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# Pi

The number is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159. [1]

## Abraham Sharp

Abraham Sharp (1653 – 18 July 1742) was an English mathematician and astronomer.

## Absolute value

In mathematics, the absolute value (or modulus) of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.

Adriaan van Roomen (29 September 1561 – 4 May 1615), also known as Adrianus Romanus, was a Flemish mathematician.

Adrien-Marie Legendre (18 September 1752 – 10 January 1833) was a French mathematician.

## Aerial (album)

Aerial is the eighth studio album by the English singer-songwriter and musician Kate Bush, released in 2005, twelve years after her 1993 album The Red Shoes.

## AGM method

In mathematics, the AGM method (for arithmetic–geometric mean) makes it possible to construct fast algorithms for calculation of exponential and trigonometric functions, and some mathematical constants and in particular, to quickly compute \pi.

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## Akira Haraguchi

(born 1946), a retired Japanese engineer, currently working as a mental health counsellor and business consultant in Mobara City, is known for memorizing and reciting digits of pi.

## Albert Eagle

Albert Eagle was an English mathematician who wrote several books (some of them privately published) giving his forcefully expressed and somewhat eccentric views on science and mathematics.

## Algebra

Algebra (from Arabic and Farsi "al-jabr" meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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## Algorithm

In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is a self-contained step-by-step set of operations to be performed.

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## Almagest

The Almagest is a 2nd-century mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths.

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## American Mathematical Monthly

The American Mathematical Monthly is a mathematical journal founded by Benjamin Finkel in 1894.

## Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.

Apache Hadoop is an open-source software framework written in Java for distributed storage and distributed processing of very large data sets on computer clusters built from commodity hardware.

## Apollonius of Perga

Apollonius of Perga (Ἀπολλώνιος; Apollonius Pergaeus; c. 262 BC – c. 190 BC) was a Greek geometer and astronomer noted for his writings on conic sections.

## Approximations of π

Approximations for the mathematical constant pi in the history of mathematics reached an accuracy within 0.04% of the true value before the beginning of the Common Era (Archimedes).

## Arc length

Determining the length of an irregular arc segment is also called rectification of a curve.

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## Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης; BC – BC) was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

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## Area of a disk

The area of a disk, more commonly called the area of a circle, of radius r is equal to.

## Aryabhata

Aryabhata (आर्यभट; IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.

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## Aryabhatiya

Aryabhatiya (IAST) or Aryabhatiyam, a Sanskrit astronomical treatise, is the magnum opus and only known surviving work of the 5th century Indian mathematician, Aryabhata.

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## Babylon

Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

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## Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula

The Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula (BBP formula) is a spigot algorithm for computing the nth binary digit of pi (symbol) using base 16 math.

## Basel problem

The Basel problem is a problem in mathematical analysis with relevance to number theory, first posed by Pietro Mengoli in 1644 and solved by Leonhard Euler in 1734 and read on 5 December 1735 in ''The Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences'' (Петербургская Академия наук).

## BBC

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## BBC Four

BBC Four is a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and available to digital television viewers on Freeview, IPTV, satellite, and cable.

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## Bellard's formula

Bellard's formula, as used by PiHex, the now-completed distributed computing project, is used to calculate the nth digit of π in base 2.

## Bill Gosper

Ralph William Gosper, Jr. (born 1943), known as Bill Gosper, is an American mathematician and programmer from Pennsauken Township, New Jersey.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## Bit

A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and digital communications.

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Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian independent film-maker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and for his YouTube channels, such as Numberphile and Periodic Videos.

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## Buckling

In science, buckling is a mathematical instability, leading to a failure mode.

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## Buffon's needle

In mathematics, Buffon's needle problem is a question first posed in the 18th century by Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon: Buffon's needle was the earliest problem in geometric probability to be solved; it can be solved using integral geometry.

## C. Stanley Ogilvy

Charles Stanley Ogilvy (1913–2000) was an American mathematician, sailor, and author.

## Calculus

Calculus is the mathematical study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations.

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## Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

## Cao Wei

Wei (220–265), or Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).

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## Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß,; Carolus Fridericus Gauss) (30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, algebra, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, mechanics, electrostatics, astronomy, matrix theory, and optics.

## Carl Sagan

Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, science popularizer, and science communicator in astronomy and other natural sciences.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

## Cauchy distribution

The Cauchy distribution, named after Augustin Cauchy, is a continuous probability distribution.

## Cauchy's integral formula

In mathematics, Cauchy's integral formula, named after Augustin-Louis Cauchy, is a central statement in complex analysis.

## Cheering

Cheering is the uttering or making of sounds encouraging, stimulating or exciting to action, indicating approval or acclaiming or welcoming persons, announcements of events and the like.

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## Chinese mathematics

Mathematics in China emerged independently by the 11th century BC.

## Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens, FRS (Hugenius) (14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist.

## Christoph Grienberger

Christoph (Christophorus) Grienberger (also variously spelled Gruemberger, Bamberga, Bamberger, Banbergiera, Gamberger, Ghambergier, Granberger, Panberger) (2 July 1561 &ndash; 11 March 1636) was an Austrian Jesuit astronomer, after whom the crater Gruemberger on the Moon is named.

## Chronology of computation of π

The table below is a brief chronology of computed numerical values of, or bounds on, the mathematical constant pi.

## Chudnovsky algorithm

The Chudnovsky algorithm is a fast method for calculating the digits of π. It was published by the Chudnovsky brothers in 1989, and was used in the world record calculations of 2.7 trillion digits of π in December 2009,.

## Chudnovsky brothers

The Chudnovsky brothers (David Volfovich; born 1947 in Kiev and Gregory Volfovich; born 1952 in Kiev) are American mathematicians known for their world-record mathematical calculations, their home-built supercomputers, and their close working relationship.

## Circle

A circle is a simple shape in Euclidean geometry.

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## Circle group

In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, i.e., the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C&times;, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.

## Circumference

Circumference (from Latin circumferentia, meaning "carrying around") is the linear distance around the edge of a closed curve or circular object.

## Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

## Classical mechanics

In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two major sub-fields of mechanics.

## Clay tablet

In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.

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## Closed-form expression

In mathematics, a closed-form expression is a mathematical expression that can be evaluated in a finite number of operations.

## Coefficient

In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but in any case does not involve any variables of the expression.

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## Compass-and-straightedge construction

Compass-and-straightedge construction, also known as ruler-and-compass construction or classical construction, is the construction of lengths, angles, and other geometric figures using only an idealized ruler and compass.

## Complex analysis

Complex analysis, traditionally known as the theory of functions of a complex variable, is the branch of mathematical analysis that investigates functions of complex numbers.

## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers and is the imaginary unit, that satisfies the equation.

## Complex plane

In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the orthogonal imaginary axis.

## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.

## Cone

A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.

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## Constrained writing

Constrained writing is a literary technique in which the writer is bound by some condition that forbids certain things or imposes a pattern.

## Constructible number

A point in the Euclidean plane is a constructible point if, given a fixed coordinate system (or a fixed line segment of unit length), the point can be constructed with unruled straightedge and compass.

## Contact (1997 American film)

Contact is a 1997 American science fiction drama film directed by Robert Zemeckis.

## Contact (novel)

Contact is a 1985 science fiction novel by Carl Sagan.

## Continued fraction

In mathematics, a continued fraction is an expression obtained through an iterative process of representing a number as the sum of its integer part and the reciprocal of another number, then writing this other number as the sum of its integer part and another reciprocal, and so on.

## Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is, roughly speaking, a function for which small changes in the input result in small changes in the output.

## Convergent series

In mathematics, a series is the sum of the terms of a sequence of numbers.

## Coprime integers

In number theory, two integers a and b are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime (also spelled co-prime) if the only positive integer that evenly divides both of them is 1.

## Cosmological constant

In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.

## Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of"), is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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## Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles.

## Cubit

The cubit is an ancient unit based on the forearm length from the middle finger tip to the elbow bottom.

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## Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

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## Dante Alighieri

Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.

## David H. Bailey

David Harold Bailey (born 1948) is a mathematician and computer scientist.

## Decimal representation

A decimal representation of a non-negative real number r is an expression in the form of a series, traditionally written as a sum where a0 is a nonnegative integer, and a1, a2,...

## Diameter

In geometry, the diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

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## Differential calculus

In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Distributed computing

Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems.

## Divisor

In mathematics a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer that can be multiplied by some other integer to produce n.

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## Drag (physics)

In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.

## E (mathematical constant)

The number is an important mathematical constant that is the base of the natural logarithm.

## Edmund Landau

Edmund Georg Hermann Landau (14 February 1877 – 19 February 1938) was a German mathematician who worked in the fields of number theory and complex analysis.

## Einstein field equations

The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as "Einstein's equations") are the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describes the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by matter and energy.

## Elastic modulus

"Young's modulus" or modulus of elasticity, is a number that measures an object or substance's resistance to being deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a force is applied to it.

## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

## Electric field

The electric field is a component of the electromagnetic field.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Ellipse

In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve on a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.

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## Engineering

Engineering is the application of mathematics, empirical evidence and scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to invent, design, build, maintain, research, and improve, structures, machines, tools, systems, components, materials, and processes.

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## ENIAC

ENIAC (or; Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the first electronic general-purpose computer.

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## Ernesto Cesàro

Ernesto Cesàro (March 12, 1859 – September 12, 1906) was an Italian mathematician who worked in the field of differential geometry.

## Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

## Eugene Salamin (mathematician)

Eugene Salamin is a mathematician who discovered (independently with Richard Brent) the Salamin&ndash;Brent algorithm, used in high-precision calculation of pi.

## Euler's formula

Euler's formula, named after Leonhard Euler, is a mathematical formula in complex analysis that establishes the fundamental relationship between the trigonometric functions and the complex exponential function.

## Euler's identity

In mathematics, Euler's identity (also known as Euler's equation) is the equality where Euler's identity is named after the Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler.

## Exponential function

In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form The input variable x occurs as an exponent – hence the name.

## Fabrice Bellard

Fabrice Bellard is a computer programmer who is best known as the creator of the FFmpeg and QEMU software projects.

## Factorial

In mathematics, the factorial of a non-negative integer n, denoted by n!, is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n. For example, The value of 0! is 1, according to the convention for an empty product.

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## Ferdinand von Lindemann

Carl Louis Ferdinand von Lindemann (April 12, 1852 &ndash; March 6, 1939) was a German mathematician, noted for his proof, published in 1882, that π (pi) is a transcendental number, meaning it is not a root of any polynomial with rational coefficients.

## Feynman point

The Feynman point is a sequence of six 9s that begins at the 762nd decimal place of the decimal representation of pi.

## Fibonacci

Leonardo Bonacci (c. 1170 – c. 1250)known as Fibonacci, and also Leonardo of Pisa, Leonardo Pisano Bigollo, Leonardo Fibonacciwas an Italian mathematician, considered to be "the most talented Western mathematician of the Middle Ages".

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## Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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## Fluid dynamics

In physics, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow—the natural science of fluids (liquids and gases) in motion.

## Fourier transform

The Fourier transform decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, similarly to how a musical chord can be expressed as the amplitude (or loudness) of its constituent notes.

## Fractal

A fractal is a natural phenomenon or a mathematical set that exhibits a repeating pattern that displays at every scale.

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## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

## François Viète

François Viète (Latin: Franciscus Vieta; 1540 – 23 February 1603), Seigneur de la Bigotière, was a French mathematician whose work on new algebra was an important step towards modern algebra, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.

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## Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of permissible outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output.

## Fundamental interaction

Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that don't appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

## Gamma function

In mathematics, the gamma function (represented by the capital Greek letter Γ) is an extension of the factorial function, with its argument shifted down by 1, to real and complex numbers.

## Gauss–Legendre algorithm

The Gauss–Legendre algorithm is an algorithm to compute the digits of π. It is notable for being rapidly convergent, with only 25 iterations producing 45 million correct digits of π. However, the drawback is that it is memory intensive and it is therefore sometimes not used over Machin-like formulas.

## Gaussian function

In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and.

## Gaussian integral

The Gaussian integral, also known as the Euler–Poisson integral is the integral of the Gaussian function e−x2 over the entire real line.

## Geek

The word geek is a slang term originally used to describe eccentric or non-mainstream people; in current use, the word typically connotes an expert or enthusiast or a person obsessed with a hobby or intellectual pursuit, with a general pejorative meaning of a "peculiar or otherwise dislikable person, esp one who is perceived to be overly intellectual".

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## Gelfond's constant

In mathematics, Gelfond's constant, named after Aleksandr Gelfond, is e, that is, e raised to the power pi.

## General relativity

General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

## Generalized continued fraction

In complex analysis, a branch of mathematics, a generalized continued fraction is a generalization of regular continued fractions in canonical form, in which the partial numerators and partial denominators can assume arbitrary real or complex values.

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## Georgia State University

Georgia State University (GSU) is a public research university in downtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States.

Google Inc. is an American multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products.

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## Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (also Godefroi Guillaume Leibnitz,; or; July 1, 1646 – November 14, 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher, and to this day he occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

## Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant, approximately and denoted by letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation(s) of gravitational force between two bodies.

## Gravity

Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.

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## Gravity of Earth

The gravity of Earth, which is denoted by, refers to the acceleration that the Earth imparts to objects on or near its surface due to gravity.

## Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.

## Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.

## Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements together with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element.

## Guinness World Records

Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 1998 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous U.S. editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records, both human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.

## Hard 'n Phirm

Hard 'n Phirm was a comedy/parody musical duo based in Los Angeles.

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

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## History of China

Written records of the history of China can be found from as early as 1200 BC under the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC).

## Holomorphic function

In mathematics, holomorphic functions are the central objects of study in complex analysis.

## HyperPhysics

HyperPhysics is an educational website about physics topics.

## Imaginary unit

The term imaginary unit or unit imaginary number refers to a solution to the equation.

## In-joke

An in-joke, also known as an inside joke or a private joke, is a joke whose humour is understandable only to members of an ingroup, that is, people who are in a particular social group, occupation, or other community of shared interest.

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## India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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## Indiana General Assembly

The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch, of the state of Indiana.

## Indiana Pi Bill

The Indiana Pi Bill is the popular name for bill #246 of the 1897 sitting of the Indiana General Assembly, one of the most famous attempts to establish mathematical truth by legislative fiat.

## Infinite product

In mathematics, for a sequence of complex numbers a1, a2, a3,...

## Integer relation algorithm

An integer relation between a set of real numbers x1, x2,..., xn is a set of integers a1, a2,..., an, not all 0, such that An integer relation algorithm is an algorithm for finding integer relations.

## Integral

The integral is an important concept in mathematics.

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## Introductio in analysin infinitorum

Introductio in analysin infinitorum (Introduction to the Analysis of the Infinite) is a two-volume work by Leonhard Euler which lays the foundations of mathematical analysis.

## Inverse trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally called cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains).

## Irrational number

In mathematics, an irrational number is any real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers.

## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.

## Isomorphism

In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism (or more generally a morphism) that admits an inverse.

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## Iterative method

In computational mathematics, an iterative method is a mathematical procedure that generates a sequence of improving approximate solutions for a class of problems.

## Ivan M. Niven

Ivan Morton Niven (October 25, 1915 &ndash; May 9, 1999) was a Canadian-American mathematician, specializing in number theory.

## James Gregory (mathematician)

James Gregory (also spelled James Gregorie) FRS (November 1638 – October 1675) was a Scottish mathematician and astronomer.

## James Hopwood Jeans

Sir James Hopwood Jeans OM FRS MA DSc ScD LLDSir James Jeans 1938 (reprint of 1931's edition of 1930 book): The Mysterious Universe.

## Jamshīd al-Kāshī

Ghiyāth al-Dīn Jamshīd Masʿūd al-Kāshī (or al-Kāshānī) (غیاث الدین جمشید کاشانی Ghiyās-ud-dīn Jamshīd Kāshānī) (c. 1380 Kashan, Iran – 22 June 1429 Samarkand, Transoxania) was a Persian astronomer and mathematician.

## Jean-Paul Delahaye

Jean-Paul Delahaye (born June 29, 1952 in Saint-Mandé Seine) is a French computer scientist and mathematician.

## Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.

## John Machin

John Machin (bapt. c. 1686 &ndash; June 9, 1751), a professor of astronomy at Gresham College, London, is best known for developing a quickly converging series for Pi in 1706 and using it to compute Pi to 100 decimal places.

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## John von Neumann

John von Neumann (Hungarian: Neumann János,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor, polymath, and polyglot.

## John Wallis

John Wallis (23 November 1616 – 28 October 1703) was an English mathematician who is given partial credit for the development of infinitesimal calculus.

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## John Wrench

John William Wrench, Jr. (October 13, 1911 – February 27, 2009) was an American mathematician who worked primarily in numerical analysis.

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## Jonathan Borwein

Jonathan Michael Borwein (born 20 May 1951, St. Andrews, Scotland) is a Scottish mathematician who holds an appointment as Laureate Professor of mathematics at the University of Newcastle, Australia.

## Karatsuba algorithm

The Karatsuba algorithm is a fast multiplication algorithm.

## Karl Weierstrass

Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß; 31 October 1815 &ndash; 19 February 1897) was a German mathematician often cited as the "father of modern analysis".

## Kate Bush

Catherine "Kate" Bush, CBE (born 30 July 1958) is an English singer-songwriter, musician, dancer and record producer known for her ambitious, eclectic music and idiosyncratic performances.

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## Lars Ahlfors

Lars Valerian Ahlfors (18 April 1907 – 11 October 1996) was a Finnish mathematician, remembered for his work in the field of Riemann surfaces and his text on complex analysis.

## Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL or LBL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).

## Leibniz formula for π

In mathematics, the Leibniz formula for pi, named after Gottfried Leibniz, states that Using summation notation.

## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (17071783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist.

## Limit (mathematics)

In mathematics, a limit is the value that a function or sequence "approaches" as the input or index approaches some value.

## Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem

In transcendental number theory, the Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem is a result that is very useful in establishing the transcendence of numbers.

## Liouville number

In number theory, a Liouville number is an irrational number x with the property that, for every positive integer n, there exist integers p and q with q > 1 and such that A Liouville number can thus be approximated "quite closely" by a sequence of rational numbers.

## Liu Hui

Liu Hui (fl. 3rd century) was an Ancient Chinese mathematician.

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## Liu Hui's π algorithm

Liu Hui's algorithm was invented by Liu Hui (fl. 3rd century), a mathematician of Wei Kingdom.

## Ludolph van Ceulen

Ludolph van Ceulen (28 January 1540 – 31 December 1610) was a German-Dutch mathematician from Hildesheim.

## Machin-like formula

In mathematics, Machin-like formulae are a popular technique for computing &pi; to a large number of digits.

## MacTutor History of Mathematics archive

The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive is a website maintained by John J. O'Connor and Edmund F. Robertson and hosted by the University of St Andrews in Scotland.

Madhava of Sangamagrama, was an Indian mathematician-astronomer from the town of Sangamagrama (believed to be present-day Irinjalakuda near Thrissur), Kerala, India.

In mathematics, a Madhava series is any one of the series in a collection of infinite series expressions all of which are believed to have been discovered by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c. 1350 – c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

## Mandelbrot set

The Mandelbrot set is the set of complex numbers 'c' for which the sequence (c, c² + c, (c²+c)² + c, ((c²+c)²+c)² + c, (((c²+c)²+c)²+c)² + c, …) does not approach infinity.

## Marcus du Sautoy

Marcus Peter Francis du Sautoy, OBE (born 26 August 1965) is the Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Oxford.

## Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

## Mathematical constant

A mathematical constant is a special number, usually a real number, that is "significantly interesting in some way".

## Mathematical constants and functions

A mathematical constant is a number, which has a special meaning for calculations.

## Matter

Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.

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## Mean

In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.

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## Meander

A meander, in general, is a bend in a sinuous watercourse or river.

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## Mechanica

Mechanica (Mechanica sive motus scientia analytice exposita; 1736) is a two-volume work published by mathematician Leonhard Euler, which describes analytically the mathematics governing movement.

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## Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is an area of science concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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## Method of loci

The method of loci (loci being Latin for "places"), also called the memory palace or mind palace technique, is a mnemonic device adopted in ancient Roman and Greek rhetorical treatises (in the anonymous Rhetorica ad Herennium, Cicero's De Oratore, and Quintilian's Institutio Oratoria).

## Metric tensor (general relativity)

In general relativity, the metric tensor (or simply, the metric) is the fundamental object of study.

## Michael Shermer

Michael Brant Shermer (born September 8, 1954) is an American science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and Editor in Chief of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating pseudoscientific and supernatural claims.

## Milü

The name Milü ("detailed (approximation) ratio"), also known as Zulü (Zu's ratio), is given to an approximation to pi (pi) found by Chinese mathematician and astronomer Zǔ Chōngzhī (祖沖之).

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## Modular equation

In mathematics, a modular equation is an algebraic equation satisfied by moduli, in the sense of moduli problem.

## Momentum

In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Monte Carlo method

Monte Carlo methods (or Monte Carlo experiments) are a broad class of computational algorithms that rely on repeated random sampling to obtain numerical results.

## Multiplication

Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "·" or by the absence of symbol) is one of the four elementary, mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.

## N-sphere

In mathematics, the n-sphere is the generalization of the ordinary sphere to spaces of arbitrary dimension.

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## Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base e, where ''e'' is an irrational and transcendental constant approximately equal to.

## Nicolas Bourbaki

Nicolas Bourbaki is the collective pseudonym under which a group of (mainly French) 20th-century mathematicians, with the aim of reformulating mathematics on an extremely abstract and formal but self-contained basis, wrote a series of books beginning in 1935.

## Nilakantha Somayaji

Kelallur Nilakantha Somayaji (1444–1544) (also referred to as Kelallur Comatiri) was a major mathematician and astronomer of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

## Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

## Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

## Normal number

In mathematics, a normal number is a real number whose infinite sequence of digits in every base b is distributed uniformly in the sense that each of the b digit values has the same natural density 1/b, also all possible b2 pairs of digits are equally likely with density b−2, all b3 triplets of digits equally likely with density b−3, etc.

## Nortel

Nortel Networks Corporation, formerly known as Northern Telecom Limited, Northern Electric and sometimes known simply as Nortel, was a multinational telecommunications and data networking equipment manufacturer headquartered in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada.

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## Nth root

In mathematics, the nth root of a number x, where n is a positive integer, is a number r which, when raised to the power n yields x where n is the degree of the root.

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## Number theory

Number theory (or arithmeticEspecially in older sources; see two following notes.) is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers.

## Observable universe

The observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that can, in principle, be observed from Earth at the present time because light and other signals from these objects has had time to reach the Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.

## Octal

The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.

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## Old Kingdom of Egypt

The Old Kingdom is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization – the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom).

## Open University

The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.

## Origin (mathematics)

In mathematics, the origin of a Euclidean space is a special point, usually denoted by the letter O, used as a fixed point of reference for the geometry of the surrounding space.

## Oxbow lake

An oxbow lake is a U-shaped body of water that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.

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## Palais de la Découverte

The Palais de la Découverte ("Discovery Palace") is a science museum located in the Grand Palais, in the 8th arrondissement on Avenue Franklin D. Roosevelt, Paris, France.

## Parfums Givenchy

Perfums Givenchy is a French brand of perfumes and cosmetics, known for classic fragrances such as Amarige, Organza, Pi, and Givenchy III.

## Parity (mathematics)

Parity is a mathematical term that describes the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd.

## Pendulum

A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

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## Periodic continued fraction

In mathematics, an infinite periodic continued fraction is a continued fraction that can be placed in the form x.

## Peter Borwein

Peter Benjamin Borwein (born St. Andrews, Scotland, May 10, 1953) is a Canadian mathematician and a professor at Simon Fraser University.

## Physical constant

A physical constant is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and constant in time.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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## Pi

The number is a mathematical constant, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter, commonly approximated as 3.14159.

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## Pi (film)

Pi, also titled,On-screen title is, i.e. lowercase Pi and symbol for the mathematical constant Pi.

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## Pi Day

Pi Day is an annual celebration of the mathematical constant pi (pi).

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## PiHex

PiHex was a distributed computing project organized by Colin Percival to calculate specific bits of Pi, the greatest calculation of Pi ever successfully attempted.

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## Piphilology

Piphilology comprises the creation and use of mnemonic techniques to remember a span of digits of the mathematical constant pi.

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## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action in quantum mechanics.

## Polynomial

In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression consisting of variables (or indeterminates) and coefficients, that involves only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents.

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## Positronium

Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.

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## Power series

In mathematics, a power series (in one variable) is an infinite series of the form where an represents the coefficient of the nth term, c is a constant, and x varies around c (for this reason one sometimes speaks of the series as being centered at c).

## Prime number

A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.

## Probability

Probability is the measure of the likeliness that an event will occur.

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## Probability density function

In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function that describes the relative likelihood for this random variable to take on a given value.

## Proof that π is irrational

In the 18th century, Johann Heinrich Lambert proved that the number pi (pi) is irrational.

## Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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## Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

In mathematics, a quadratic irrational (also known as a quadratic irrationality or quadratic surd) is an irrational number that is the solution to some quadratic equation with rational coefficients.

## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.

## Quotient group

In mathematics, specifically group theory, a quotient group (or factor group) is a group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation that preserves the group structure.

The radian is the standard unit of angular measure, used in many areas of mathematics.

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In mathematical numeral systems, the radix or base is the number of unique digits, including zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system.

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## Ramanujan–Sato series

In mathematics, a Ramanujan–Sato seriesHeng Huat Chan, Song Heng Chan, and Zhiguo Liu, "Domb's numbers and Ramanujan–Sato type series for 1/Pi" (2004)Gert Almkvist and Jesus Guillera, Ramanujan–Sato Like Series (2012) generalizes Ramanujan’s pi formulas such as, to the form, by using other well-defined sequences of integers s(k) obeying a certain recurrence relation, sequences which may be expressed in terms of binomial coefficients \tbinom, and employing modular forms of higher levels.

## Random number generation

A random number generator (RNG) is a computational or physical device designed to generate a sequence of numbers or symbols that can not be reasonably predicted better than by random chance.

## Ratio

In mathematics, a ratio is a relationship between two numbers indicating how many times the first number contains the second.

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## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction p/q of two integers, p and q, with the denominator q not equal to zero.

## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line.

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Reductio ad absurdum (Latin: "reduction to absurdity"; pl.: reductiones ad absurdum), also known as argumentum ad absurdum (Latin: argument to absurdity), is a common form of argument which seeks to demonstrate that a statement is true by showing that a false, untenable, or absurd result follows from its denial, or in turn to demonstrate that a statement is false by showing that a false, untenable, or absurd result follows from its acceptance.

## Repeating decimal

A repeating or recurring decimal is a way of representing rational numbers in base 10 arithmetic.

## Rhind Mathematical Papyrus

The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus (RMP; also designated as: papyrus British Museum 10057, and pBM 10058), is the best example of Egyptian mathematics.

## Ricci curvature

In differential geometry, the Ricci curvature tensor, named after Gregorio Ricci-Curbastro, represents the amount by which the volume of a geodesic ball in a curved Riemannian manifold deviates from that of the standard ball in Euclidean space.

## Richard P. Brent

Richard Peirce Brent (born 20 April 1946, Melbourne) is an Australian mathematician and computer scientist.

## Riemann zeta function

The Riemann zeta function or Euler–Riemann zeta function, ζ(s), is a function of a complex variable s that analytically continues the sum of the infinite series which converges when the real part of s is greater than 1.

## Root of unity

In mathematics, a root of unity, occasionally called a de Moivre number, is any complex number that gives 1 when raised to some positive integer power.

## Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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## Round-off error

A round-off error, also called rounding error, is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding.

## Sans-serif

In typography, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, san serif or simply sans typeface is one that does not have the small projecting features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.

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## Scalar curvature

In Riemannian geometry, the scalar curvature (or the Ricci scalar) is the simplest curvature invariant of a Riemannian manifold.

## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.

## Second moment of area

The second moment of area, also known as moment of inertia of plane area, area moment of inertia, or second area moment, is a geometrical property of an area which reflects how its points are distributed with regard to an arbitrary axis.

## Sequence

In mathematics, a sequence is an ordered collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed.

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## Series (mathematics)

A series is, informally speaking, the sum of the terms of a sequence.

## Sexagesimal

Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.

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## Shatapatha Brahmana

The Shatapatha Brahmana (शतपथ ब्राह्मण, "Brahmana of one hundred paths", abbreviated) is one of the prose texts describing the Vedic ritual, associated with the Shukla Yajurveda.

## Signal processing

Signal processing is an enabling technology that encompasses the fundamental theory, applications, algorithms, and implementations of processing or transferring information contained in many different physical, symbolic, or abstract formats broadly designated as signals.

## Simon Plouffe

Simon Plouffe (born June 11, 1956, Saint-Jovite, Quebec) is a mathematician who discovered the formula for the BBP algorithm (the Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula) which permits the computation of the nth binary digit of &pi;, in 1995.

## Sine

Sine, in mathematics, is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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## Sinuosity

Sinuosity, sinuosity index, or sinuosity coefficient of a continuously derivable curve having at least one inflection point is the ratio of the curvilinear length (along the curve) and the Euclidean distance (straight line) between the end points of the curve.

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## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime (also space–time, space time or space–time continuum) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum.

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## Spectral density

The power spectrum of a time series x(t) describes how the variance of the data x(t) is distributed over the frequency domain, into spectral components which the series x(t) may be decomposed.

## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

## Sphere

A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball, (viz., analogous to a circular object in two dimensions).

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## Spherical coordinate system

In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.

## Spigot algorithm

A spigot algorithm is an algorithm for computing the value of a mathematical constant such as pi or ''e'' which generates output digits left to right, with limited intermediate storage.

## Square root

In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that, in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or) is a. For example, 4 and −4 are square roots of 16 because.

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## Squaring the circle

Squaring the circle is a problem proposed by ancient geometers.

## Srinivasa Ramanujan

Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar (22 December 188726 April 1920) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure mathematics, made extraordinary contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continued fractions.

## Stan Wagon

Stanley Wagon is a Canadian-American mathematician, a professor of mathematics at Macalester College in Minnesota.

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## Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma, σ for the population standard deviation or s for the sample standard deviation) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

## Statistical hypothesis testing

A statistical hypothesis is a hypothesis that is testable on the basis of observing a process that is modeled via a set of random variables.

## Statistical randomness

A numeric sequence is said to be statistically random when it contains no recognizable patterns or regularities; sequences such as the results of an ideal dice roll, or the digits of π exhibit statistical randomness.

## Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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## Stirling's approximation

In mathematics, Stirling's approximation (or Stirling's formula) is an approximation for factorials.

## Stokes' law

In 1851, George Gabriel Stokes derived an expression, now known as Stokes' law, for the frictional force – also called drag force – exerted on spherical objects with very small Reynolds numbers (e.g., very small particles) in a viscous fluid.

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## Stress–energy tensor

The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.

## Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high-level computational capacity compared to a general-purpose computer.

## Tantrasamgraha

Tantrasamgraha (transliterated also as Tantrasangraha) is an important astronomical treatise written by Nilakantha Somayaji, an astronomer/mathematician belonging to the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics.

## Tap (valve)

A tap (also spigot or faucet: see usage variations) is a valve controlling the release of a liquid or gas.

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## Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

## The Independent

The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.

## The Japan Times

The Japan Times is an English-language newspaper published in Japan by, a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries.

## The Story of Maths

The Story of Maths is a four-part British television series outlining aspects of the history of mathematics.

## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

## Tom M. Apostol

Tom Mike Apostol is an American analytic number theorist and professor at the California Institute of Technology.

## Toom–Cook multiplication

Toom–Cook, sometimes known as Toom-3, named after Andrei Toom, who introduced the new algorithm with its low complexity, and Stephen Cook, who cleaned the description of it, is a multiplication algorithm, a method of multiplying two large integers.

## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study), is the study of topological spaces.

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## Torus

In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.

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## Transcendental number

In mathematics, a transcendental number is a real or complex number that is not algebraic—that is, it is not a root of a non-zero polynomial equation with rational coefficients.

## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called the circular functions) are functions of an angle.

## Trigonometry

Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

## Turn (geometry)

A turn is a unit of angle measurement equal to 2pi radians, 360° or 400 gon.

## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle, also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known simultaneously.

## Unit circle

In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle with a radius of one.

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## University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom.

## University of Oregon

The University of Oregon (also referred to as UO or Oregon) is a public flagship research university located in Eugene, Oregon.

## Vacuum permittivity

The physical constant, commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.

## Viète's formula

In mathematics, Viète's formula is the following infinite product of nested radicals representing the mathematical constant &pi;: \frac2\cdot \frac2\cdot \frac2\cdots.

## Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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## Visualization

The term visualization may refer to.

## Wallis product

In mathematics, Wallis' product for &pi;, written down in 1655 by John Wallis, states that \prod_^ \left(\frac \cdot \frac\right).

## Western world

The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.

## Willebrord Snellius

Willebrord Snellius (born Willebrord Snel van Royen) (1580 – 30 October 1626, Leiden) was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell.

## William Jones (mathematician)

William Jones, FRS (1675 &ndash; 3 July 1749) was a Welsh mathematician, most noted for his proposal for the use of the symbol (the Greek letter pi) to represent the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.

## William Oughtred

William Oughtred (5 March 1574 – 30 June 1660) was an English mathematician and Anglican minister.

## William Shanks

William Shanks (25 January 1812 – June 1882) was a British amateur mathematician.

## Wolfram Alpha

Wolfram Alpha (also styled WolframAlpha and Wolfram|Alpha) is a computational knowledge engine or answer engine developed by Wolfram Research.

## Yahoo!

Yahoo Inc. (styled as Yahoo!) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Sunnyvale, California.

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is a Japanese mathematician most known for his numerous world records over the past three decades for calculating digits of pi.

## Yuktibhāṣā

Yuktibhāṣā (യുക്തിഭാഷ; "Rationale in the Malayalam/Sanskrit language") also known as Gaṇitanyāyasaṅgraha ("Compendium of astronomical rationale"), is a major treatise on mathematics and astronomy, written by Indian astronomer Jyesthadeva of the Kerala school of mathematics in about AD 1530.

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## Zacharias Dase

Johann Martin Zacharias Dase (June 23, 1824, Hamburg &ndash; September 11, 1861, Hamburg) was a German mental calculator.

## Zero of a function

In mathematics, a zero, also sometimes called a root, of a real-, complex- or generally vector-valued function f is a member x of the domain of f such that f(x) vanishes at x; that is, x is a solution of the equation In other words, a "zero" of a function is an input value that produces an output of zero (0).

## Zu Chongzhi

Zu Chongzhi (429–500 CE), courtesy name Wenyuan, was a prominent Chinese mathematician and astronomer during the Liu Song and Southern Qi Dynasties.

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## 1st millennium BC

The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.

## 3 (number)

3 (three) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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## References

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