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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. [1]

459 relations: Absorption band, Abundance of the chemical elements, Abundances of the elements (data page), Acetamide, Acetic acid, Acetic anhydride, Acetone, Acetylene, Acid, Adenine, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adhesive, Aerobic organism, Air pollution, Aircraft, Airglow, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alexander von Humboldt, Algae, Allotropes of oxygen, Allotropy, Aluminium, Aluminium oxide, Amedeo Avogadro, American football, Amide, Amino acid, Anaerobic organism, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Angewandte Chemie, Animal, Antibonding molecular orbital, Antifreeze, Antimony, Antoine Lavoisier, Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo 1, Archaea, Arterial blood gas, Artery, Arthropod, Asphalt, ASTM International, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Atomic orbital, ..., Auburn, Massachusetts, Aufbau principle, Aurora, Autoxidation, Avogadro's law, Bacteria, Banded iron formation, Barbecue, Bauxite, Beta decay, Biochemical oxygen demand, Biogeochemical cycle, Biomolecule, Biosphere, Bohr effect, Bond order, Breathing, Breathing gas, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Calcium phosphate, California, Calx, Cambrian, Carbohydrate, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon monoxide, Carbon monoxide poisoning, Carboniferous, Carbonyl, Carboxylic acid, Carl von Linde, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Carotene, Carotenoid, Cascade (chemical engineering), Cellular respiration, Celsius, Centimetre, Central nervous system, Ceramic, Chalcogen, Charles Darwin, Chemical affinity, Chemical bond, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chemical formula, Chemical oxygen generator, Chemical polarity, Chemical reaction, Chemistry World, Chlorate, Chloride, Chloroplast, Chromate and dichromate, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Citric acid, Classical element, Cluster chemistry, CNO cycle, Cofactor (biochemistry), Combustion, Compounds of oxygen, Convulsion, Corrosion, Corrosion in space, Corundum, Covalent bond, CRC Press, Crust (geology), Cryogenics, Cyanobacteria, Decomposition, Decompression sickness, Degenerate energy levels, Detergent, Detonation, Diatomic molecule, Diethyl ether, Diffuse sky radiation, Diffusion, Dimethyl sulfoxide, Dimethylformamide, Dioxygen difluoride, Dioxygenyl, Dipole, Disease, Distillation, Diving chamber, DNA, Double bond, Earth, Earth observation satellite, Electrical telegraph, Electrolysis of water, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron configuration, Electronegativity, Enzyme, Epoxide, Erasmus Darwin, Ester, Ethanol, Ether, Ethyl acetate, Ethylene, Ethylene glycol, Ethylene oxide, Eukaryote, Euphoria, Eutrophication, Evaporation, Evolutionary history of life, Exchange interaction, Exoskeleton, Exothermic process, Exothermic reaction, Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air, Explosion, Extinction, Fat, Fatty acid, Fire, Fire (classical element), Fixed-wing aircraft, Fluorescence, Fluorine, Formaldehyde, Formic acid, Fractional distillation, French Academy of Sciences, Frostbite, Fuel, Furan, Gas, Gas gangrene, Gasoline, Genesis (spacecraft), Geological history of oxygen, Geology of solar terrestrial planets, Georg Ernst Stahl, George H. Goble, Glucose, Glutaraldehyde, Glycerol, Granite, Great Oxygenation Event, Greek language, Green algae, Ground state, Group (periodic table), Half-life, Heart failure, Heat exchanger, Helium, Helium-4, Hematite, Heme, Hemerythrin, Hemocyanin, Hemoglobin, Human spaceflight, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen peroxide, Hydroxylapatite, Hyperbaric medicine, Hyperoxia, Hypersensitive response, Hypofluorous acid, Hypoxia (environmental), Hypoxia (medical), Ice core, Immune system, Inorganic compound, Iron, Iron ore, Iron(II) oxide, Iron(III) oxide, Isopropyl alcohol, Isotope, Isotopes of nitrogen, Isotopes of oxygen, Jagiellonian University, James Dewar, Johann Joachim Becher, John Dalton, John Mayow, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, Joseph Priestley, Joule per mole, Karol Olszewski, Kelvin, Ketone, Las Vegas Valley, Leonardo da Vinci, Life support system, Ligand, Limestone, Limiting oxygen concentration, Liquid oxygen, Lithosphere, Litre, Lobster, Louis Paul Cailletet, Low Earth orbit, Magnesium, Magnet, Magnetic moment, Manganese, Mars, Mechanical ventilation, Medicine, Mercury(II) oxide, Metal, Metastability, Meteorite, Methanol, Mikhail Lomonosov, Milky Way, Millimeter of mercury, Mitochondrion, Molecular orbital, Mollusca, Moon, Myoglobin, Nanometre, NASA, Nasal cannula, Natural abundance, Near space, Nebular hypothesis, Neon, Neon-burning process, Nevada, NFPA 704, Nitrate, Nitrogen, Non-stoichiometric compound, Nonmetal, Nucleic acid, Nucleosynthesis, Obligate anaerobe, Ocean deoxygenation, Ole Borch, Organic acid anhydride, Organic chemistry, Organic compound, Oxidation state, Oxidative phosphorylation, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxoacid, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Oxygen bar, Oxygen cycle, Oxygen difluoride, Oxygen evolution, Oxygen isotope ratio cycle, Oxygen mask, Oxygen plant, Oxygen sensor, Oxygen storage, Oxygen tank, Oxygen tent, Oxygen therapy, Oxygen toxicity, Oxygen-16, Oxygen-17, Oxygen-18, Oxygen-evolving complex, Ozone, Ozone layer, Ozonide, Paleoclimatology, Paleoproterozoic, Paramagnetism, Partial pressure, Pascal (unit), Passivation (chemistry), Peracetic acid, Perchlorate, Periodic table, Peroxide, Petrochemical, Phenol, Philo of Byzantium, Phlogiston theory, Phosphate, Photodissociation, Photon, Photophosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Picometre, Placebo, Plastic, Platinum hexafluoride, Pneumonia, Polyester, Positron emission, Positron emission tomography, Pressure swing adsorption, Preterm birth, Protein, Proton, Protoplanetary disk, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary gas pressures, Purine, Pyrimidine, Pyrotechnics, Quantum mechanics, Quartz, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Raoul Pictet, Rayleigh scattering, Reactive oxygen species, Red blood cell, Redox, Reflectance, Remote sensing, Residue (chemistry), Respiration (physiology), Respiratory system, RNA, Robert Boyle, Robert H. Goddard, Robert Hooke, Rock (geology), Rocket engine, Rocket propellant, Royal Society of Chemistry, Rust, Schumann–Runge bands, Scuba diving, Seawater, Signal-to-noise ratio, Silicate, Silicate minerals, Silicon, Silicon dioxide, Singlet oxygen, Skeleton, Smelting, Smog, Sodium chlorate, Solar System, Solar wind, Solid oxygen, Solubility, Solvent, Space suit, Spider, Spin (physics), Sport, Squalene, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Star, Steel, Submarine, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sun, Superconductivity, Superoxide, Surface-supplied diving, Tetrahydrofuran, Tetraoxygen, Textile, The Botanic Garden, The New York Times, The Periodic Table of Videos, Thylakoid, Tin, Titanium, Transition metal, Transition metal dioxygen complex, Trigonal crystal system, Triple-alpha process, Triplet oxygen, Triplet state, Troposphere, Ultraviolet, Underwater diving, Uppsala, Vacuum swing adsorption, Van der Waals force, Vein, Venus, Vertebrate, Water, Water pollution, Water treatment, Wave–particle duality, Wüstite, Welding, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Wiltshire, Wood, Zeolite, Zirconium dioxide, Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski, 1,4-Dioxane. 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Absorption band

According to quantum mechanics, atoms and molecules can only hold certain defined quantities of energy, or exist in specific states.

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Abundance of the chemical elements

The abundance of a chemical element measures how common is the element relative to all other elements in a given environment.

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Abundances of the elements (data page)

No description.

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Acetamide

Acetamide (IUPAC: ethanamide) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CONH2.

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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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Acetic anhydride

Acetic anhydride, or ethanoic anhydride, is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3CO)2O.

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Acetone

Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acetylene

Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.

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Acid

An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.

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Adenine

Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative) with a variety of roles in biochemistry including cellular respiration, in the form of both the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).

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Adenosine diphosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (Adenosine pyrophosphate (APP)) is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.

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Adhesive

An adhesive is any substance applied to the surfaces of materials that binds them together and resists separation.

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Aerobic organism

An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.

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Air pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.

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Aircraft

An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet.

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Airglow

Airglow (also called nightglow) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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Aldehyde

An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a formyl group.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 1769 – 6 May 1859) was a Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of romantic philosophy.

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Algae

Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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Allotropes of oxygen

There are several known allotropes of oxygen.

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Allotropy

Allotropy or allotropism is the property of some chemical elements to exist in two or more different forms, in the same physical state, known as allotropes of these elements.

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Aluminium

Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium oxide

Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.

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Amedeo Avogadro

Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro di Quaregna e di Cerreto, Count of Quaregna and Cerreto (9 August 1776, Turin, Piedmont-Sardinia – 9 July 1856), was an Italian scientist.

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American football

American football (referred to as football in the United States and Canada, also known as gridiron elsewhere) is a sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.

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Amide

An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR'2 (R and R' refer to H or organic groups).

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Angewandte Chemie

Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).

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Animal

Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia (also called Metazoa).

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Antibonding molecular orbital

In chemical bonding theory, an antibonding orbital is a type of molecular orbital that, if occupied by electrons, weakens the bond between two atoms and helps to raise the energy of the molecule relative to the separated atoms.

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Antifreeze

An antifreeze is an additive which lowers the freezing point of a water-based liquid.

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Antimony

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Apollo (spacecraft)

The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.

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Apollo 1

Apollo 1 (initially designated AS-204) was the first manned mission of the U.S. Apollo manned lunar landing program.

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Archaea

The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

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Arterial blood gas

An arterial blood gas (ABG) is a blood test that is performed using blood from an artery.

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Artery

The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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Arthropod

An arthropod (from Greek arthro-, joint + podos, foot) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and jointed appendages.

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Asphalt

Asphalt (or, occasionally), also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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ASTM International

ASTM International, known until 2001 as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atomic mass

The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atomic particle, sub-atomic particle, or molecule.

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Atomic number

In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.

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Atomic orbital

An atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Auburn, Massachusetts

Auburn is a town in Worcester County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Aufbau principle

The Aufbau principle states that, hypothetically, electrons orbiting one or more atoms fill the lowest available energy levels before filling higher levels (e.g., 1s before 2s).

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Aurora

An aurora is a natural light display in the sky, predominantly seen in the high latitude (Arctic and Antarctic) regions.

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Autoxidation

Autoxidation is any oxidation that occurs in open air or in presence of oxygen (and sometimes UV radiation) and forms peroxides and hydroperoxides.

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Avogadro's law

Avogadro's law (sometimes referred to as Avogadro's hypothesis or Avogadro's principle) is an experimental gas law relating volume of a gas to the amount of substance of gas present.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Banded iron formation

Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.

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Barbecue

Barbecue (also barbeque, BBQ and barby/barbies) is both a cooking method and an apparatus.

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Bauxite

Bauxite, an aluminium ore, is the world's main source of aluminium.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.

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Biochemical oxygen demand

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period.

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Biogeochemical cycle

In Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through both biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.

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Biomolecule

A biomolecule is any molecule that is present in living organisms, including large macromolecules such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.

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Biosphere

The biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems.

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Bohr effect

Not to be confused with the Bohr Equation The Bohr effect is a physiological phenomenon first described in 1904 by the Danish physiologist Christian Bohr, stating that hemoglobin's oxygen binding affinity (see Oxygen–haemoglobin dissociation curve) is inversely related both to acidity and to the concentration of carbon dioxide. Id est, an increase in blood CO2 concentration which leads to a decrease in blood pH will result in hemoglobin proteins releasing their load of oxygen.

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Bond order

Bond order is the number of chemical bonds between a pair of atoms.

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Breathing

Breathing is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs, or oxygen through other respiratory organs such as gills.

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Breathing gas

A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Calcium phosphate

Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43−), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74−) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions.

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California

California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.

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Calx

Calx (From Arabic "کلس") is a residual substance, sometimes in the form of a fine powder, that is left when a metal or mineral combusts or is calcinated due to heat.

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Cambrian

The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from to million years ago (mya) and is succeeded by the Ordovician.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon cycle

The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs after enough inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO).

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Carboniferous

The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Devonian Period, at 358.9 ± 0.4 million years ago, to the beginning of the Permian Period, at 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma.

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Carbonyl

In organic chemistry, a carbonyl group is a functional group composed of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom: C.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(O)OH).

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Carl von Linde

Carl Paul Gottfried Linde (11 June 1842 – 16 November 1934) was a German scientist and engineer who discovered a refrigeration cycle and invented the first industrial-scale air separation and gas liquefaction processes.

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian pharmaceutical chemist.

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Carotene

The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the sole known exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthetic genes from fungi).

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Carotenoid

Carotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.

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Cascade (chemical engineering)

In chemical engineering, a cascade is a plant consisting of several similar stages with each processing the output from the previous stage.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Celsius

Celsius, historically known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature.

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Centimetre

A centimetre (international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; symbol cm) or centimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a metre, centi being the SI prefix for a factor of.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Ceramic

A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid material comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chalcogen

The chalcogens are the chemical elements in group 16 of the periodic table.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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Chemical affinity

In chemical physics and physical chemistry, chemical affinity is the electronic property by which dissimilar chemical species are capable of forming chemical compounds.

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Chemical bond

A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Chemical formula

A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and plus (+) and minus (−) signs.

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Chemical oxygen generator

A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen via a chemical reaction.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.

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Chemistry World

Chemistry World is a monthly chemistry news magazine published by the Royal Society of Chemistry.

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Chlorate

The chlorate anion has the formula ClO3−.

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chloroplast

Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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Chromate and dichromate

Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO42−.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid with the formula C6H8O7.

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Classical element

Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based.

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Cluster chemistry

In chemistry, a cluster is an ensemble of bound atoms or molecules that is intermediate in size between a molecule and a bulk solid.

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CNO cycle

The CNO cycle (for carbon–nitrogen–oxygen) is one of the two (known) sets of fusion reactions by which stars convert hydrogen to helium, the other being the proton–proton chain reaction.

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Cofactor (biochemistry)

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is required for the protein's biological activity.

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Combustion

Combustion or burning is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Compounds of oxygen

The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen.

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Convulsion

A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body.

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Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts refined metal to their more stable oxide.

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Corrosion in space

Corrosion in space is the corrosion of materials occurring in outer space.

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Corundum

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.

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Crust (geology)

In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.

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Cryogenics

In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.

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Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, is a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis.

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Decomposition

Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into a much simpler form of matter.

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Decompression sickness

Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.

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Degenerate energy levels

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is said to be degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.

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Detergent

A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactants with "cleaning properties in dilute solutions." These substances are usually alkylbenzenesulfonates, a family of compounds that are similar to soap but are more soluble in hard water, because the polar sulfonate (of detergents) is less likely than the polar carboxyl (of soap) to bind to calcium and other ions found in hard water.

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Detonation

Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.

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Diatomic molecule

Diatomic molecules are molecules composed of only two atoms, of either the same or different chemical elements.

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Diethyl ether

Diethyl ether, also known as ethoxyethane, ethyl ether, sulfuric ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula.

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Diffuse sky radiation

Diffuse sky radiation is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or suspensoids in the atmosphere.

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Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

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Dimethyl sulfoxide

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.

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Dimethylformamide

Dimethylformamide is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)2NC(O)H.

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Dioxygen difluoride

Dioxygen difluoride is a compound of fluorine and oxygen with the molecular formula.

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Dioxygenyl

The dioxygenyl ion, O2+, is a rarely encountered oxycation in which both oxygen atoms have a formal oxidation state of +½.

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Dipole

In physics, there are several kinds of dipole.

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Disease

A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.

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Distillation

Distillation is a process of separating the component substances from a liquid mixture by selective evaporation and condensation.

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Diving chamber

A diving chamber has two main functions.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Double bond

A double bond in chemistry is a chemical bond between two chemical elements involving four bonding electrons instead of the usual two.

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Earth

Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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Earth observation satellite

Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.

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Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication lines or radio.

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Electrolysis of water

Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric current being passed through the water.

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Electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.

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Electron configuration

In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule (or other physical structure) in atomic or molecular orbitals.

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Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epoxide

An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.

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Erasmus Darwin

Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.

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Ester

In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also commonly called ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

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Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups—of general formula R–O–R'.

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Ethyl acetate

Ethyl acetate (systematically, ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula CH3-COO-CH2-CH3, simplified to C4H8O2.

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Ethylene

Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.

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Ethylene glycol

Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound primarily used as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibers and fabric industry, and polyethylene terephthalate resins (PET) used in bottling.

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Ethylene oxide

Ethylene oxide, properly called oxirane by IUPAC, is the organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether. (A cyclic ether consists of an alkane with an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms of the alkane, forming a ring.) Ethylene oxide is a colorless flammable gas at room temperature, with a faintly sweet odor; it is the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Because of its special molecular structure, ethylene oxide easily participates in addition reactions; e.g., opening its ring and thus easily polymerizing. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas, with a misleadingly pleasant aroma. The chemical reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards has also made it a key industrial chemical. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used industrially for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. Ethylene oxide is important or critical to the production of detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers and other compounds. As a poison gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, pure ethylene oxide is a disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by direct oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. It is extremely flammable and explosive and is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..

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Eukaryote

A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Euphoria

Euphoria (from Ancient Greek εὐφορία, from εὖ eu, "well", and φέρω pherō, "to bear") (semantically opposite of dysphoria) is medically recognized as a mental and emotional condition in which a person experiences intense feelings of well-being, elation, happiness, excitement and joy.

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Eutrophication

Eutrophication (Greek: eutrophia—healthy, adequate nutrition, development; Eutrophie) or more precisely hypertrophication, is the ecosystem's response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage, to an aquatic system.

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Evaporation

Evaporation is a type of vaporization of a liquid that occurs from the surface of a liquid into a gaseous phase that is not saturated with the evaporating substance.

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Evolutionary history of life

The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which living and fossil organisms have evolved since life appeared on the planet, until the present day.

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Exchange interaction

In physics, the exchange interaction is a quantum mechanical effect between identical particles.

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Exoskeleton

An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletos "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Exothermic process

In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).

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Exothermic reaction

An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction that releases energy by light or heat.

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Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air

Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1774–86) is a six-volume work published by 18th-century British polymath Joseph Priestley which reports a series of his experiments on "airs" or gases, most notably his discovery of oxygen gas (which he called "dephlogisticated air").

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Explosion

An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.

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Extinction

In biology and ecology, extinction is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fire

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.

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Fire (classical element)

Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.

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Fixed-wing aircraft

A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an aeroplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Formaldehyde

Formaldehyde is a naturally-occurring organic compound with the formula CH2O.

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Formic acid

Formic acid (also called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid.

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Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Frostbite

Frostbite is the medical condition in which localized damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to freezing.

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Fuel

Fuels are any materials that store potential energy in forms that can be practicably released and used for work or as heat energy.

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Furan

Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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Gas gangrene

Gas gangrene (also known as clostridial myonecrosis and myonecrosis) is a bacterial infection that produces gas in tissues in gangrene.

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Gasoline

Gasoline, also known as petrol outside of North America, is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines.

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Genesis (spacecraft)

Genesis was a NASA sample return probe that collected a sample of solar wind and returned it to Earth for analysis.

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Geological history of oxygen

Before photosynthesis evolved, Earth's atmosphere had no free oxygen (O2).

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Geology of solar terrestrial planets

The geology of solar terrestrial planets mainly deals with the geological aspects of four planets of the Solar System namely, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars and one terrestrial dwarf planet, Ceres.

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Georg Ernst Stahl

Georg Ernst Stahl (22 October 1659 – 24 May 1734) was a German chemist, physician and philosopher.

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George H. Goble

George H. Goble is a staff member at the Purdue University Engineering Computer Network and a 1996 Ig Nobel Prize winner.

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Glucose

Glucose is a sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glutaraldehyde

Glutaraldehyde is an organic compound with the formula CH2(CH2CHO)2.

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Glycerol

Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol (sugar alcohol) compound.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Great Oxygenation Event

The Great Oxygenation Event (GOE), also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation, was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyte and Charophyte algae, which are now placed in separate Divisions.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Group (periodic table)

In chemistry, a group (also known as a family) is a column of elements in the periodic table of the chemical elements.

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Half-life

Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Heat exchanger

A heat exchanger is a device used to transfer heat between one or more fluids.

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Helium

Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium-4

Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.

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Hematite

Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.

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Heme

Heme (American English) or haem (British English) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges.

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Hemerythrin

Hemerythrin (also spelled haemerythrin; from Greek words αίμα.

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Hemocyanin

Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight (also referred to as manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew aboard the spacecraft.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is the electrostatic attraction between polar molecules that occurs when a hydrogen (H) atom bound to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences attraction to some other nearby highly electronegative atom.

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Hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula.

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Hydroxylapatite

Hydroxylapatite, also called hydroxyapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two entities.

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Hyperbaric medicine

Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), is the medical use of oxygen at a level higher than atmospheric pressure.

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Hyperoxia

Hyperoxia occurs when tissues and organs are exposed to an excess supply of oxygen (O2) or higher than normal partial pressure of oxygen.

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Hypersensitive response

The hypersensitive response (HR) is a mechanism, used by plants, to prevent the spread of infection by microbial pathogens.

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Hypofluorous acid

Hypofluorous acid is the chemical compound with the formula HOF.

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Hypoxia (environmental)

Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia (also known as hypoxiation or anoxemia) is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.

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Ice core

An ice core is a core sample that is typically removed from an ice sheet, most commonly from the polar ice caps of Antarctica, Greenland or from high mountain glaciers elsewhere.

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Immune system

The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Inorganic compound

An inorganic compound is a compound that is considered not "organic".

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Iron(II) oxide

Iron(II) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.

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Iron(III) oxide

Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.

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Isopropyl alcohol

Isopropyl alcohol (IUPAC name 2-propanol), also called isopropanol, is a compound with the chemical formula C3H8O or C3H7OH or CH3CHOHCH3.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Isotopes of nitrogen

Natural nitrogen (N) consists of two stable isotopes, nitrogen-14, which makes up the vast majority of naturally occurring nitrogen, and nitrogen-15.

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Isotopes of oxygen

There are three stable isotopes of oxygen (16O, 17O, and 18O).

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Jagiellonian University

The Jagiellonian University (Uniwersytet Jagielloński, often shortened to UJ; historical names include Studium Generale, University of Kraków, Kraków Academy, The Main Crown School, and Main School of Kraków) is a research university founded in 1364 by Casimir III the Great in Kraków.

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James Dewar

Sir James Dewar (20 September 1842 – 27 March 1923) was a Scottish chemist and physicist.

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Johann Joachim Becher

Johann Joachim Becher (6 May 1635 – October 1682) was a German physician, alchemist, precursor of chemistry, scholar and adventurer, best known for his development of the phlogiston theory of combustion, and his advancement of Austrian cameralism.

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John Dalton

John Dalton FRS (6 September 1766 – 27 July 1844) was an English chemist, physicist, and meteorologist.

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John Mayow

John Mayow FRS (1641–1679) was a chemist, physician, and physiologist who is remembered today for conducting early research into respiration and the nature of air.

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and Liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Joule per mole

The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol−1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material.

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Karol Olszewski

Karol Stanisław Olszewski (29 January 1846 – 24 March 1915) was a Polish chemist, mathematician and physicist.

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Kelvin

The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.

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Ketone

In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) is an organic compound with the structure RC(.

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Las Vegas Valley

The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area located in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada.

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Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci, (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.

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Life support system

In human spaceflight, a life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in space.

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Limestone

Limestone is a sedimentary rock composed largely of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Limiting oxygen concentration

Limiting oxygen concentration, (LOC), also known as the Minimum oxygen concentration, (MOC), is defined as the limiting concentration of oxygen below which combustion is not possible, independent of the concentration of fuel.

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Liquid oxygen

Liquid oxygen — abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries — is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.

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Lithosphere

A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαῖρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet or natural satellite that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.

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Litre

The litre (International spelling) or liter (American spelling) (SI symbols L or l, commonly abbreviated as ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre.

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Lobster

Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Louis Paul Cailletet

Louis-Paul Cailletet (21 September 1832 – 5 January 1913) was a French physicist and inventor.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude between (orbital period of about 88 minutes), and (about 127 minutes).

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnet

A magnet (from Greek λίθος magnḗtis líthos, "Magnesian stone") is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetic moment

The magnetic moment of a magnet is a quantity that determines the torque it will experience in an external magnetic field.

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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Mechanical ventilation

In medicine, mechanical ventilation is a method to mechanically assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by a registered nurse, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating through the mouth (such as an endotracheal tube) or the skin (such as a tracheostomy tube). There are two main modes of mechanical ventilation within the two divisions: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs.

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Medicine

Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mercury(II) oxide

Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.

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Metal

A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metastability

Metastability denotes the phenomenon when a system spends an extended time in a configuration other than the system's state of least energy.

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Meteorite

A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from a source such as an asteroid or a comet, which originates in outer space and survives its impact with the Earth's surface.

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Methanol

No description.

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (a; –) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Millimeter of mercury

A millimeter of mercury is a manometric unit of pressure, formerly defined as the extra pressure generated by a column of mercury one millimetre high and now defined as precisely pascals.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Molecular orbital

In chemistry, a molecular orbital (or MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.

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Mollusca

The molluscs or mollusksSpelled mollusks in the USA, see reasons given in Rosenberg's; for the spelling mollusc see the reasons given by compose the large phylum of invertebrate animals known as the Mollusca.

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Moon

The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.

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Myoglobin

Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates in general and in almost all mammals.

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Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (m).

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nasal cannula

The nasal cannula (NC) is a device used to deliver supplemental oxygen or airflow to a patient or person in need of respiratory help.

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Natural abundance

In physics, natural abundance (NA) refers to the abundance of isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet.

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Near space

Near space is the region of Earth's atmosphere that lies between 20 to 100 km (65,000 and 328,000 feet) above sea level, encompassing the stratosphere, mesosphere, and the lower thermosphere.

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Nebular hypothesis

The nebular hypothesis is the most widely accepted model in the field of cosmogony to explain the formation and evolution of the Solar System.

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Neon

Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.

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Neon-burning process

The neon-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).

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Nevada

Nevada is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States.

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NFPA 704

"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association.

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Nitrate

Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula NO3− and a molecular mass of 62.0049 g/mol.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Non-stoichiometric compound

Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.

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Nonmetal

In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.

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Nucleosynthesis

Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.

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Obligate anaerobe

Obligate anaerobes are microorganisms that are killed by normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen (20.95% O2).

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Ocean deoxygenation

Ocean deoxygenation is a term that has been suggested to describe the expansion of oxygen minimum zones in the world's oceans as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide.

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Ole Borch

Ole Borch (Jutland, 1626 – 1690) (latinized to Olaus Borrichius or Olaus Borrichus) was a Danish scientist, physician, grammarian, and poet, most famous today for being the teacher at the Vor Frue Skole in Copenhagen of Nicholas Steno.

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Organic acid anhydride

An organic acid anhydride is an acid anhydride that is an organic compound.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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Oxidative phosphorylation

Oxidative phosphorylation (or OXPHOS in short) is the metabolic pathway in which the mitochondria in cells use their structure, enzymes, and energy released by the oxidation of nutrients to reform ATP.

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, oxidizing agent has two meanings.

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Oxoacid

An oxy-acid is an acid that contains oxygen.

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Oxy-fuel welding and cutting

Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.

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Oxygen bar

An oxygen bar is an establishment, or part of one, that sells oxygen for recreational use.

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Oxygen cycle

The oxygen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of oxygen within its three main reservoirs: the atmosphere (air), the total content of biological matter within the biosphere (the global sum of all ecosystems), and the lithosphere (Earth's crust).

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Oxygen difluoride

Oxygen difluoride is the chemical compound with the formula OF2.

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Oxygen evolution

Oxygen evolution is the process of generating molecular oxygen through chemical reaction.

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Oxygen isotope ratio cycle

Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 18 to the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 16 present in some substances, such as polar ice or calcite in ocean core samples, measured with the isotope fractionation.

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Oxygen mask

An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs.

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Oxygen plant

Oxygen plants are industrial systems designed to generate oxygen.

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Oxygen sensor

An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analysed.

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Oxygen storage

Methods of oxygen storage for subsequent use span many approaches, including high pressures in oxygen tanks, cryogenics, oxygen-rich compounds and reaction mixtures, and chemical compounds that reversibly release oxygen upon heating or pressure change.

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Oxygen tank

An oxygen tank is an oxygen storage vessel for oxygen, which is either held under pressure in gas cylinders or as liquid oxygen in a cryogenic storage tank.

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Oxygen tent

An oxygen tent consists of a canopy placed over the head and shoulders, or over the entire body of a patient to provide oxygen at a higher level than normal.

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Oxygen therapy

Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a medical intervention, which can be for a variety of purposes in both chronic and acute patient care.

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Oxygen toxicity

Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen at elevated partial pressures.

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Oxygen-16

Oxygen-16 (16O) is a stable isotope of oxygen, having 8 neutrons and 8 protons in its nucleus.

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Oxygen-17

Oxygen-17 is a low abundant isotope of oxygen (0.0373% in seawater; approx. twice as abundant as Deuterium).

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Oxygen-18

Oxygen-18 is a natural, stable isotope of oxygen and one of the environmental isotopes.

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Oxygen-evolving complex

The oxygen-evolving complex, (OEC) also known as the water-splitting complex, is a water-oxidizing enzyme involved in the photooxidation of water during the light reactions of photosynthesis.

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Ozone

Ozone (systematically named 1λ1,3λ1-trioxidane and catena-trioxygen), or trioxygen, is an inorganic molecule with the chemical formula.

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Ozone layer

The ozone layer or ozone shield refers to a region of Earth's stratosphere that absorbs most of the Sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

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Ozonide

Ozonide is an unstable, reactive polyatomic anion O3−, derived from ozone, or an organic compound similar to organic peroxide formed by a reaction of ozone with an unsaturated compound.

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Paleoclimatology

Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.

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Paleoproterozoic

The Paleoproterozoic (also Palaeoproterozoic) is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras) of the Proterozoic occurring between.

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Paramagnetism

Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.

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Partial pressure

In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the volume of the mixture at the same temperature.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength, defined as one newton per square metre.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, being less affected by environmental factors such as air and water.

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Peracetic acid

Peracetic acid (also known as peroxyacetic acid, or PAA), is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H.

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Perchlorate

Perchlorates are the salts derived from perchloric acid—in particular when referencing the polyatomic anions found in solution, perchlorate is often written with the formula ClO4−.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.

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Peroxide

A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen–oxygen single bond or the peroxide anion, O. The O−O group is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.

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Petrochemical

Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum.

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Phenol

Phenol, also known as carbolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Philo of Byzantium

Philo of Byzantium (Φίλων ὁ Βυζάντιος, Philōn ho Byzantios, ca. 280 BC – ca. 220 BC), also known as Philo Mechanicus, was a Greek engineer and writer on mechanics, who lived during the latter half of the 3rd century BC.

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Phlogiston theory

The phlogiston theory is an obsolete scientific theory that postulated a fire-like element called phlogiston is contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion.

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Phosphate

A phosphate (PO43−) as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid.

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Photodissociation

Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.

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Photon

No description.

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Photophosphorylation

In the process of photosynthesis, the phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP using the energy of sunlight is called photophosphorylation.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the Sun, into chemical energy that can be later released to fuel the organisms' activities.

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Picometre

The picometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: pm) or picometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one trillionth (i.e., 1/1,000,000,000,000) of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.

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Placebo

A placebo (Latin placēbō, "I shall please" from placeō, "I please") is a simulated or otherwise medically ineffectual treatment for a disease or other medical condition intended to deceive the recipient.

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Plastic

Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes.

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Platinum hexafluoride

Platinum hexafluoride is the chemical compound with the formula PtF6.

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.

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Polyester

Polyester is a category of polymers that contain the ester functional group in their main chain.

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Positron emission

Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a particular type of radioactive decay and a subtype of beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).

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Positron emission tomography

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine, functional imaging technique that produces a three-dimensional image of functional processes in the body.

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Pressure swing adsorption

Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a technology used to separate some gas species from a mixture of gases under pressure according to the species' molecular characteristics and affinity for an adsorbent material.

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at less than 37 weeks gestational age.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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Pulmonary artery

The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.

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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.

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Pulmonary gas pressures

The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are.

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Purine

A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound.

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Pyrimidine

Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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Pyrotechnics

Pyrotechnics is the science of using materials capable of undergoing self-contained and self-sustained exothermic chemical reactions for the production of heat, light, gas, smoke and/or sound.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

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Quartz

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Raoul Pictet

Raoul-Pierre Pictet (4 April 1846 – 27 July 1929) was a Swiss physicist and the first person to liquefy nitrogen.

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Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox

Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Reflectance

Reflectance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in reflecting radiant energy.

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Remote sensing

Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on site observation.

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Residue (chemistry)

In chemistry, residue is the material remaining after distillation, evaporation, or filtration.

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Respiration (physiology)

In physiology, respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (called also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for the process of respiration in an organism.

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RNA

Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle FRS was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist and inventor born in Lismore, County Waterford, Ireland.

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Robert H. Goddard

Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket, which he successfully launched on March 16, 1926.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Rock (geology)

In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rocket engine

A rocket engine is a type of jet engine that uses only stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet.

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Rocket propellant

Rocket propellant is a material used by a rocket as, or to produce in a chemical reaction, the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion.

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Royal Society of Chemistry

The Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) is a learned society (professional association) in the United Kingdom with the goal of "advancing the chemical sciences." It was formed in 1980 from the merger of the Chemical Society, the Royal Institute of Chemistry, the Faraday Society and the Society for Analytical Chemistry with a new Royal Charter and the dual role of learned society and professional body.

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Rust

Rust is an iron oxide, usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture.

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Schumann–Runge bands

The Schumann–Runge bands are a set of absorption bands of molecular oxygen that occur at wavelengths between 176 and 192.6 nanometres.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which a diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.

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Seawater

Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.

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Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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Silicate

A silicate is a compound containing an anionic silicon compound.

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Silicate minerals

The silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals, constituting approximately 90 percent of the crust of the Earth.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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Singlet oxygen

Singlet oxygen is a high energy form of oxygen.

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Skeleton

The skeleton (from Greek σκελετός, skeletos "dried up") is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Smelting

Smelting is a form of extractive metallurgy; its main use is to produce a base metal from its ore.

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Smog

Smog is a type of air pollutant.

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Sodium chlorate

Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO3.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Solar wind

The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.

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Solid oxygen

Solid oxygen forms at normal atmospheric pressure at a temperature below 54.36 K (−218.79 °C, −361.82 °F).

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Solubility

Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Space suit

A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.

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Spider

Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Sport

Sport (UK) or sports (US) are all forms of usually competitive physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing entertainment to participants, and in some cases, spectators.

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Squalene

Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Star

A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Steel

Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.

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Submarine

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sun

The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Superoxide

A superoxide, also known by the obsolete name hyperoxide, is a compound that contains the superoxide anion with the chemical formula.

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Surface-supplied diving

Surface-supplied diving refers to divers using equipment supplied with breathing gas using a diver's umbilical from the surface, either from the shore or from a diving support vessel sometimes indirectly via a diving bell.

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Tetrahydrofuran

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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Tetraoxygen

The tetraoxygen molecule (O4), also called oxozone, was first predicted in 1924 by Gilbert N. Lewis, who proposed it as an explanation for the failure of liquid oxygen to obey Curie's law.

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Textile

A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.

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The Botanic Garden

The Botanic Garden (1791) is a set of two poems, The Economy of Vegetation and The Loves of the Plants, by the British poet and naturalist Erasmus Darwin.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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The Periodic Table of Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.

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Thylakoid

A thylakoid is a membrane-bound compartment inside chloroplasts and cyanobacteria.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (for stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

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Transition metal dioxygen complex

Dioxygen complexes are coordination compounds that contain O2 as a ligand.

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Trigonal crystal system

In crystallography, the trigonal crystal system is one of the seven crystal systems.

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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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Triplet oxygen

Triplet oxygen, systematically but less commonly, 1,2-dioxidanediyl, is a term that refers to normal, gaseous oxygen (O2, dioxygen) in its ground state.

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Triplet state

In quantum mechanics, a triplet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of 1, such that there are three allowed values of the spin component, −1, 0 and +1.

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Troposphere

The troposphere is the lowest portion of Earth's atmosphere.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Underwater diving

Underwater diving is the practice of going underwater, either with breathing apparatus (scuba diving and surface supplied diving) or by breath-holding (freediving).

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Uppsala

Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth largest city of Sweden, after Stockholm, Gothenburg and Malmö.

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Vacuum swing adsorption

Vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) is a non-cryogenic gas separation technology.

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Van der Waals force

In physical chemistry, the van der Waals forces (or van der Waals' interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another, with neutral molecules, or with charged molecules.

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Vein

In the circulatory system, veins (from the Latin vena) are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vertebrate

Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Water

Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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Water pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans, aquifers and groundwater).

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Water treatment

Water treatment is, collectively, the industrial-scale processes that makes water more acceptable for an end-use, which may be drinking, industry, or medicine.

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Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves.

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Wüstite

Wüstite (FeO) is a mineral form of iron(II) oxide found with meteorites and native iron.

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Welding

Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.

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William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin

William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a British mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.

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Wiltshire

Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.

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Wood

Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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Zeolite

Zeolites are microporous, aluminosilicate minerals commonly used as commercial adsorbents and catalysts.

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Zirconium dioxide

Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.

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Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski

Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski (28 October 1845 – 16 April 1888) was a Polish physicist and chemist.

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1,4-Dioxane

1,4-Dioxane, often simply called dioxane because the 1,2 and 1,3 isomers of dioxane are rare, is a heterocyclic organic compound.

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Redirects here:

0xygen, ATC code V03AN01, ATCvet code QV03AN01, Active oxygen, Atomic number 8, Diatomic Oxygen, Diatomic oxide, Dioxygen molecule, E948, Element 8, History of oxygen, Molecular oxygen, O (element), Oxigen, Oxygen Atom, Oxygen atom, Oxygen gas, Oxygen ion, Oxygen partial pressure, Oxygen rings, Oxygyn, Oxyjunn, O₂, Pure oxygen, Sauerstoff, Vital air.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen

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