81 relations: Additive white Gaussian noise, American Express, Amplitude-shift keying, Analog signal, Angle, Bandwidth (signal processing), Basis function, Binary number, Binary offset carrier modulation, Biometric passport, Bit, Bit error rate, Bit rate, Bluetooth, Boole's inequality, Broadcom, Carrier signal, Channel (communications), Circle, Comparator, Complementary code keying, Complex conjugate, Complex plane, Constellation diagram, Continuous wave, Delay line interferometer, Demodulation, Differential coding, Digital data, DVB-S2, Electronics, Error function, Exponentiation, Fading, Federal Communications Commission, Frequency-shift keying, Gaussian noise, Gray code, Hamming distance, Hertz, Higher-order modulation, IEEE 802.11b-1999, IEEE 802.11g-2003, IEEE 802.15.4, Imaginary number, ISO/IEC 14443, Laser, Lee distance, Mach–Zehnder interferometer, Megabit, ..., Minimum-shift keying, Mobile phone, Modular arithmetic, Modulation, Noise (electronics), Normal distribution, Optical communication, Optical field, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, Phase (waves), Phase modulation, Photodiode, Polar modulation, Probability, PSK31, PSK63, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Radio-frequency identification, Random variable, Real number, Signal (electrical engineering), Signal-to-noise ratio, Sine wave, Spectral density, Symbol rate, Ternary signal, Time division multiple access, Watt, White noise, Wireless LAN, ZigBee. Expand index (31 more) » « Shrink index
Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a basic noise model used in Information theory to mimic the effect of many random processes that occur in nature.
The American Express Company, also known as Amex, is an American multinational financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan's Three World Financial Center in New York City, United States.
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.
An analog or analogue signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
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In planar geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
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Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous set of frequencies.
In mathematics, a basis function is an element of a particular basis for a function space.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
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Binary Offset Carrier modulation (BOC modulation) was developed by John Betz, PhD, in order to allow interoperability of satellite navigation systems.
A biometric passport, also known as an e-passport, ePassport or a digital passport, is a combined paper and electronic passport that contains biometric information that can be used to authenticate the identity of travelers.
A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications.
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In digital transmission, the number of bit errors is the number of received bits of a data stream over a communication channel that have been altered due to noise, interference, distortion or bit synchronization errors.
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time.
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Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).
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In probability theory, Boole's inequality, also known as the union bound, says that for any finite or countable set of events, the probability that at least one of the events happens is no greater than the sum of the probabilities of the individual events.
Broadcom Corporation is an American fabless semiconductor company in the wireless and broadband communication business.
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In telecommunications, a carrier signal, carrier wave, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
In telecommunications and computer networking, a communication channel or channel, refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel.
A circle is a simple shape in Euclidean geometry.
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In electronics, a comparator is a device that compares two voltages or currents and outputs a digital signal indicating which is larger.
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Complementary Code Keying (CCK) is a modulation scheme used with wireless networks (WLANs) that employ the IEEE 802.11b specification.
In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with equal real part and imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.
In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the orthogonal imaginary axis.
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A constellation diagram is a representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation scheme such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying.
A continuous wave or continuous waveform (CW) is an electromagnetic wave of constant amplitude and frequency; and in mathematical analysis, of infinite duration.
A delay line interferometer (DLI) can be a Mach-Zehnder interferometer or Michelson interferometer based on two-beam interference, in which one beam is time-delayed to the other by a desired interval.
Demodulation is the act of extracting the original information-bearing signal from a modulated carrier wave.
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In digital communications, differential coding is a technique used to provide unambiguous signal reception when using some types of modulation.
Digital data, in information theory and information systems, are discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works, as contrasted with continuous, or analog signals which behave in a continuous manner, or represent information using a continuous function.
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Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite - Second Generation (DVB-S2) is a digital television broadcast standard that has been designed as a successor for the popular DVB-S system.
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Electronics is the science of how to control electric energy, energy in which the electrons have a fundamental role.
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In mathematics, the error function (also called the Gauss error function) is a special function (non-elementary) of sigmoid shape that occurs in probability, statistics, and partial differential equations describing diffusion.
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as bn, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases: In that case, bn is called the n-th power of b, or b raised to the power n. The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base.
In wireless communications, fading is deviation of the attenuation affecting a signal over certain propagation media.
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The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government, created by Congressional statute (see and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and U.S. territories.
Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave.
Gaussian noise is statistical noise having a probability density function (PDF) equal to that of the normal distribution, which is also known as the Gaussian distribution.
The reflected binary code, also known as Gray code after Frank Gray, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only one bit (binary digit).
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In information theory, the Hamming distance between two strings of equal length is the number of positions at which the corresponding symbols are different.
The hertz (symbol Hz) is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
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Higher-order modulation is a type of digital modulation usually with an order of 4 or higher.
IEEE 802.11b-1999 or 802.11b, is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 wireless networking specification that extends throughput up to 11 Mbit/s using the same 2.4GHz band.
IEEE 802.11g-2003 or 802.11g is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification that extended throughput to up to 54 Mbit/s using the same 2.4 GHz band as 802.11b.
IEEE 802.15.4 is a standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs).
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An imaginary number is a complex number that can be written as a real number multiplied by the imaginary unit,j is often used in Engineering which is defined by its property.
ISO/IEC 14443 Identification cards -- Contactless integrated circuit cards -- Proximity cards is an international standard that defines proximity cards used for identification, and the transmission protocols for communicating with it.
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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
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In coding theory, the Lee distance is a distance between two strings x_1 x_2 \dots x_n and y_1 y_2 \dots y_n of equal length n over the q-ary alphabet of size q ≥ 2.
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In physics, the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is a device used to determine the relative phase shift variations between two collimated beams derived by splitting light from a single source.
The megabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information.
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In digital modulation, minimum-shift keying (MSK) is a type of continuous-phase frequency-shift keying that was developed in the late 1950s and 1960s.
A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, hand phone, or simply a phone) is a phone that can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area.
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In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
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In electronics, noise is a random fluctuation in an electrical signal, a characteristic of all electronic circuits.
In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
The optical field is a term used in physics and vector calculus to designate the electric field shown as E in the electromagnetic wave equation which can be derived from Maxwell's Equations.
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Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies.
Phase in sinusoidal functions or in waves has two different, but closely related, meanings.
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Phase modulation (PM) is a modulation pattern that encodes information as variations in the instantaneous phase of a carrier wave.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into current.
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Polar modulation is analogous to quadrature modulation in the same way that polar coordinates are analogous to Cartesian coordinates.
Probability is the measure of the likeliness that an event will occur.
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PSK31 or "Phase Shift Keying, 31 Baud" is a popular computer-soundcard-generated radioteletype mode, used primarily by amateur radio operators to conduct real-time keyboard-to-keyboard chat, most often using frequencies in the high frequency amateur radio bands (near-shortwave).
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PSK63 (meaning Phase Shift Keying at a rate of 63 baud) is a digital radio modulation mode used primarily in the amateur radio field to conduct real-time keyboard-to-keyboard informal text chat between amateur radio operators.
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Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is both an analog and a digital modulation scheme.
Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to transfer data, for the purposes of automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects.
In probability and statistics, a random variable, aleatory variable or stochastic variable is a variable whose value is subject to variations due to chance (i.e. randomness, in a mathematical sense).
In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.
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A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering "is a function that conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.
The sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth repetitive oscillation.
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The power spectrum of a time series x(t) describes how the variance of the data x(t) is distributed over the frequency domain, into spectral components which the series x(t) may be decomposed.
In digital communications, symbol rate, also known as baud rate and modulation rate, is the number of symbol changes, waveform changes, or signaling events, across the transmission medium per time unit using a digitally modulated signal or a line code.
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In telecommunication, a ternary signal is a signal that can assume, at any given instant, one of three states or significant conditions, such as power level, phase position, pulse duration, or frequency.
Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium networks.
The watt (symbol: W) is a derived unit of power in the International System of Units (SI), named after the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736–1819).
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In signal processing, white noise is a random signal with a constant power spectral density.
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A wireless local area network (WLAN) is a wireless computer network that links two or more devices using a wireless distribution method (often spread-spectrum or OFDM radio) within a limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.
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ZigBee is a IEEE 802.15.4-based specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols used to create personal area networks with small, low-power digital radios.
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