111 relations: African National Congress, Afrikaans, Afrikaner, Afrikaner nationalism, Andries Treurnicht, Angola, Angolan Civil War, Anna Elizabeth Botha, Anti-Apartheid Movement, Apartheid, Asian South African, B. J. Vorster, Bantustan, Barend du Plessis, Berlin Wall, Bethlehem, Free State, Bloemfontein, Bophuthatswana, British Empire, Cape Province, Cape Town, Ciskei, Civil disorder, Coloured, Commando, Commonwealth of Nations, Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act, Confederation, Connie Mulder, Conscription, Conservative Party (South Africa), Cuba, Decoration for Meritorious Services, Defence minister, Desmond Tutu, Disinvestment, Dominion Theology, Dutch Reformed Church, Economic sanctions, Executive (government), F. W. de Klerk, Federation, Freedom of speech, Gaborone, George, Western Cape, Group Areas Act, Harare, Harry Schwarz, Helen Suzman, Hendrik Verwoerd, ..., Homeland, House of Assembly of South Africa, Internment, Interracial marriage, Jacobus Johannes Fouché, Jan Christiaan Heunis, Kenneth Kaunda, Koevoet, Lusaka, Magnus Malan, Majority rule, Marais Viljoen, Mikhail Gorbachev, Minister of Defence and Military Veterans, Miscegenation, Mozambique, Muldergate Scandal, Namibia, National Party (South Africa), Nazi Party, Nelson Mandela, Nuclear weapon, Orange Free State Province, Ossewabrandwag, Paul Roux, Pik Botha, Portuguese Empire, Prime Minister of South Africa, Progressive Federal Party, Ronald Reagan, Rubicon speech, Second Boer War, South Africa, South Africa and weapons of mass destruction, South African apartheid referendum, 1992, South African Border War, South African Council of Churches, South African Defence Force, South African general election, 1948, South African rand, Soviet Union, State of emergency, State President of South Africa, State Security Council, Thabo Mbeki, The New York Times, Tricameral Parliament, Tripartite Accord (Angola), Truth and Reconciliation Commission (South Africa), Union of South Africa, UNITA, United Nations, United Nations Security Council resolution, United States, University of the Free State, Venda, Voortrekkers, Western Cape, Wilderness, Western Cape, World War II, Zambia. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing social democratic political party.
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
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Afrikaners are a Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers first arriving in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
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Afrikaner nationalism (Afrikaner Volkseenheid) is a political ideology that was born in the late nineteenth century among Afrikaners in South Africa; it was strongly influenced by anti-British sentiments that grew strong among the Afrikaners, especially because of the Boer Wars.
Andries Petrus Treurnicht (19 February 1921, Piketberg, Cape Province – 22 April 1993, Cape Town) was a South African politician, Minister of Education during the Soweto Riots and for a short time leader of the National Party in Transvaal.
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Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
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The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in the African country of Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.
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Anna Elizabeth Botha, born on May 6, 1922 as Anna Elizabeth Rossouw, was the First Lady of South Africa, as the wife of State President Pieter Willem Botha, from 1984 to 1989.
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The Anti-Apartheid Movement (AAM), originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organisation that was at the centre of the international movement opposing South Africa's system of apartheid and supporting South Africa's non-whites.
Apartheid (an Afrikaans word meaning "the state of being apart", literally "apart-hood") was a system of racial segregation in South Africa enforced through legislation by the National Party (NP), the governing party from 1948 to 1994.
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The majority of the Asian South African population is of Indian origin, most of whom are descended from indentured workers transported to work in the 19th century on the sugar plantations of the eastern coastal area, then known as Natal.
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Balthazar Johannes Vorster (13 December 1915 – 10 September 1983), better known as John Vorster, served as the Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978 and as the fourth State President of South Africa from 1978 to 1979.
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A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of the policy of apartheid.
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Barend Jacobus du Plessis, (born 19 January 1940 in Johannesburg) is a South African politician and a former member of the now-dissolved National Party, as well as Minister of Finance in 1984–1992.
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The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
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Bethlehem is a town in the eastern Free State province of South Africa that is situated on the Liebenbergs river (also called Liebenbergs Vlei) along a fertile valley just north of the Rooiberg Mountains on the N5 road.
Bloemfontein (or;; Afrikaans and Dutch for "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain") is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals; the other two capitals are Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital.
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Bophuthatswana (meaning "gathering of the Tswana people"), officially the Republic of Bophuthatswana (Tswana: Repaboleki ya Bophuthatswana; Afrikaans: Republiek van Bophuthatswana), was a bantustan ("homeland"; an area set aside for members of a specific ethnicity) and nominal parliamentary democracy in the northwestern region of South Africa.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The Province of the Cape of Good Hope (Provinsie van die Kaap die Goeie Hoop), commonly referred to as the Cape Province (Kaapprovinsie) was a province in the Union of South Africa and subsequently the Republic of South Africa.
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Cape Town (Kaapstad; Ikapa) ranks third among the most populous urban areas in South Africa, after Johannesburg, and has roughly the same population as the Durban Metropolitan Area.
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Ciskei was a nominally independent state - a Bantustan - in the south east of South Africa.
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Civil disorder, also known as civil unrest or civil strife, is a broad term that is typically used by law enforcement to describe unrest caused by a group of people.
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New!!: P. W. Botha and Coloured ·
Commando is a soldier or operative of an elite light infantry or special operations force often specializing in amphibious landings, parachuting or abseiling.
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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 was a law enacted by the United States Congress.
A confederation (also known as confederacy or league) is a union of political units for common action in relation to other units.
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Connie Mulder, born Petrus Cornelius Mulder (5 June 1925–12 January 1988, Johannesburg), was a South African politician, cabinet minister and father of Pieter Mulder, present leader of the Freedom Front Plus.
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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a hardright conservative party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.
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The Decoration for Meritorious Services was an honour conferred by the pre-1994 Government of the Republic of South Africa, usually upon those appointed as State President of South Africa.
The title Defense minister, Minister for Defense, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of State for Defence, Secretary of National Defense or some similar variation, is assigned to the person in a cabinet position in charge of a Ministry of Defence, which regulates the armed forces in sovereign states.
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Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African social rights activist and retired Anglican bishop who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid.
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Disinvestment refers to the use of a concerted economic boycott to pressure a government, industry, or company towards a change in policy, or in the case of governments, even regime change.
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Dominion Theology is the idea that Christians should work toward either a nation governed by Christians or one governed by a conservative Christian understanding of biblical law.
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The Dutch Reformed Church (in Dutch: Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk or NHK) was a Reformed Christian denomination in the Netherlands.
Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied unilaterally by one country (or multilaterally, by a group of countries) on another country (or group of countries).
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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
Frederik Willem de Klerk (born 18 March 1936) is a South African politician who served as the country's State President from September 1989 to May 1994.
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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.
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Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.
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(Tswana; English) is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 based on the 2011 census, about 10% of the total population of Botswana.
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George is a city in South Africa's Western Cape province.
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Group Areas Act was the title of three acts of the Parliament of South Africa enacted under the apartheid government of South Africa.
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Harare (officially called Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.
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Harry Heinz Schwarz (13 May 1924 – 5 February 2010) was a South African lawyer, statesman and long-time political opposition leader against apartheid in South Africa, who eventually served as the South African ambassador to the United States during the country’s transition to majority rule.
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Helen Suzman, DBE (7 November 1917 – 1 January 2009) was a liberal South African anti-apartheid activist and politician.
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Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 – 6 September 1966), also known as Dr H.F Verwoerd, was a South African applied psychology and sociology professor; Afrikaans newspaper editor-in-chief and Prime Minister of South Africa.
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A homeland (rel. country of origin and native land) is the concept of the place (cultural geography) with which an ethnic group holds a long history and a deep cultural association – the country in which a particular national identity began.
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The House of Assembly (known in Afrikaans as the Volksraad, or "People's Council") was the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa from 1910 to 1981, the sole parliamentary chamber between 1981 and 1984, and latterly the white representative house of the Tricameral Parliament from 1984 to 1994, when it was replaced by the current National Assembly.
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial.
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Interracial marriage occurs when two people of differing racial groups marry.
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Jacobus Johannes "Jim" Fouché (6 June 1898 – 23 September 1980) served as the second State President of South Africa from 1968 to 1975.
Jan Christiaan 'Chris' Heunis (20 April 1927 – 27 Jan 2006) was a South African Afrikaner lawyer, politician, member of the National Party and cabinet minister in the governments of John Vorster and P.W. Botha.
Kenneth David Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, served as the first President of Zambia, from 1964 to 1991.
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The Koevoet (translated to crowbar, abbreviated Operation K or SWAPOL-COIN) was a major paramilitary organisation under South African-administered South-West Africa, now the Republic of Namibia.
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Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.
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General Magnus André de Merindol Malan (30 January 1930 – 18 July 2011) was the Minister of Defence in the cabinet of President P. W. Botha, Chief of the South African Defence Force (SADF) and Chief of the South African Army.
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Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
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Marais Viljoen (2 December 1915 – 4 January 2007) was the last ceremonial State President of South Africa from 4 June 1979 until 3 September 1984.
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Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.
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The Minister of Defence and Military Veterans (formerly the Minister of Defence) is a Minister in the Government of South Africa, who is responsible for overseeing the Department of Defence, the Department of Military Veterans and the South African National Defence Force.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
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Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique), is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
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The Muldergate scandal, also known as the Information Scandal, was a South African political scandal involving the Department of Information.
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Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), and formerly German South-West Africa and then South West Africa, is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
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The National Party (Nasionale Party) was a political party in South Africa founded in 1915 and first became the governing party of the country in 1924.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a political party in Germany active between 1920 and 1945 that practised Nazism.
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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician, and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
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A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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The Province of the Orange Free State (Provinsie van die Oranje-Vrystaat), commonly referred to as the Orange Free State Province (Oranje-Vrystaat Provinsie) was one of the four provinces of South Africa from 1910-1994.
The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organization in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war.
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Paul Roux is a small town in the flatlands of Free State province of South Africa that produces poplar wood for the safety match industry.
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Roelof Frederik "Pik" Botha (born 27 April 1932, in Rustenburg, Transvaal, Union of South Africa) is a former politician from South Africa who served as the country's foreign minister in the last years of the apartheid era.
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The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português), was the first global empire in history.
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The Prime Minister of South Africa (Afrikaans: Premier or Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika) was the head of government in South Africa between 1910 and 1984.
The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) (Progressiewe Federale Party) was a South African political party formed in 1977.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
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The Rubicon speech was delivered by the South African President PW Botha on the evening of 15 August 1985 in Durban.
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The Second Boer War (Tweede Boerenoorlog, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, literally "Second Freedom War") otherwise known as the Second Anglo-Boer War, was fought from 11 October 1899 until 31 May 1902 between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic) and the Orange Free State.
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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From the 1960s to the 1980s, South Africa pursued research into weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons.
A referendum on ending apartheid was held in South Africa on 17 March 1992.
The South African Border War, commonly referred to as the Angolan Bush War in South Africa, was a conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 largely in South-West Africa (now Namibia) and Angola between South Africa and its allied forces (mainly the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, UNITA) on the one side and the Angolan government, South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO), and their allies (mainly Cuba) on the other.
The South African Council of Churches (SACC) is an interdenominational forum in South Africa.
The South African Defence Force (SADF) comprised the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994.
The parliamentary election in South Africa on 26 May 1948 represented a turning point in the country's history.
The rand (sign: R; code: ZAR) is the currency of South Africa.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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A government or division of government (i.e. on a municipal, provincial/state level) may declare that their area is in a state of emergency.
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State President, or Staatspresident in Afrikaans, was the title of South Africa's head of state from 1961 to 1994.
The State Security Council (SSC) was formed in South Africa in 1972 to advise the government on the country's national policy and strategy concerning security, its implementation and determining security priorities.
Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served nine years as the second post-apartheid President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The Tricameral Parliament was the name given to the South African parliament and its structure from 1984 to 1994, established by the South African Constitution of 1983.
The Tripartite Accord, Three Powers Accord or New York Accords granted independence to Namibia and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the abolition of apartheid.
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) (Portuguese: União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) is the second-largest political party in Angola.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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A United Nations Security Council resolution is a UN resolution adopted by the fifteen members of the Security Council; the UN body charged with "primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security".
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The University of the Free State is a multi campus public university in Bloemfontein, the capital of the Free State and the judicial capital of South Africa.
Venda was a bantustan in northern South Africa, bordering Zimbabwe to the north, while to the south it shared a long border with another black homeland, Gazankulu.
New!!: P. W. Botha and Venda ·
The Voortrekkers (Afrikaans and Dutch for pioneers, literally "fore-pullers", "those in front who pull", "fore-trekkers") were Afrikaner emigrants during the 1830s and 1840s who left the Cape Colony (British at the time, but founded by the Dutch) moving into the interior of what is now South Africa in what is known as the Great Trek.
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The Western Cape (Wes-Kaap, iNtshona Kapa) is a province of South Africa, situated in the south-western part of the country.
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Wilderness (Wildernis) is a seaside town on the Garden Route of the southern Cape in South Africa.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The Republic of Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
New!!: P. W. Botha and Zambia ·