76 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Allosteric regulation, Amoeba, Apoptosis, Autonomic nervous system, C-terminus, Calcium, Cardiac muscle, Cell membrane, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Chicken, Chronic pain, Circulatory system, Clathrin, Conformational change, Contractility, Depolarization, Desensitization (medicine), Ejaculation, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Fluke, Frog (disambiguation), Gating (electrophysiology), Golgi apparatus, Heteromer, Homomeric, Human, Human Genome Organisation, Ivermectin, Ligand-gated ion channel, Locus (genetics), Macrophage, Mouse, Muscle contraction, N-terminus, Neuroglia, Neuron, P2RX1, P2RX2, P2RX3, P2RX4, P2RX5, P2RX6, P2RX7, Pain, Peripheral nervous system, Platelet, ..., PPADS, Propidium iodide, Protein kinase C, Protein subunit, Protein targeting, Protein trimer, Purinergic receptor, Rabbit, Rat, Sensory neuron, Sequence motif, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, SNARE (protein), Sodium, Suramin, TAX1BP3, Tissue (biology), Urinary bladder, Urination, Vas deferens, Vascular resistance, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), White blood cell, X-ray crystallography, Zebrafish. Expand index (26 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of a protein by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the protein's active site.
An amoeba (also ameba, amœba or amoeboid) is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.
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The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
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Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is involuntary striated muscle that is found in the walls and histological foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.
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The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are specialized junctions through which neurons signal to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
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Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
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The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
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In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
Contractility refers to the ability for self-contraction, especially of the muscles, or similar active biological tissue.
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Depolarization in the context of biology refers to the sudden change within a cell during which the cell undergoes a dramatic electrical change.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (usually carrying sperm) from the male reproductory tract.
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Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in the cells of eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tubes known as cisternae.
In biology, an endosome is a membrane-bounded compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
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A fluke is a lucky or improbable occurrence, with the implication that the occurrence could not be repeated.
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A frog is a member of a diverse group of amphibians composing the order Anura.
In electrophysiology, the term gating refers to the opening (activation) or closing (by deactivation or inactivation) of ion channels.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
A heteromer is something that consists of different parts.
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A homomeric substance is one which is made out of any number of identical products or molecules.
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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
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The Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) is an organization involved in the Human Genome Project, a project about mapping the human genome.
Ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a + 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b) is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug in the avermectin family.
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Ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) are a group of transmembrane ion channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
A locus (plural loci) is the specific location or position of a gene, DNA sequence, on a chromosome, in the field of genetics.
Macrophages (big eaters, from makros "large" + phagein "eat"; abbr. MΦ) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to the surface of healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis.
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A mouse (plural: mice) is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
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Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) refers to the start of a protein or polypeptide terminated by an amino acid with a free amine group (-NH2).
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Glial cells, sometimes called neuroglia or simply glia (Greek γλοία "glue"; pronounced in English as either or), are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system.
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A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
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P2X purinoceptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX1 gene.
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P2X purinoceptor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX2 gene.
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P2X purinoceptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX3 gene.
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P2X purinoceptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX4 gene.
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P2X purinoceptor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX5 gene.
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P2X purinoceptor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX6 gene.
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P2X purinoceptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX7 gene.
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Pain can be described as a distressing sensation in a particular part of the body.
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The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the nerves and ganglia outside of the brain and spinal cord.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clogging blood vessel injuries.
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PPADS (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid) is a selective purinergic P2X antagonist.
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Propidium iodide (or PI) is an intercalating agent and a fluorescent molecule with a molecular mass of 668.4 Da that can be used to stain cells.
Protein kinase C also known as PKC (EC 184.108.40.206) is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside of it.
In biochemistry, a trimer is a macromolecular complex formed by three, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids.
Purinergic receptors, also known as purinoceptors, are a family of plasma membrane molecules that are found in almost all mammalian tissues.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world.
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Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.
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Sensory neurons are nerve cells that transmit sensory information (sight, sound, feeling, etc.). They are activated by sensory input, and send projections to other elements of the nervous system, ultimately conveying sensory information to the brain or spinal cord.
In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance.
Skeletal muscle is a form of striated muscle tissue which is under the voluntary control of the somatic nervous system.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF Attachment Protein) REceptor") are a large protein superfamily consisting of more than 60 members in yeast and mammalian cells.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from New Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
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Suramin is an antiparasitic drug developed by Oskar Dressel and Richard Kothe of Bayer, Germany in 1916, and is still sold by Bayer under the brand name Germanin.
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Tax1-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAX1BP3 gene.
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In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.
The urinary bladder is the organ that collects urine excreted by the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the urinary meatus outside of the body.
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The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
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Vascular resistance refers to the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer membrane.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a tropical freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
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