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# Permutation box

In cryptography, a permutation box (or P-box) is a method of bit-shuffling used to permute or transpose bits across S-boxes inputs, retaining diffusion while transposing. [1]

## Block cipher

In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key.

## Boolean function

In mathematics and logic, a (finitary) Boolean function (or switching function) is a function of the form ƒ: Bk → B, where B.

## Ciphertext

In cryptography, ciphertext (or cyphertext) is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher.

## Confusion and diffusion

In cryptography, confusion and diffusion are two properties of the operation of a secure cipher which were identified by Claude Shannon in his paper Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems, published in 1949.

## Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "writing", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries).

## Methodology

Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

## Nothing up my sleeve number

In cryptography, nothing up my sleeve numbers are any numbers which, by their construction, are above suspicion of hidden properties.

## Permutation

In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.

## Plaintext

In cryptography, plaintext is information a sender wishes to transmit to a receiver.

## Portable Document Format

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format used to present documents in a manner independent of application software, hardware and operating systems.

## S-box

In cryptography, an S-box (substitution-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms which performs substitution.

## Substitution cipher

In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encoding by which units of plaintext are replaced with ciphertext, according to a fixed system; the "units" may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth.

## Transposition cipher

In cryptography, a transposition cipher is a method of encryption by which the positions held by units of plaintext (which are commonly characters or groups of characters) are shifted according to a regular system, so that the ciphertext constitutes a permutation of the plaintext.

## References

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