148 relations: Adyghe language, Afrikaans, Alternation (linguistics), Americanist phonetic notation, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic phonology, Armenian alphabet, Armenian language, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Azerbaijani alphabet, Azerbaijani language, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Bulgarian language, Cantonese, Cantonese phonology, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chechen language, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Close front unrounded vowel, Consonant, Corsican alphabet, Corsican language, Cyrillic script, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Danish language, Danish orthography, Danish phonology, Devanagari, Diphthong, Distinctive feature, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dutch phonology, Eastern Armenian, English language, English orthography, English phonology, Esperanto, Esperanto orthography, Esperanto phonology, Finnish language, Finnish orthography, ..., Finnish phonology, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Gallurese dialect, German language, German orthography, Gurmukhī alphabet, Hallelujah, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hiragana, History of Greek, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Index of phonetics articles, International Phonetic Alphabet, Inverted breve, Iota, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, J, Japanese language, Japanese phonology, Jägermeister, Jyutping, Kabardian language, Korean language, Korean phonology, Language, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Malay alphabet, Malay language, Marathi language, Modern Hebrew phonology, Modern Standard Arabic, Nasal palatal approximant, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Palatal lateral approximant, Phonetic transcription, Pinyin, Polish language, Polish orthography, Polish phonology, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Punjabi language, Revised Romanization of Korean, Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romanization of Japanese, Romanization of Russian, Romanization of Ukrainian, Russian language, Russian orthography, Russian phonology, Semivowel, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Speech, Standard Chinese, Standard Chinese phonology, Standard German phonology, Swedish language, Swedish orthography, Swedish phonology, Syriac alphabet, Tilquiapan Zapotec, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Turkmen alphabet, Turkmen language, Ubykh language, Ubykh phonology, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian phonology, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiceless palatal approximant, West Frisian language, X-SAMPA, Zapotec languages. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгaбзэ, adyghabze), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian.
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
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In linguistics, an alternation is the phenomenon of a phoneme or morpheme exhibiting variation in its phonological realization.
Americanist phonetic notation (variously called American Phonetic Alphabet, or APA) is a system of phonetic notation originally developed by European and American anthropologists and language scientists (students of Neo-grammarians) for the phonetic and phonemic transcription of Native American and European languages.
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
While many languages have numerous dialects that differ in phonology, the contemporary spoken Arabic language is more properly described as a continuum of varieties.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayots grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayots aybuben) is a graphically unique alphabetical writing system that has been used to write the Armenian language.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenians.
The Azerbaijani alphabet of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, sometimes referred to as Azerbaijani Turkish or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijani people, who are concentrated mainly in the South Caucasus geographical region.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.
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The standard pronunciation of Cantonese is that of Guangzhou, also known as Canton, the capital of Guangdong Province.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
The Chechen language (Нохчийн Мотт / Noxčiyn Mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in Chechnya and by Chechen people elsewhere.
Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English—although in English this sound has additional length (usually being represented as) and is not normally pronounced as a pure vowel (it is a slight diphthong) – a purer sound is heard in many other languages, such as French, in words like chic.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
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The modern Corsican alphabet (Corsican u santacroce or u salteriu) uses 22 basic letters taken from the Latin alphabet with some changes, plus some multigraphs.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance language spoken and written on the islands of Corsica (France) and northern Sardinia (Italy).
The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
Danish is a Scandinavian language related closely to Swedish and Norwegian, and more distantly to Icelandic and Faroese as well as to the other Germanic languages.
Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.
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A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
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In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dutch has a similar phonology or pronunciation to other West Germanic languages.
Eastern Armenian (arevelahayeren) is one of the two standardized forms of Modern Armenian, the other being Western Armenian.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
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Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
The creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof, illustrated Esperanto pronunciation by comparing its letters with their equivalents in several major European languages and declaring a principle of "one letter, one sound".
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 28 letters.
Unless otherwise noted, statements in this article refer to Standard Finnish, which is based on the dialect spoken in Häme Province in central south Finland.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance idiom spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language.
Gurmukhi is an alphabetic abugida developed from the Laṇḍā scripts and was standardised during the 16th century by Guru Angad, the second guru of Sikhism.
Hallelujah is a transliteration of the Hebrew word הַלְּלוּיָהּ (Modern halleluya, Tiberian halləlûyāh), which is composed of two elements: הַלְּלוּ (second-person imperative masculine plural form of the Hebrew verb hallal: an exhortation to "praise" addressed to several peoplePage H. Kelley, Biblical Hebrew, an Introductory Grammar, page 169. Ethics & Public Policy Center, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8028-0598-0.) and יָהּ (the names of God Jah or Yah).
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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.
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The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script, block script, is used in the writing of the Hebrew language, as well as of other Jewish languages, most notably Yiddish, Ladino, and Judeo-Arabic.
Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
is a Japanese syllabary, one basic component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (the Latin-script alphabet).
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This article is an overview of the history of the Greek language.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (̑), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘). It looks similar to the circumflex (ˆ), but the circumflex has a sharp tip, whilst the inverted breve is rounded: compare Â â Ê ê Î î Ô ô Û û (circumflex) with Ȃ ȃ Ȇ ȇ Ȋ ȋ Ȏ ȏ Ȗ ȗ (inverted breve).
Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.
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Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
J is the 10th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
This article deals with the phonology (i.e. the sound system) of Standard Japanese.
Jägermeister is a German digestif made with 56 herbs and spices at a strength of 35% alcohol by volume (61 degrees proof, or US 70 proof).
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Jyutping, (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993.
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Kabardian (Kabardian: адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ or къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ or къэбэртай адыгабзэ or къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language, closely related to the Adyghe language.
Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
This article is a technical description of the phonetics and phonology of Korean. Korean has many allophones, so it is important here to distinguish morphophonemes (written inside vertical pipes) from corresponding phonemes (written inside slashes) and allophones (written inside brackets).
Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
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The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
The modern Malay alphabet (in Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore, Tulisan Rumi, literally "Roman script" or "Roman writing", in Indonesia, "Tulisan Latin") consists of the 26 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet without any diacritics.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.
Marathi (मराठी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by Marathi people of Maharashtra.
Modern Israeli Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.
The nasal palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Phonetic transcription (aka phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".
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Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is a Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and the native language of the Poles.
Polish orthography is the system of writing the Polish language.
The phonological system of the Polish language is similar in many ways to those of other Slavic languages, although there are some characteristic features found in only a few other languages of the family, such as contrasting retroflex and palatal fricatives and affricates, and nasal vowels.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Revised Romanization of Korean (국어의 로마자 표기법; lit. Roman letter notation of national language) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, replacing the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
The romanization of Japanese is the application of the Latin script to write the Japanese language.
Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin alphabet.
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters.
Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian orthography (p) is formally considered to encompass spelling (p) and punctuation (p).
This article discusses the phonological system of standard Russian based on the Moscow dialect (unless otherwise noted).
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.
Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.
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Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
This article summarizes the phonology (the sound system, or in more general terms, the pronunciation) of Standard Chinese (Standard Mandarin).
The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.
Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swedish orthography is the system used to write the Swedish language.
Swedish has a large vowel inventory, with nine vowels distinguished in quality and to some degree quantity, making 17 vowel phonemes in most dialects.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language from the 1st century AD.
Tilquiapan Zapotec (Zapoteco de San Miguel Tilquiápam) is an Oto-Manguean language of the Zapotecan branch, spoken in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.
The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
The current official Turkmen alphabet as used in Turkmenistan is a Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; W is used instead of the Turkish V; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead of the Turkish consonantal Y; and the letters Ä and Ň have been added to represent the phonetic values and, respectively.
Turkmen or Torkoman (Türkmençe, türkmen dili, түркменче, түркмен дили, تورکمن تیلی,تورکمنچه), is a Turkic language spoken by 3½ million people in Turkmenistan, where it is the official state language, as well as by around 2 million people in northeastern Iran and 1½ million people in northwestern Afghanistan.
Ubykh or Ubyx is an extinct Northwest Caucasian language once spoken by the Ubykh people (who originally lived along the eastern coast of the Black Sea before migrating en masse to Turkey in the 1860s).
Ubykh, a recently extinct Northwest Caucasian language, has the largest consonant inventory of all documented languages that do not use clicks, and also has the most disproportional ratio of phonemic consonants to vowels.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
This article deals with the phonology of the standard Ukrainian language.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The voiceless palatal approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in a few spoken languages.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.
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The Zapotec languages are a group of closely related indigenous Mesoamerican languages that constitute a main branch of the Oto-Manguean language family and which is spoken by the Zapotec people from the southwestern-central highlands of Mexico.