137 relations: Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Acid strength, Acid–base homeostasis, Acidity function, Acidosis, Adenosine triphosphate, Agriculture, Alkali, Alkali soil, Alkaline diet, Alkalinity, Alkalosis, Amphoterism, Anthocyanin, Aqueous solution, Arterial blood gas, Artificial seawater, Base (chemistry), Benzoic acid, Biological pigment, Biology, Blood, Body fluid, Buffer solution, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carbonic acid, Carboxylic acid, Carlsberg Laboratory, Cerebrospinal fluid, Chemical engineering, Chemical equilibrium, Chemical oceanography, Chemical potential, Chemical property, Chemist, Chemistry, Chromaffin cell, Citric acid, Citrus, Civil engineering, Cologarithm, Colorimeter (chemistry), Concentration, Conservation of mass, Cubic function, Cytosol, Danes, Denaturation (biochemistry), ..., Dental caries, Dental plaque, Determination of equilibrium constants, Dimensionless quantity, Environmental science, Enzyme, Exponentiation, Faraday constant, Fluoride, Food science, Forestry, French language, Galvanic cell, Gas constant, Gastric acid, German language, Glass electrode, Hammett acidity function, Hemoglobin, Hibiscus, Human skin, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen ion, Hydronium, Hydroxide, Inflection, International Organization for Standardization, International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Ion, Ion selective electrode, Ionic strength, ISO 31-8, Kelvin, Lactic acid, Latin, Liquid junction potential, Logarithm, Lyonium ion, Lysosome, Medicine, Mitochondrial matrix, Mole (unit), Muscle, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nernst equation, Nonlinear system, Nutrition, Ocean acidification, Oceanography, Operational definition, Pancreas, PCO2, PH indicator, PH meter, Phosphate, Properties of water, Protein, Proton, Protonation, Quadratic equation, Red cabbage, Red wine, RICE chart, Root effect, S. P. L. Sørensen, Saturated calomel electrode, Seawater, Self-ionization of water, Silver chloride electrode, Simultaneous equations, Sodium chloride, Sodium hydroxide, Spectrophotometry, Standard electrode potential, Standard hydrogen electrode, Standard state, Sulfate, Superacid, Thermodynamic activity, Thermodynamic temperature, Titration, Total inorganic carbon, Traceability, Universal indicator, Urine, Water purification, Water treatment. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.
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An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
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The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
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Acid–base homeostasis is the part of human homeostasis concerning the proper balance between acids and bases, also called body pH.
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An acidity function is a measure of the acidity of a medium or solvent system,Rochester, C. H. (1970).
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Acidosis is an increased acidity in the blood and other body tissue (i.e. an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly القلي, القالي, “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
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Alkali, or alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH (> 8.5), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity.
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Alkaline diet (also known as the alkaline ash diet, alkaline acid diet, acid ash diet, and the acid alkaline diet) describes a group of loosely related diets based on the belief that certain foods can affect the acidity and pH of bodily fluids, including the urine or blood, and can therefore be used to treat or prevent diseases.
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Alkalinity is the name given to the quantitative capacity of an aqueous solution to neutralize an acid.
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Alkalosis refers to a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).
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In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react as an acid as well as a base.
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Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἀνθός (anthos).
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An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
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An arterial blood gas (ABG) is a blood test that is performed using blood from an artery.
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Artificial seawater (abbreviated ASW) is a mixture of dissolved mineral salts (and sometimes vitamins) that simulates seawater.
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In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste bitter, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.
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Benzoic acid, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid.
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Biological pigments, also known simply as pigments or biochromes are substances produced by living organisms that have a color resulting from selective color absorption.
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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.
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Blood is a bodily fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
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Body fluid, bodily fluids or biofluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living people.
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A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid, characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion,.
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Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
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A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(O)OH).
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The Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen, Denmark, was created in 1875 by J. C. Jacobsen, the founder of the Carlsberg brewery, for the sake of advancing biochemical knowledge, especially relating to brewing.
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Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine.
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Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that applies physical sciences (e.g. chemistry and physics) and life sciences (e.g. biology, microbiology and biochemistry) together with mathematics and economics to produce, transform, transport, and properly use chemicals, materials and energy.
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In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time.
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Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
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In thermodynamics, chemical potential, also known as partial molar free energy, is a form of potential energy that can be absorbed or released during a chemical reaction.
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A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
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A chemist is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.
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Chromaffin cells, also pheochromocytes, are neuroendocrine cells found mostly in the medulla of the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys) in mammals.
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Citric acid is a weak organic acid with the formula C6H8O7.
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Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae.
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Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings.
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In mathematics, the base-b cologarithm, sometimes shortened to colog, of a number is the base-b logarithm of the reciprocal of the number.
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A colourimeter is a device used in colorimetry.
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In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.
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The law of conservation of mass or principle of mass conservation states that for any system closed to all transfers of matter and energy (both of which have mass), the mass of the system must remain constant over time, as system mass cannot change quantity if it is not added or removed.
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In algebra, a cubic function is a function of the form where a is nonzero.
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The cytosol or intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix is the liquid found inside cells.
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Danes (danskere) are the citizens of Denmark, most of whom speak Danish and consider themselves to be of Danish ethnicity.
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Denaturation is a process in which proteins or nucleic acids lose the quaternary structure, tertiary structure and secondary structure which is present in their native state, by application of some external stress or compound such as a strong acid or base, a concentrated inorganic salt, an organic solvent (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), radiation or heat.
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Dental caries (caries is Latin for "rottenness"), also known as tooth decay, cavities, or caries, is a breakdown of teeth due to activities of bacteria.
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Dental plaque is a biofilm or mass of bacteria that grows on surfaces within the mouth.
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Equilibrium constants are determined in order to quantify chemical equilibria.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is applicable.
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Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences (including but not limited to ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, zoology, mineralogy, oceanology, limnology, soil science, geology, atmospheric science, and geodesy) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems.
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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
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Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases: In that case, bn is called the n-th power of b, or b raised to the power n. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base.
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In physics and chemistry, the Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and named after Michael Faraday, is the magnitude of electric charge per mole of electrons.
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Fluoride,. According to this source, is a possible pronunciation in British English.
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Food science is the applied science voted to the study of food.
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Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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A galvanic cell, or voltaic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, or Alessandro Volta respectively, is an electrochemical cell that derives electrical energy from spontaneous redox reactions taking place within the cell.
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The gas constant (also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or) is a physical constant which is featured in many fundamental equations in the physical sciences, such as the ideal gas law and the Nernst equation.
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Gastric acid is a digestive fluid, formed in the stomach.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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A glass electrode is a type of ion-selective electrode made of a doped glass membrane that is sensitive to a specific ion.
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The Hammett acidity function (H0) is a measure of acidity that is used for very concentrated solutions of strong acids, including superacids.
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Hemoglobin; also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
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Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.
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The human skin is the outer covering of the body.
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Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.
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Hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all ions of hydrogen and its isotopes.
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In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
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Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
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In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.
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The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC, or) is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries.
An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
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An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential, which can be measured by a voltmeter or pH meter.
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The ionic strength of a solution is a measure of the concentration of ions in that solution.
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ISO 31-8 is the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines names and symbols for quantities and units related to physical chemistry and molecular physics.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other.
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In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse operation to exponentiation.
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In chemistry, a lyonium ion is the cation derived by the protonation of a solvent molecule.
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A lysosome (derived from the Greek words lysis, meaning "to loosen", and soma, "body") is a membrane-bound cell organelle found in most animal cells (they are absent in red blood cells).
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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
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In the mitochondrion, the matrix contains soluble enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of pyruvate and other small organic molecules.
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The mole is a unit of measurement for amount of substance.
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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), known between 1901 and 1988 as the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), is a measurement standards laboratory, also known as a National Metrological Institute (NMI), which is a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce.
In electrochemistry, the Nernst equation is an equation that relates the reduction potential of a half-cell (or the total voltage, i.e. the electromotive force, of the full cell) at any point in time to the standard electrode potential, temperature, activity, and reaction quotient of the underlying reactions and species used.
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In physics and other sciences, a nonlinear system, in contrast to a linear system, is a system which does not satisfy the superposition principle – meaning that the output of a nonlinear system is not directly proportional to the input.
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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food (e.g. phytonutrients, anthocyanins, tannins, etc.) in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
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Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
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Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology and marine science, is the branch of Earth science that studies the ocean.
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An operational definition is a result of the process of operationalization and is used to define something (e.g. a variable, term, or object) in terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine its existence, duration, and quantity.
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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
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The pCO2 is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) in arterial blood.
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A pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound added in small amounts to a solution so the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually.
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A pH Meter is a device used for potentiometrically measuring the pH, which is either the concentration or the activity of hydrogen ions, of an aqueous solution.
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A phosphate (PO43−) as an inorganic chemical is a salt of phosphoric acid.
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Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering 70 percent of the planet. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is in dynamic equilibrium between the liquid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature, it is a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue. Many substances dissolve in water and it is commonly referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some properties may vary from those of the pure substance. However, there are also many compounds that are essentially, if not completely, insoluble in water. Water is the only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and it is essential for all life on Earth. Water makes up 55% to 78% of the human body.
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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
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In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
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In elementary algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form where represents an unknown, and,, and represent known numbers such that is not equal to.
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The red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) is a kind of cabbage, also known as purple cabbage, red kraut, or blue kraut after preparation.
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Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-coloured (black) grape varieties.
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RICE chart, or RICE box is a tabular system of keeping track of changing concentrations in an equilibrium reaction.
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The Root effect is a physiological phenomenon that occurs in fish hemoglobin, named after its discoverer R. W. Root.
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Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen (9 January 1868 – 12 February 1939) was a Danish chemist, famous for the introduction of the concept of pH, a scale for measuring acidity and basicity.
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The Saturated calomel electrode (SCE) is a reference electrode based on the reaction between elemental mercury and mercury(I) chloride.
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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
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The self-ionization of water (also autoionization of water, and autodissociation of water) is an ionization reaction in pure water or an aqueous solution, in which a water molecule, H2O, deprotonates (loses the nucleus of one of its hydrogen atoms) to become a hydroxide ion, OH−.
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A silver chloride electrode is a type of reference electrode, commonly used in electrochemical measurements.
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In mathematics, a set of simultaneous equations, also known as a system of equations, is a finite set of equations for which common solutions are sought.
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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
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Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound.
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In chemistry, spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of the reflection or transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength.
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In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential, abbreviated E° or E⦵ (with a superscript plimsoll character, pronounced "standard" or "nought"), is the measure of individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, which is with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3, and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.
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The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
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In chemistry, the standard state of a material (pure substance, mixture or solution) is a reference point used to calculate its properties under different conditions.
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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO42−.
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According to the classical definition, a superacid is an acid with an acidity greater than that of 100% pure sulfuric acid, which has a Hammett acidity function (H0) of −12.
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In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol a) is a measure of the “effective concentration” of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution.
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Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
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Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte.
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The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC) or dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution.
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Traceability is the ability to verify the history, location, or application of an item by means of documented recorded identification.
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A Universal indicator is a pH indicator composed of a solution of several compounds that exhibits several smooth colour changes over a pH value range from 1-14 to indicate the acidity or alkalinity of solutions.
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Urine (from Latin Urina, ae, f.) is a liquid by-product of the body secreted by the kidneys through a process called urination (or micturition) and excreted through the urethra.
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Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from contaminated water.
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Water treatment is, collectively, the industrial-scale processes that makes water more acceptable for an end-use, which may be drinking, industry, or medicine.
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