96 relations: -ing, -ly, -s, Adjectival noun (Japanese), Adjective, Adverb, Aristotle, Article (grammar), Auxiliary verb, Basque verbs, Bemba language, Chinese language, Classical Greece, Classifier (linguistics), Clitic, Complement (linguistics), Compound (linguistics), Conjunction (grammar), Content word, Contraction (grammar), Conversion (word formation), Count noun, Coverb, Cratylus (dialogue), Demonstrative, Determiner, Dictionary, Dionysius Thrax, English grammar, English language, English verbs, Floruit, Function word, Gerund, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical category, Grammatical number, Grammatical particle, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, History of linguistics, Ideophone, Inflection, Interjection, Japanese equivalents of adjectives, Japanese language, Japanese pronouns, Jingulu language, Korean language, ..., Language Log, Latin grammar, Lexical item, Linguistics, Loanword, Luganda, Marker (linguistics), Mass noun, Measure word, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Neologism, Nirukta, Nonce word, Noun, Noun phrase, Numeral (linguistics), Object (grammar), Part-of-speech tagging, Participle, Persian language, Phrase, Plato, Possessive determiner, Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Preverb, Priscian, Pronoun, Quantifier (linguistics), Relative pronoun, Robert M. W. Dixon, Sanskrit, Semantics, Sino-Japanese vocabulary, Sliding window based part-of-speech tagging, Stative verb, Subcategorization, Syntactic category, Syntax, Tamil language, The Art of Grammar, Tolkāppiyam, Verb, Verb phrase, Yāska. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
-ing is a suffix used to make one of the inflected forms of English verbs.
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The suffix -ly in English is usually a contraction of -like, similar to the Anglo-Saxon lice and German lich.
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-s or -es may be.
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In descriptions of the Japanese language, an adjectival noun, adjectival, or na-adjective is a noun that can function as an adjective by taking the particle 〜な -na.
In linguistics, an adjective is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
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An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.
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An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears—for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
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The verb is one of the most complex parts of Basque grammar.
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The Bemba language, ChiBemba (also Cibemba, Ichibemba, Icibemba and Chiwemba), is a major Bantu language spoken primarily in north-eastern Zambia by the Bemba people and as a lingua franca by about 18 related ethnic groups, including the Bisa people of Mpika and Lake Bangweulu, and to a lesser extent in Katanga in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Botswana.
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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Classical Greece was a 200-year period in Greek culture lasting from the 5th through 4th centuries BC.
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A classifier, sometimes called a counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" the noun depending on the type of its referent.
In morphology and syntax, a clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
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In grammar and linguistics, the term complement is used with different meanings, so it is difficult to give a single precise definition and explanation.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses.
In linguistics content words as well as autosemantic are words such as nouns, most verbs, adjectives, and adverbs that refer to some object, action, or characteristic.
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A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters (actually, sounds).
In linguistics, conversion, also called zero derivation, is a kind of word formation; specifically, it is the creation of a word (of a new word class) from an existing word (of a different word class) without any change in form.
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
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Coverb is a grammatical term which can have several different meanings, but generally denotes a word or prefix that in some way resembles a verb or operates together with a verb.
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Cratylus (Κρατύλος, Kratylos) is the name of a dialogue by Plato.
Demonstratives are words like this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
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A determiner (also called determinative) is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.
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A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), with usage of information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, translation, and other information;Webster's New World College Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 2002 or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon.
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Dionysius Thrax (Διονύσιος ὁ Θρᾷξ,, Contemporary Koine:; 170–90 BC) was a Hellenistic grammarian and a pupil of Aristarchus of Samothrace.
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English grammar is the structure of expressions in the English language.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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Verbs constitute one of the main word classes in the English language.
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Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), in Latin meaning "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.
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The distinction between function/structure words and content/lexical words proposed by C.C. Fries in 1952 has been highly influential in the grammar used in second language acquisition and English Language Teaching.
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The gerund is a non-finite verb form that can function as a noun in Latin and English grammar.
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In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
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Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence.
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A grammatical category is a property of items within the grammar of a language; it has a number of possible values (sometimes called grammemes), which are normally mutually exclusive within a given category.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
In grammar the term particle has two different meanings.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference.
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Linguistics as a study endeavors to describe and explain the human faculty of language.
Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound, movement, color, shape, or action.
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In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.
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In grammar, an interjection or exclamation is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definitions).
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The Japanese language does not have words that function as adjectives in a syntactic sense – that is to say that tree diagrams of Japanese sentences can be constructed without employing adjective phrases.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
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Japanese pronouns (or Japanese deictic classifiers) are words in the Japanese language which are used to address or refer to present people or things, where present means people or things that can be pointed at.
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Jingulu (Djingili) is an Australian language spoken by the Jingili people in the Northern Territory of Australia, historically around the township of Elliot.
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Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.
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Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.
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The grammar of Latin, like that of other ancient Indo-European languages, is highly inflected; consequently, it allows for a large degree of flexibility in choosing word order.
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A lexical item (or lexical unit, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language.
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A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.
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Luganda (Oluganda) is the major language of Uganda, spoken by over five million Baganda and other people mainly in Southern Uganda, including the capital Kampala.
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In linguistics, a marker is a free or bound morpheme that indicates the grammatical function of the marked word, phrase, or sentence.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
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In linguistics, measure words are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of something represented by some noun.
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In linguistics, morphological derivation is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word, e.g. happiness and unhappy from the root word happy, or determination from determine.
In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is the name for a relatively new or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been accepted into mainstream language.
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Nirukta (निरुक्त,, "explanation, etymological interpretation") is one of the six Vedānga disciplines of Hinduism, treating etymology, particularly of obscure words, especially those occurring in the Vedas.
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A nonce word (also called an occasionalism) is a lexeme created for a single occasion to solve an immediate problem of communication.
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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
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A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
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In linguistics, a numeral is a member of a word class (or sometimes even a part of speech) designating numbers, such as the English word 'two' and the compound 'seventy-seven'.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
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In corpus linguistics, part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging or POST), also called grammatical tagging or word-category disambiguation, is the process of marking up a word in a text (corpus) as corresponding to a particular part of speech, based on both its definition, as well as its context—i.e. relationship with adjacent and related words in a phrase, sentence, or paragraph.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and thus plays a role similar to that of an adjective or adverb.
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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.
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In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
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Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
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Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or marking various semantic roles (of, for).
Although not widely accepted in linguistics, the term preverb is used in Caucasian (including all three families: Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian and Kartvelian), Caddoan, Athabaskan, and Algonquian linguistics to describe certain elements prefixed to verbs.
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Priscianus Caesariensis (fl. 500 AD), commonly known as Priscian, was a Latin grammarian.
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In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.
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In linguistics and grammar, a quantifier is a type of determiner, such as all, some, many, few, a lot, and no, (but not numerals) that indicates quantity.
A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative clause modifies.
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Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon (Gloucester, England, 25 January 1939) is a Professor of Linguistics at The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Queensland, and formerly Director of the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.
Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the study of meaning.
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Sino-Japanese vocabulary, or, refers to that portion of the Japanese vocabulary that originated in Chinese or has been created from elements borrowed from Chinese.
Sliding window based part-of-speech tagging is used to part-of-speech tag a text.
In linguistics, a stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb which describes an action.
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In linguistics, subcategorization denotes the ability/necessity for lexical items (usually verbs) to require/allow the presence and types of the syntactic arguments with which they co-occur.
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A syntactic category is a type of syntactic unit that theories of syntax assume.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.
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Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.
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The Art of Grammar (Τέχνη Γραμματική or (romanized) Technê Grammatikê) is a treatise on Greek grammar, attributed to Dionysius Thrax, who wrote in the 2nd century BC.
The Tolkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம்) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
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In linguistics, a verb phrase or VP is a syntactic unit composed of at least one verb and its dependentsobjects, complements and other modifiersbut not always including the subject.
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(Devanagari: यास्क) was an early Sanskrit grammarian who preceded Pāṇini (fl. 4th BC), assumed to have lived in the 6th or 5th century BC.
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8 Parts of speech, Closed class, Closed class word, Closed word class, Closed word classes, Closed-cass system, Closed-class word, Lexical categories, Lexical category, Lexical class, Lexical word, Open class (linguistics), Open class word, Open word class, Open word classes, Part-of-speech, Parts of Speech, Parts of speech, Word category, Word class, Wordclass.