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Palaeognathae, or paleognaths, is one of the two living clades of birds – the other being Neognathae. [1]

93 relations: Acetabulum, Appalachia (Mesozoic), Arabian ostrich, Asian ostrich, Basal (phylogenetics), Beak, Biology, Bird, Brood parasite, Campanian, Cassowary, Casuariiformes, Cenozoic, Clade, Cladogram, Class (biology), Clavicle, Convergent evolution, Coracoid, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crypturellus, Dromaius, Dromornithidae, Early Cretaceous, Elephant bird, Emu, Endangered species, Eocene, Feather, Fenestra (anatomy), Flightless bird, Furcula, Galliformes, Gondwana, Great spotted kiwi, Holocene, Homo, Ilium (bone), International Commission on Stratigraphy, Ischium, Kiwi, Late Cretaceous, Late Quaternary prehistoric birds, Limenavis, List of fossil bird genera, List of recently extinct birds, Lithornis, Lithornithidae, ..., Maastrichtian, Miocene, Moa, Monophyly, Myr, Neognathae, Neontology, Neoteny, Neotropic ecozone, Notopalaeognathae, Novaeratitae, Order (biology), Ostrich, Palaeotis, Palate, Parallel evolution, Paraphyly, Patagonia, Pennaceous feather, Premaxilla, Pterygoid bone, Pygostyle, Ratite, Rhea (bird), Rheidae, Scapula, Scapulocoracoid, Scientific controversy, Sister group, Southern cassowary, Sternum, Struthionidae, Sympatry, Tertiary, Tinamou, Tuatara, Ungual, Uropygial gland, Vegavis, Vertebra, Vomer, William Plane Pycraft, Zealandia (continent). Expand index (43 more) »


The acetabulum (cotyloid cavity) is a concave surface of the pelvis.

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Appalachia (Mesozoic)

In the Mesozoic Era (252 to 66 million years ago) Appalachia was an island land mass separated from Laramidia to the west by the Western Interior Seaway.

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Arabian ostrich

The Arabian ostrich or Syrian ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus) is an extinct subspecies of the ostrich which lived on the Arabian Peninsula and in the Near East until the mid-20th century.

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Asian ostrich

The Asian or Asiatic ostrich (Struthio asiaticus), is an extinct species of ostrich that ranged from Morocco, the Middle East to China and Mongolia.

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Basal (phylogenetics)

In phylogenetics, basal is the direction of the base (or root) of a rooted phylogenetic tree or cladogram.

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The beak, bill, or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which is used for eating and for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young.

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Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.

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Brood parasite

Brood parasites are organisms that rely on others to raise their young.

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The Campanian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series).

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The cassowaries are ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) in the genus Casuarius and are native to the tropical forests of New Guinea, nearby islands, and northeastern Australia.

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The bird order Casuariiformes has four surviving members: the three species of cassowary, and the only remaining species of emu.

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The Cenozoic Era (or; also Cænozoic, Caenozoic or Cainozoic or; meaning "new life", from Greek καινός kainos "new", and ζωή zoe "life") is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and covering the period from 65 million years ago to present day.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch") is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics which shows relations among organisms.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is.

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In human anatomy, the clavicle or collarbone is a long bone that serves as a strut between the shoulder blade and the breastbone.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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A coracoid is a paired bone which is part of the shoulder assembly in all vertebrates except therian mammals (therians.

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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) boundary, formerly known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary, is a geological signature, usually a thin band.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a mass extinction of some three-quarters of plant and animal species on Earth—including all non-avian dinosaurs—that occurred over a geologically short period of time, 66 million years ago.

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Crypturellus is a genus of tinamous and is considered a forest species.

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Dromaius is a genus of ratite present in Australia.

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Dromornithidae (the dromornithids) were a clade of large, flightless Australian birds of the Oligocene through Pleistocene epochs.

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Early Cretaceous

The Early Cretaceous/MiddleCretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.

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Elephant bird

Elephant birds are members of the extinct family Aepyornithidae.

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The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird in the world by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.

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Endangered species

An Endangered (EN) species is a species which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List as likely to become extinct.

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The Eocene (symbol E&thinsp) Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and some non-avian theropod dinosaurs.

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Fenestra (anatomy)

A fenestra is, in anatomy, the term used to refer to natural (as opposed to traumatic) openings in the skull or other bones in vertebrates.

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Flightless bird

Flightless birds are birds that have evolved the inability to fly.

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The furcula ("little fork" in Latin) or wishbone is a forked bone found in birds and some other animals, and is formed by the fusion of the two clavicles.

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The Galliformes are an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old World quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, junglefowl and the Cracidae.

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In paleogeography, Gondwana, also Gondwanaland, is the name given to the more southerly of two supercontinents (the other being Laurasia) that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent that existed from approximately 300 to 180 million years ago (Mya).

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Great spotted kiwi

The great spotted kiwi, great gray kiwi,Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003) or roroa (Apteryx haastii) is a species of kiwi endemic to the South Island of New Zealand.

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The Holocene is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years BP and continues to the present.

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Homo is the genus comprising the species Homo sapiens, which includes modern humans, plus several extinct species classified as ancestral to or closely related to modern humans—as for example from Homo habilis to Homo neanderthalensis.

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Ilium (bone)

The ilium is the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.

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International Commission on Stratigraphy

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.

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The ischium forms the lower and back part of the hip bone (os coxae).

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Kiwi (pronounced) or kiwis are flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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Late Quaternary prehistoric birds

Prehistoric birds are various taxa of birds that have became extinct before recorded history, or more precisely, before they could be studied alive by ornithologists.

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Limenavis is a prehistoric bird genus from the Late Cretaceous.

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List of fossil bird genera

Birds are generally believed to have evolved from certain feathered theropod dinosaurs, and there is no real dividing line between birds and dinosaurs, except of course that some of the former survived the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event while the latter did not.

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List of recently extinct birds

Since 1500, over 190 species of birds have become extinct, and this rate of extinction seems to be increasing.

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Lithornis is a genus of extinct paleognathous birds.

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Lithornithidae is an extinct, possibly paraphyletic clade of early paleognath birds.

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The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age or upper stage of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem.

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The Miocene (symbol MI) is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).

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The moa were nine species (in six genera) of flightless birds endemic to New Zealand.

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In common cladistic usage, a monophyletic group is a taxon (group of organisms) which forms a clade, meaning that it consists of an ancestral species and all its descendants.

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The abbreviation myr refers to a unit of time equal to one million years.

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Neognaths (Neognathae) are birds within the subclass Neornithes of the class Aves.

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Neontology is the part of biology which – in contrast to paleontology – deals with now living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Neoteny, also called juvenilization,Montagu, A. (1989).

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Neotropic ecozone

The Neotropic ecozone is one of the eight ecozones constituting the Earth's land surface.

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Notopalaeognathae is a clade that contains the order Rheiformes (rheas), the clade Novaeratitae (birds like the kiwi and the emu), the order Tinamiformes (tinamous) and the extinct order Dinornithiformes (the moas).

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Novaeratitae is a clade that was originally defined to contain the recent common ancestors of the orders Casuariiformes (emus and cassowaries) and Apterygiformes (kiwis).

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.

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Palaeotis is a genus of paleognath birds from the middle Eocene epoch of central Europe.

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The palate is the roof the mouth in humans and other mammals.

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Parallel evolution

Parallel evolution is the development of a similar trait in related, but distinct, species descending from the same ancestor, but from different clades.

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In taxonomy, a group is said to be paraphyletic if it consists of all the descendants of the group's last common ancestor minus a small number of monophyletic subgroups of descendants, typically just one or two such subgroups.

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Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Pennaceous feather

The pennaceous feather is a type of feather present in most modern birds and in some other species of maniraptoriform dinosaurs.

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The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.

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Pterygoid bone

The pterygoid is a paired bone forming part of the palate of many vertebrates, behind the palatine bones.

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Pygostyle describes a skeletal condition in which the final few caudal vertebrae are fused into a single ossification, supporting the tail feathers and musculature.

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A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.

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Rhea (bird)

The rheas are large ratites (flightless birds without a keel on their sternum bone) in the order Rheiformes, native to South America, related to the ostrich and emu.

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Rheidae is a family of flightless ratite birds which first appeared during the Paleocene epoch.

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In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas) or shoulder blade, is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).

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The Scapulocoracoid is the unit of the pectoral girdle that contains the coracoid and scapula.

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Scientific controversy

A scientific controversy is some form of substantial disagreement among scientists.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a systematic term from cladistics denoting the closest relatives of a given unit in a phylogenetic tree.

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Southern cassowary

The southern cassowary (Casuarius casuarius) also known as double-wattled cassowary, Australian cassowary or two-wattled cassowary,Davies, S. J. J. F. (2003) is a large flightless black bird.

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The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone shaped like a necktie located in the center of the chest.

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Struthionidae is a family of flightless ratite birds which first appeared during the Eocene epoch.

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In biology, two species or populations are considered sympatric when they exist in the same geographic area and thus regularly encounter one another.

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Tertiary is the former term for the geologic period from 66 million to 2.58 million years ago, a time span that lies between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary.

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Tinamous form an order (Tinamiformes) comprising a single family, with two distinct subfamilies, containing 47 species of birds found in Mexico, Central America, and South America.

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Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand and which, although resembling most lizards, are part of a distinct lineage, the order Rhynchocephalia.

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An ungual (from Latin unguis, i.e. nail) is a highly modified distal toe bone which ends in a hoof, claw, or nail.

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Uropygial gland

The uropygial gland, informally known as the preen gland or the oil gland, is a bilobate sebaceous gland possessed by the majority of birds.

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Vegavis is a genus of extinct bird that lived during the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian stage) of Antarctica, some 68 to 66 mya.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate animal.

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The vomer is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull.

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William Plane Pycraft

William Plane Pycraft (13 January 1868 – 1 May 1942) was an English osteologist and zoologist.

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Zealandia (continent)

Zealandia, also known as Tasmantis or the New Zealand continent, is a nearly submerged continental fragment that sank after breaking away from Australia 60–85 Ma (million years) ago, having separated from Antarctica between 85 and 130 Ma ago.

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Redirects here:

Eoaves, Palaeognath, Paleognath, Paleognathae, Paleognathe, Paleognathes.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palaeognathae

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