98 relations: Alternating current, American Journal of Physics, Ampere, Atom, Barlow's law, Classical and quantum conductivity, Classical mechanics, Complex number, Condensed matter physics, Constitutive equation, Coulomb, Coulomb's law, Crystallographic defect, Current density, Current–voltage characteristic, Derivative, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Differential equation, Direct current, Drift velocity, Drude model, Electric current, Electric field, Electric potential, Electrical breakdown, Electrical conductor, Electrical impedance, Electrical network, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromotive force, Electron, Electronic structure, Ensemble average, Euler's formula, Fick's laws of diffusion, Flux, Galvanometer, Georg Ohm, Green–Kubo relations, Gustav Kirchhoff, Hagen–Poiseuille equation, Heat, Henry Cavendish, Hydraulic analogy, International System of Units, Ion, Isotope, James Clerk Maxwell, Johnson–Nyquist noise, ..., Joseph Fourier, Joule heating, Laminar flow, Leyden jar, Litre, Lorentz force, Lorentz transformation, LTI system theory, Matter, Maximum power transfer theorem, Maxwell's equations, Momentum, Network analysis (electrical circuits), Norton's theorem, Number density, Ohm, Pascal (unit), Paul Drude, Plasma (physics), Popular Science, Pounds per square inch, Proportionality (mathematics), Quantum mechanics, Resistor, Rest frame, Robert Andrews Millikan, Samuel Morse, Scalar (mathematics), Scattering, Scientific law, Sheet resistance, Siemens (unit), Sigma, Silicon, Sine wave, Superposition theorem, Temperature, Thévenin's theorem, Thermal conductivity, Thermocouple, Time-invariant system, Turbulence, Vector (mathematics and physics), Volt, Voltage, Voltaic pile, Werner von Siemens, Winfield Hill. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Alternating current (AC), is an electric current in which the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction, whereas in direct current (DC, also dc), the flow of electric charge is only in one direction.
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The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.
The ampere (SI unit symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
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Barlow's law was an incorrect physical law proposed by Peter Barlow in 1825 to describe the ability of wires to conduct electricity.
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Classical and quantum mechanical views of conductivity have both described the movements of electrons in a metallic solid.
In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two major sub-fields of mechanics.
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A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers and is the imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation.
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Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter.
In physics and engineering, a constitutive equation or constitutive relation is a relation between two physical quantities (especially kinetic quantities as related to kinematic quantities) that is specific to a material or substance, and approximates the response of that material to external stimuli, usually as applied fields or forces.
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The coulomb (unit symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
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Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles.
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Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.
In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.
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A current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) is a relationship, typically represented as a chart or graph, between the electric current through a circuit, device, or material, and the corresponding voltage, or potential difference across it.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of a quantity (a function value or dependent variable) which is determined by another quantity (the independent variable).
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The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
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Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge.
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The drift velocity is the flow velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains due to an electric field.
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The Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900 by Paul Drude to explain the transport properties of electrons in materials (especially metals).
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An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
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The electric field is a component of the electromagnetic field.
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An electric potential (also called the electric field potential or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of electric potential energy that a unitary point electric charge would have if located at any point in space, and is equal to the work done by an electric field in carrying a unit positive charge from infinity to that point.
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Electrical breakdown or dielectric breakdown is a rapid reduction in the resistance of an electrical insulator when the voltage applied across it exceeds the breakdown voltage.
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In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of electrical current in one or more directions.
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Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.
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An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).
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The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is an intrinsic property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electromotive force, also called emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volt), is the voltage developed by any source of electrical energy such as a battery or dynamo.
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
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In quantum chemistry, electronic structure is the state of motion of electrons in an electrostatic field created by stationary nuclei.
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In statistical mechanics, the ensemble average is defined as the mean of a quantity that is a function of the microstate of a system (the ensemble of possible states), according to the distribution of the system on its micro-states in this ensemble.
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Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function.
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Fick's laws of diffusion describe diffusion and were derived by Adolf Fick in 1855.
In the various subfields of physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, each with rigorous mathematical frameworks.
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A galvanometer is a type of sensitive ammeter: an instrument for detecting electric current.
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Georg Simon Ohm (16 March 1789 – 6 July 1854) was a German physicist and mathematician.
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The Green–Kubo relations (Melville S. Green 1954, Ryogo Kubo 1957) give the exact mathematical expression for transport coefficients \gamma in terms of integrals of time correlation functions.
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Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (12 March 1824 – 17 October 1887) was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects.
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In nonideal fluid dynamics, the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, also known as the Hagen–Poiseuille law, Poiseuille law or Poiseuille equation, is a physical law that gives the pressure drop in an incompressible and Newtonian fluid in laminar flow flowing through a long cylindrical pipe of constant cross section.
In physics, heat is energy in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings, other than as work or with the transfer of matter.
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Henry Cavendish FRS (10 October 1731 – 24 February 1810) was a British natural philosopher, scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist and physicist.
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The electronic–hydraulic analogy (derisively referred to as the drain-pipe theory by Oliver Lodge) is the most widely used analogy for "electron fluid" in a metal conductor.
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The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
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James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
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Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.
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Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier (21 March 1768 – 16 May 1830) was a French mathematician and physicist born in Auxerre and best known for initiating the investigation of Fourier series and their applications to problems of heat transfer and vibrations.
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Joule heating, also known as ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor releases heat.
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In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
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A Leyden jar, or Leiden jar, is a device that "stores" static electricity between two electrodes on the inside and outside of a glass jar.
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The litre (International spelling) or liter (American spelling) (SI symbols L or l, commonly abbreviated as ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre.
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In physics, particularly electromagnetism, the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
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In physics, the Lorentz transformation (or transformations) is named after the Dutch physicist Hendrik Lorentz.
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Linear time-invariant theory, commonly known as LTI system theory, comes from applied mathematics and has direct applications in NMR spectroscopy, seismology, circuits, signal processing, control theory, and other technical areas.
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Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.
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In electrical engineering, the maximum power transfer theorem states that, to obtain maximum external power from a source with a finite internal resistance, the resistance of the load must equal the resistance of the source as viewed from its output terminals.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electrodynamics, classical optics, and electric circuits.
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In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
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A network, in the context of electronics, is a collection of interconnected components.
Known in Europe as the Mayer–Norton theorem, Norton's theorem holds, to illustrate in DC circuit theory terms, that (see image): For AC systems the theorem can be applied to reactive impedances as well as resistances.
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In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volume number density, two-dimensional area number density, or one-dimensional line number density.
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The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.
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The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength, defined as one newton per square metre.
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Paul Karl Ludwig Drude (July 12, 1863 – July 5, 1906) was a German physicist specializing in optics.
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Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
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Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American monthly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.
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The pound per square inch or, more accurately, pound-force per square inch (abbreviations: psi, lbf/in2, lbf/in2, lbf/sq in, lbf/sq in) is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units.
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In mathematics, two variables are proportional if a change in one is always accompanied by a change in the other, and if the changes are always related by use of a constant multiplier.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.
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A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
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In special relativity the rest frame of a particle is the coordinate system (frame of reference) in which the particle is at rest.
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Robert A. Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for his measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.
Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter and inventor.
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In linear algebra, real numbers are called scalars and relate to vectors in a vector space through the operation of scalar multiplication, in which a vector can be multiplied by a number to produce another vector.
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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
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A scientific law is a statement based on repeated experimental observations that describes some aspects of the universe.
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Sheet resistance is a measure of resistance of thin films that are nominally uniform in thickness.
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The siemens (SI unit symbol: S) is the unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).
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Sigma (upper-case Σ, lower-case σ, lower-case in word-final position ς; Greek σίγμα) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.
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Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
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The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation.
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The superposition theorem for electrical circuits states that for a linear system the response (voltage or current) in any branch of a bilateral linear circuit having more than one independent source equals the algebraic sum of the responses caused by each independent source acting alone, where all the other independent sources are replaced by their internal impedances.
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A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.
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As originally stated in terms of DC resistive circuits only, Thévenin's theorem holds that: In circuit theory terms, the theorem allows any one-port network to be reduced to a single voltage source and a single impedance.
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In physics, thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.
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A thermocouple is a device consisting of two dissimilar conductors or semiconductors that contact each other at one or more points.
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A time-invariant (TIV) system is a system whose output does not depend explicitly on time.
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In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic property changes.
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When used without any further description, vector refers either to.
The volt (symbol) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (denoted or) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge.
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The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electrical current to a circuit.
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Ernst Werner Siemens (von Siemens since 1888;; 13 December 1816 – 6 December 1892) was a German inventor and industrialist.
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Winfield Hill is the Director of the Electronics Engineering Laboratory at the Rowland Institute at Harvard University.
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