial Number 44-92075 assigned to the 7th Bomb Wing at Carswell Air Force Base, crashed in northern British Columbia after jettisoning a Mark 4 nuclear bomb.
The 1961 Goldsboro B-52 crash was an accident that occurred in Goldsboro, North Carolina, on January 24, 1961.
The 1965 Philippine Sea A-4 crash was a Broken Arrow incident in which a United States Navy Douglas A-4E Skyhawk attack aircraft carrying a nuclear weapon fell into the sea from the aircraft carrier.
The 1966 Palomares B-52 crash or Palomares incident occurred on 17 January 1966, when a B-52G bomber of the United States Air Force's Strategic Air Command collided with a KC-135 tanker during mid-air refuelling at over the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of Spain.
On 21 January 1968, an aircraft accident (sometimes known as the Thule affair or Thule accident; Thuleulykken) involving a United States Air Force (USAF) B-52 bomber occurred near Thule Air Base in the Danish-administered territory of Greenland.
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