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Planets beyond Neptune

Following the discovery of the planet Neptune in 1846, there was considerable speculation that another planet might exist beyond its orbit. [1]

128 relations: Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Alan Stern, Albedo, Alexis Bouvard, Apparent magnitude, Apparent retrograde motion, Apsis, Arequipa, Argument of periapsis, Armin Otto Leuschner, Asteroid, Astronomical unit, Blink comparator, Brahma, Brian G. Marsden, Camille Flammarion, Cartesian coordinate system, Chad Trujillo, Charon (moon), Classical mechanics, Clearing the neighbourhood, Clyde Tombaugh, Comet, Comet Swift–Tuttle, Complutense University of Madrid, David C. Jewitt, David Peck Todd, Detached object, Dwarf planet, E. Myles Standish, Ecliptic, Ernest William Brown, Europa (moon), Fictional planets of the Solar System, Flagstaff, Arizona, Galilean moons, Ganymede (moon), George Biddell Airy, Gerard Kuiper, Giant planet, Gotha, Gotha Observatory, Halley's Comet, Hamilton College (New York), Hans E. Lau, Harlow Shapley, Harvard College Observatory, Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, IAU definition of planet, Infrared cirrus, ..., International Astronomical Union, Io (moon), IRAS, Jacques Babinet, James Ferguson (American astronomer), James W. Christy, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris, Johann Gottfried Galle, Jupiter, Kobe University, Kuiper belt, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, List of hypothetical Solar System objects, Lorenzo Iorio, Lowell Observatory, Madrid, Mars, Martian canal, Mercury (planet), Methane, Michael E. Brown, Minor Planet Center, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Neptune, New Horizons, New York, Oort cloud, Orbit, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital inclination, Palomar Observatory, Pan-STARRS, Percival Lowell, Perturbation (astronomy), Peru, Peter Andreas Hansen, Philip Herbert Cowell, Pierre-Simon Laplace, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Planet, Planetary system, Plutino, Pluto, Precovery, Retrograde and prograde motion, Robert Sutton Harrington, Rogue planet, Roman numerals, Scott S. Sheppard, Solar System, Super-Earth, The Astrophysical Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thomas Jefferson Jackson See, Thomas John Hussey, Time-lapse photography, Trans-Neptunian object, Triton (moon), United States Naval Observatory, University of Hawaii, Uranus, Urbain Le Verrier, Variable star, Vesto Slipher, Vishnu, Volatiles, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Walter Baade, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, William Henry Pickering, Zodiac, 177P/Barnard, 90377 Sedna. Expand index (78 more) »

Abbott Lawrence Lowell

Abbott Lawrence Lowell (December 13, 1856 – January 6, 1943) was a U.S. educator and legal scholar.

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Alan Stern

Sol Alan Stern (born November 22, 1957) is an American engineer and planetary scientist.

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Albedo

Albedo, or reflection coefficient, derived from Latin albedo "whiteness" (or reflected sunlight) in turn from albus "white", is the diffuse reflectivity or reflecting power of a surface.

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Alexis Bouvard

Alexis Bouvard (27 June 1767 – 7 June 1843) was a French astronomer.

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Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.

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Apparent retrograde motion

Retrograde motion is the apparent motion of a planet to move in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point.

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Apsis

The apsis (Greek ἁψίς), plural apsides (Greek: ἁψίδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit.

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Arequipa

Arequipa is the capital and largest city of the Arequipa Region and the seat of the Constitutional Court of Peru.

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Argument of periapsis

The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body.

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Armin Otto Leuschner

Armin Otto Leuschner (January 16, 1868 – April 22, 1953) was an American astronomer and educator.

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Asteroid

Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol au, AU or ua) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

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Blink comparator

A blink comparator was a viewing apparatus used by astronomers to find differences between two photographs of the night sky.

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Brahma

Brahmā is the deva (god) of creation in Hinduism.

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Brian G. Marsden

Brian Geoffrey Marsden (5 August 1937 – 18 November 2010) was a British astronomer and the longtime director of the Minor Planet Center (MPC) at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (director emeritus from 2006 to 2010).

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Camille Flammarion

Nicolas Camille Flammarion (26 February 1842 – 3 June 1925) was a French astronomer and author.

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Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances from the point to two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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Chad Trujillo

Chadwick A. "Chad" Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is an astronomer and the co-discoverer of the dwarf planet Eris.

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Charon (moon)

Charon, also called (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known moons of the dwarf planet Pluto.

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Classical mechanics

In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two major sub-fields of mechanics.

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Clearing the neighbourhood

"Clearing the neighbourhood around its orbit" is a criterion for a celestial body to be considered a planet in the Solar System.

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Clyde Tombaugh

Clyde William Tombaugh (February 4, 1906January 17, 1997) was an American astronomer.

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Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.

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Comet Swift–Tuttle

Comet Swift–Tuttle (formally designated 109P/Swift–Tuttle) is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 133 years.

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Complutense University of Madrid

The Complutense University of Madrid (Universidad Complutense de Madrid or Universidad de Madrid, Universitas Complutensis) is a public research university located in Madrid, and one of the oldest universities in the world.

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David C. Jewitt

David C. Jewitt is a professor of astronomy in the Earth, Planetary, and Space Science Department of UCLA.

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David Peck Todd

David Peck Todd (March 19, 1855 – June 1, 1939) was a noted American astronomer.

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Detached object

Detached objects are a dynamical class of minor planets in the outer reaches of the Solar System and belong to the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs).

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Dwarf planet

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.

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E. Myles Standish

Erland Myles Standish, Jr. (born March 5, 1939) is a mathematical astronomer and a former professor at Yale University.

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Ecliptic

The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, and is the basis for the ecliptic coordinate system.

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Ernest William Brown

Ernest William Brown FRS (29 November 1866 – 22 July 1938) was a British mathematician and astronomer, who spent the majority of his career working in the United States.

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Europa (moon)

Europa, or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II), is the sixth-closest moon of Jupiter, and the smallest of its four Galilean satellites, but still the sixth-largest moon in the Solar System.

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Fictional planets of the Solar System

The fictional portrayal of our Solar System has often included planets, moons, and other celestial objects which do not actually exist in reality.

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Flagstaff, Arizona

Flagstaff is a city located in northern Arizona, in the southwestern United States.

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Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

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Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede, or as Γανυμήδης (Jupiter III) is the largest moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System, and the only moon known to have a magnetosphere.

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George Biddell Airy

Sir George Biddell Airy, KCB, PRS (27 July 1801 – 2 January 1892) was an English mathematician and astronomer, Astronomer Royal from 1835 to 1881.

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Gerard Kuiper

Gerard Peter Kuiper (born Gerrit Pieter Kuiper; December 7, 1905 – December 23, 1973) was a Dutch–American astronomer, planetary scientist, selenographer, author and professor.

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Giant planet

A giant planet is any massive planet.

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Gotha

Gotha is the fifth-largest city in Thuringia, Germany, located west of Erfurt and east of Eisenach with a population of 44,000.

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Gotha Observatory

Gotha Observatory (Seeberg Observatory, Sternwarte Gotha or Seeberg-Sternwarte) was a German astronomical observatory located on Seeberg hill near Gotha, Thuringia, Germany.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years.

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Hamilton College (New York)

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Hans E. Lau

Hans-Emil Lau (April 16, 1879 – October 16, 1918) was a Danish astronomer.

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Harlow Shapley

Harlow Shapley (November 2, 1885 – October 20, 1972) was an American astronomer.

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Harvard College Observatory

The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.

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Heinrich Louis d'Arrest

Heinrich Louis d'Arrest (13 August 1822 – 14 June 1875) was a German astronomer, born in Berlin.

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IAU definition of planet

The definition of planet set in Prague in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) states that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which.

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Infrared cirrus

Infrared cirrus are filamentary structures seen in infrared light.

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International Astronomical Union

The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.

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Io (moon)

Io is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.

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IRAS

The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was the first-ever space-based observatory to perform a survey of the entire sky at infrared wavelengths.

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Jacques Babinet

Jacques Babinet (5 March 1794 – 21 October 1872) was a French physicist, mathematician, and astronomer who is best known for his contributions to optics.

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James Ferguson (American astronomer)

James Ferguson (August 31, 1797 – September 26, 1867) was an American astronomer and engineer (he helped build the Erie canal) born in Scotland who made the first discovery of an asteroid from North America (31 Euphrosyne).

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James W. Christy

James Walter "Jim" Christy (born September 15, 1938) is an American astronomer.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in Pasadena, California, United States.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris

The name Jet Propulsion Laboratory Development Ephemeris (followed by a number), the abbreviation JPL DE(number), or just DE(number) designates one of a series of models of the Solar System produced at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, primarily for purposes of spacecraft navigation and astronomy.

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Johann Gottfried Galle

Johann Gottfried Galle, 1880 Galle's signature Memorial plaque in Wittenberg Johann Gottfried Galle (9 June 1812 – 10 July 1910) was a German astronomer from Radis, Germany, at the Berlin Observatory who, on 23 September 1846, with the assistance of student Heinrich Louis d'Arrest, was the first person to view the planet Neptune and know what he was looking at.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.

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Kobe University

, also known in the Kansai region as, is a leading national university located in Kobe, Hyōgo, Japan.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt or (as in Dutch), sometimes called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a region of the Solar System beyond the planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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Large Synoptic Survey Telescope

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is a wide-field survey reflecting telescope with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, currently under construction, that will photograph the entire available sky every few nights.

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Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a federal research facility in Livermore, California, founded by the University of California in 1952.

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List of hypothetical Solar System objects

A hypothetical Solar System object is a planet, natural satellite or similar body in our Solar System whose existence is not known, but has been inferred from observational scientific evidence.

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Lorenzo Iorio

Lorenzo Iorio (Bari, 1971), Ph.D., is an Italian physicist active in the field of general relativity and gravitation.

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Lowell Observatory

Lowell Observatory is an astronomical observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona, United States.

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Madrid

Madrid is a south-western European city and the capital and largest municipality of Spain.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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Martian canal

For a time in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it was erroneously believed that there were canals on Mars.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Michael E. Brown

Michael E. Brown (born June 5, 1965) is an American astronomer, who has been professor of planetary astronomy at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) since 2003.

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Minor Planet Center

The Minor Planet Center (MPC) is the official worldwide organization in charge of collecting observational data for minor planets (asteroids) and comets, calculating their orbits and publishing this information via the Minor Planet Circulars.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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New York

New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Oort cloud

The Oort cloud or Öpik–Oort cloud, named after Dutch astronomer Jan Oort and Estonian astronomer Ernst Öpik, is a theoretical spherical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals believed to surround the Sun at a distance of up to around.

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Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the Solar System.

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Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.

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Orbital inclination

Orbital inclination is the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of an object in orbit around another object.

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Palomar Observatory

Palomar Observatory is an astronomical observatory located in San Diego County, California, United States, southeast of Los Angeles, California, in the Palomar Mountain Range.

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Pan-STARRS

The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) consists of astronomical cameras, telescopes and a computing facility that is surveying the sky for moving objects on a continual basis, including accurate astrometry and photometry of already detected objects.

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Percival Lowell

Percival Lawrence Lowell (March 13, 1855 – November 12, 1916) was an American businessman, author, mathematician, and astronomer who fueled speculation that there were canals on Mars.

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Perturbation (astronomy)

In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Peter Andreas Hansen

Peter Andreas Hansen (born December 8, 1795 Tønder, Schleswig, Denmark – died March 28, 1874 Gotha, Thuringia, Germany) was a danish astronomer.

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Philip Herbert Cowell

Philip Herbert Cowell FRS (7 August 1870, Calcutta – 6 June 1949) was a British astronomer.

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Pierre-Simon Laplace

Pierre-Simon, marquis de Laplace (23 March 1749 – 5 March 1827) was an influential French scholar whose work was important to the development of mathematics, statistics, physics, and astronomy.

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Pioneer 10

Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.

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Pioneer 11

Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a 259 kilogram (569 lb) robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind, cosmic rays, and eventually the far reaches of the Solar System and heliosphere.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.

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Planetary system

A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in orbit around a star or star system.

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Plutino

In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune.

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Pluto

Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Precovery

In astronomy, precovery (short for "pre-discovery recovery") is the process of finding the image of an object in old archived images or photographic plates for the purpose of calculating a more accurate orbit.

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Retrograde and prograde motion

Retrograde motion is motion in the direction opposite to the movement of something else and the contrary of direct or prograde motion.

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Robert Sutton Harrington

Robert Sutton Harrington (October 21, 1942 – January 23, 1993) was an American astronomer who worked at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO).

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Rogue planet

A rogue planet, also known as an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet or orphan planet, is a planetary-mass object that orbits the galaxy directly.

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Roman numerals

Roman numerals, the numeric system used in ancient Rome, employs combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet to signify values.

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Scott S. Sheppard

Scott Sander Sheppard is an astronomer in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Super-Earth

A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the mass of the Solar System's ice giants Uranus and Neptune, which are 15 and 17 Earth masses respectively.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.

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Thomas Jefferson Jackson See

Thomas Jefferson Jackson (T. J. J.) See, (February 19, 1866 – July 4, 1962) was an American astronomer of high potential who ended a colorful life with no real accomplishment in astronomy or physics.

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Thomas John Hussey

Thomas John Hussey (4 April 1792 – c. 1854) was an English clergyman and astronomer.

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Time-lapse photography

Time-lapse photography is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence.

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Trans-Neptunian object

A trans-Neptunian object (TNO; also written transneptunian object) is any minor planet in the Solar System that orbits the Sun at a greater average distance (semi-major axis) than Neptune, 30 astronomical units (AU).

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Triton (moon)

Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune.

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United States Naval Observatory

The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.

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University of Hawaii

The University of Hawaiʻi System, formally the University of Hawaiʻi and popularly known as UH, is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor, master, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the state of Hawaiʻi in the United States.

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Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Urbain Le Verrier

Urbain Jean Joseph Le Verrier (11 March 1811 – 23 September 1877) was a French mathematician who specialized in celestial mechanics and is best known for predicting the existence and position of Neptune using only mathematics.

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Variable star

A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.

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Vesto Slipher

Vesto Melvin Slipher (November 11, 1875 – November 8, 1969) was an American astronomer who performed the first measurements of radial velocities for galaxies, providing the empirical basis for the expansion of the universe.

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Vishnu

In Hinduism, Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु) is the Supreme god Svayam Bhagavan of Vaishnavism (one of the three principal denominations).

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Volatiles

In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust and/or atmosphere.

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Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

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Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977 to study the outer planets.

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Walter Baade

Wilhelm Heinrich Walter Baade (March 24, 1893 – June 25, 1960) was a German astronomer who worked in the USA from 1931 to 1959.

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Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011 when its transmitter turned off.

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William Henry Pickering

William Henry Pickering (February 15, 1858 – January 16, 1938) was an American astronomer.

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Zodiac

In both astrology and historical astronomy, the zodiac (Greek: ζῳδιακός, zōidiakos) is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.

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177P/Barnard

Comet 177P/Barnard, also known as Barnard 2, is a periodic comet with an orbital period of 119 years.

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90377 Sedna

90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planets_beyond_Neptune

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