150 relations: Absorption (chemistry), Acrylonitrile, Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Aluminium, American Chemistry Council, Apothecary, Architecture, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Aromaticity, August Wilhelm von Hofmann, Autoclave, BASF, Benzene, Berkeley, California, Biodegradable plastic, Biodegradation, Bioplastic, Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Channel Tunnel, Charpy impact test, Chemical bond, Chemical decomposition, Chemical element, Chemistry, China, Chirality (chemistry), Chlorofluorocarbon, Column, Construction, Copolymer, Corrugated fiberboard, Craft, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Crystallinity, Cushioning, Cutlery, Dart Container, Düsseldorf Airport fire, Decomposition, Divinylbenzene, Dow Chemical Company, Drywall, DVD, Eduard Simon, Electricity generation, Environment (biophysical), Environmental organization, ..., Ethylene oxide, Extrusion, Firestop, Flame retardant, Flammability, Foam food container, Foam peanut, Freeport, Maine, Geofoam, Giulio Natta, Glass transition, Graphite, Hardness, Heat capacity, Hermann Staudinger, Hydrogen, IG Farben, Injection moulding, Insulating concrete form, Intermolecular force, Intramolecular reaction, Isomer, Joule, Kelvin, Kerbside collection, Koppers, Laboratory, Liquidambar orientalis, List of environmental ministries, Litter, Ludwigshafen, Macromolecule, Maleic anhydride, Marcellin Berthelot, Microtiter plate, Molar mass distribution, Molding (process), Monomer, National Toxicology Program, Optical disc packaging, Organic compound, Organofluorine chemistry, Oxygen, Pascal (unit), Pentane, Peptide synthesis, Petri dish, Phenyl group, Photodissociation, Physical model, Pittsburgh, Plasma (physics), Plastic, Plastic model, Plastic recycling, Polybutadiene, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Polymer, Polymer-bonded explosive, Polymerization, Portland, Oregon, Pseudomonas putida, Radical (chemistry), Randomness, Rastra, Recycling, Relative permittivity, Rigid panel, San Francisco, Smoke detector, Society of the Plastics Industry, Solubility, Steam, Structural insulated panel, Styrax balsam, Styrene, Styrene maleic anhydride, Styrene-acrylonitrile resin, Styrofoam, Suffolk County, New York, Test tube, Tetrahedron, Thermal expansion, Thermoforming, Thermoplastic, Toughness, Trademark, Transparency and translucency, Ultimate tensile strength, Vacuum forming, Van der Waals force, Vehicle registration plate, Vicat softening point, Vinyl, Water, Young's modulus, Ziegler–Natta catalyst, Zinc, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane. Expand index (100 more) » « Shrink index
In chemistry, absorption is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules or ions enter some bulk phase – gas, liquid or solid material.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
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Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) (chemical formula (C8H8)x· (C4H6)y·(C3H3N)z) is a common thermoplastic polymer.
Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
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The American Chemistry Council (ACC), formerly known as the Manufacturing Chemists' Association (at its founding in 1872) and then as the Chemical Manufacturers' Association (from 1978 until 2000), is an industry trade association for American chemical companies, based in Washington, D.C.
An apothecary was a medical professional who formulated and dispensed materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients.
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Architecture (Latin architectura, after the Greek ἀρχή τέχνη – arkhḗ tékhnē – composed by ἀρχή "origin" and τέχνη "art, craft") is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures.
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An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming rings.
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In organic chemistry, the term aromaticity is formally used to describe an unusually stable nature of some flat rings of atoms.
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August Wilhelm von Hofmann (8 April 1818 – 5 May 1892) was a German chemist.
An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C (249°F) for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents.
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BASF SE is the largest chemical producer in the world and is headquartered in Ludwigshafen, Germany.
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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
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Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California, United States.
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Biodegradable plastics are plastics that decompose by the action living organisms, usually bacteria.
Biodegradation is the chemical dissolution of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
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Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.
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The Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is located on the Tennessee River near Decatur and Athens, Alabama, on the north side (right bank) of Wheeler Lake.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.
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The Channel Tunnel (Le tunnel sous la Manche; also referred to as the Chunnel) is a rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent, in the United Kingdom, with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais, near Calais in northern France, beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover.
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The Charpy impact test, also known as the Charpy V-notch test, is a standardized high strain-rate test which determines the amount of energy absorbed by a material during fracture.
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A chemical bond is an attraction between atoms that allows the formation of chemical substances that contain two or more atoms.
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Chemical decomposition, analysis or breakdown is the separation of a chemical compound into elements or simpler compounds.
A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).
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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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A molecule is chiral if there is another molecule—in reality or in potential—that is of identical composition, but which is arranged in a non-superposable mirror image configuration.
A chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is an organic compound that contains only carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
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A Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
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Construction is the process of creating and building infrastructure or a facility.
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When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, their result is called a copolymer and its process is called copolymerization.
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Corrugated fiberboard is a paper-based material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards.
A craft is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work.
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The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 96th edition.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.
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Crystallinity refers to the degree of structural order in a solid.
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Package cushioning is used to help protect fragile items during shipment.
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Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world.
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Dart Container Corporation of Mason, Michigan, United States is the world's largest manufacturer of foam cups and containers, producing about as many as all competitors combined.
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On 11 April 1996, a fire broke out inside the passenger terminal of Düsseldorf International Airport, Germany, killing 17 people.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into a much simpler form of matter.
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Divinylbenzene (DVB) consists of a benzene ring bonded to two vinyl groups.
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The Dow Chemical Co., commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States.
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Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum board) is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper.
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DVD ("digital versatile disc" or "digital video disc") is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995.
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Johann Eduard Simon (1789–1856) was an apothecary in Berlin, Germany.
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Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from other sources of primary energy.
The biophysical environment is the biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development and evolution.
An environmental organization is an organization that seeks to protect, analyse or monitor the environment against misuse or degradation from human forces.
Ethylene oxide, properly called oxirane by IUPAC, is the organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether. (A cyclic ether consists of an alkane with an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms of the alkane, forming a ring.) Ethylene oxide is a colorless flammable gas at room temperature, with a faintly sweet odor; it is the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Because of its special molecular structure, ethylene oxide easily participates in addition reactions; e.g., opening its ring and thus easily polymerizing. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas, with a misleadingly pleasant aroma. The chemical reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards has also made it a key industrial chemical. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used industrially for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. Ethylene oxide is important or critical to the production of detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers and other compounds. As a poison gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, pure ethylene oxide is a disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by direct oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. It is extremely flammable and explosive and is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
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Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile.
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A firestop is a fire protection system made of various components used to seal openings and joints in fire-resistance rated wall and/or floor assemblies.
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Flame retardants are compounds added to manufactured materials, such as plastics and textiles, and surface finishes and coatings that inhibit, suppress, or delay the production of flames to prevent the spread of fire.
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Flammability is the ability of a substance to burn or ignite, causing fire or combustion.
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A foam food container is a disposable container for various foods, including beverages.
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Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, styrofoam popcorn or packing noodles are a common loose-fill packaging and cushioning material used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping.
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Freeport is a town in Cumberland County, Maine, United States.
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Geofoam is expanded polystyrene (EPS) or extruded polystyrene (XPS) manufactured into large lightweight blocks.
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Giulio Natta (26 February 1903 – 2 May 1979) was an Italian chemist and Nobel laureate.
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The glass–liquid transition or glass transition for short is the reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials) from a hard and relatively brittle state into a molten or rubber-like state.
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Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.
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Hardness is a measure of how resistant solid matter is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied.
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Heat capacity or thermal capacity is a measurable physical quantity equal to the ratio of the heat added to (or removed from) an object to the resulting temperature change.
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Hermann Staudinger (23 March 1881 – 8 September 1965) was a German chemist who demonstrated the existence of macromolecules, which he characterized as polymers.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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IG Farben was a German chemical industry conglomerate.
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Injection moulding (injection molding in the USA) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting material into a mould.
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Insulating concrete form or insulated concrete form (ICF) is a system of formwork for reinforced concrete usually made with a rigid thermal insulation that stays in place as a permanent interior and exterior substrate for walls, floors, and roofs.
Intermolecular forces are forces of attraction or repulsion which act between neighboring particles (atoms, molecules or ions).
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Intramolecular in chemistry describes a process or characteristic limited within the structure of a single molecule, a property or phenomenon limited to the extent of a single molecule.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
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The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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Curbside collection, or Kerbside collection, is a service provided to households, typically in urban and suburban areas, of removing household waste.
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Koppers is a global chemical and materials company based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States in an art-deco 1920s skyscraper, the Koppers Tower.
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A laboratory (or; informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
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Liquidambar orientalis, commonly known as oriental sweetgum or Turkish sweetgum, is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar, native to the eastern Mediterranean region, that occurs as pure stands mainly in the flood plains of southwestern Turkey and on the Greek island of Rhodes.
An environmental ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for the environment and/or natural resources.
Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent, at an inappropriate location.
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Ludwigshafen am Rhein is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
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A macromolecule is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
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Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.
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Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot FRS FRSE (25 October 1827 – 18 March 1907) was a French chemist and politician noted for the Thomsen-Berthelot principle of thermochemistry.
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A microtiter plate (spelled Microtiter is a registered trade name in the United States) or microplate or microwell plate or multiwell, is a flat plate with multiple "wells" used as small test tubes.
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In linear polymers the individual polymer chains rarely have exactly the same degree of polymerization and molar mass, and there is always a distribution around an average value.
Molding or moulding (see spelling differences) is the process of manufacturing by shaping liquid or pliable raw material using a rigid frame called a mold or matrix.
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A monomer (mono-, "one" + -mer, "part") is a molecule that may bind chemically to other molecules to form a polymer.
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The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is an inter-agency program run by the United States Department of Health and Human Services to coordinate, evaluate, and report on toxicology within public agencies.
Optical disc packaging is the packaging that accompanies CDs, DVDs, and other formats of optical media.
An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
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Organofluorine chemistry describes the chemistry of organofluorine compounds, organic compounds that contain the carbon–fluorine bond.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
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The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength, defined as one newton per square metre.
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Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12 — that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms.
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In organic chemistry, peptide synthesis is the production of peptides, which are organic compounds in which multiple amino acids are linked via amide bonds, also known as peptide bonds.
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A Petri dish (sometimes spelled "Petrie dish" and alternatively known as a Petri plate or cell-culture dish), named after the German bacteriologist Julius Richard Petri, is a shallow cylindrical glass or plastic lidded dish that biologists use to culture cellssuch as bacteriaor small mosses.
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In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5.
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Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
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Physical model (most commonly referred to simply as a model but in this context distinguished from a conceptual model) is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object.
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Pittsburgh is the second largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with a population of 305,842 and the county seat of Allegheny County.
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Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
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Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organics that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects of diverse shapes.
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A 4-year-old boy starts painting an assembled plastic model of the South Goodwin Lightship A plastic model is a plastic scale model manufactured as a kit, primarily assembled by hobbyists, and intended for static display.
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Plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different in form from their original state.
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Polybutadiene is a synthetic rubber that is a polymer formed from the polymerization process of the monomer 1,3-butadiene.
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "parts") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
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A polymer-bonded explosive, also called PBX or plastic-bonded explosive, is an explosive material in which explosive powder is bound together in a matrix using small quantities (typically 5–10% by weight) of a synthetic polymer ("plastic").
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
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Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the county seat of Multnomah County, located at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers.
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Pseudomonas putida is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, saprotrophic soil bacterium.
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In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valency electrons.
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Randomness is the lack of pattern or predictability in events.
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Rastra is a tradename for a particular insulating concrete form (ICF) used to make walls for buildings.
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Recycling is a process to convert waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal and lower greenhouse gas emissions as compared to plastic production.
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The relative permittivity of a material is its dielectric permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
Rigid panel insulation is made from fibrous materials (fiberglass, rock and slag wool) or from plastic foam.
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San Francisco, officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California and the only consolidated city-county in California.
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A smoke detector is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire.
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Founded in 1937, SPI: The Plastics Industry Trade Association represents the third largest manufacturing sector in the United States.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.
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Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
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A Structural insulated panel (or structural insulating panel), SIP, is a composite building material.
Styrax (storax) balsam is a recent natural resin isolated from the wounded bark of Liquidambar orientalis Mill.
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Styrene, also known as ethenylbenzene, vinylbenzene, and phenylethene, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5CH.
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Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA or SMAnh) is a synthetic polymer that is built-up of styrene and maleic anhydride monomers.
Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile.
Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam currently made for thermal insulation and craft applications.
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Suffolk County is a suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U.S. state of New York.
A test tube, also known as a culture tube or sample tube, is a common piece of laboratory glassware consisting of a finger-like length of glass or clear plastic tubing, open at the top, usually with a rounded U-shaped bottom.
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In geometry, a tetrahedron (plural: tetrahedra or tetrahedrons) is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each corner or vertex.
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Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in volume in response to a change in temperature, when the body is heated its dimension(size) increase.This increase in dimension is called thermal expansion.
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Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product.
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A Fisch, or thermosoftening plastic, is a plastic material, polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling.
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In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.
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A trademark, trade mark, or trade-mark is a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks.
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In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.
Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking.
Vacuum forming is a simplified version of thermoforming, whereby a sheet of plastic is heated to a forming temperature, stretched onto a single-surface mold, and forced against the mold by a vacuum (suction of air).
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In physical chemistry, the van der Waals forces (or van der Waals' interaction), named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, is the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds, or the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another, with neutral molecules, or with charged molecules.
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A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes.
Vicat softening temperature or Vicat hardness is the determination of the softening point for materials that have no definite melting point, such as plastics.
In chemistry, vinyl or ethenyl is the functional group −CH.
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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.
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Young's modulus, also known as the tensile modulus, is a mechanical property of linear elastic solid materials.
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A Ziegler–Natta catalyst, named after Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta, is a catalyst used in the synthesis of polymers of 1-alkenes (alpha-olefins).
Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
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1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, R-134a, Forane 134a, Genetron 134a, Florasol 134a, Suva 134a or HFC-134a, also known as norflurane (INN), is a haloalkane refrigerant with thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane) but with insignificant ozone depletion potential.