266 relations: Acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Afferent, Agriculture, Air-free technique, Alkali, Alkali metal, Alkalide, Alkalosis, Alloy, Almond, Ammonia, Ancient Rome, Angewandte Chemie, Anhydrous, Antoine Lavoisier, Apricot, Argon, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, Atomic number, Aureolin, Avocado, Baking powder, Bamboo shoot, Banana, Becquerel, Beer, Beetroot, Belarus, Beta decay, Bicarbonate, Biotite, Bleach, Blood pressure, Bran, Bromine, Calcium carbide, Canada, Cardiac arrhythmia, Carnallite, Ceramic, Chemical element, Chloroplatinic acid, Chocolate, Chromate and dichromate, Circadian clock, Circadian rhythm, Classical Latin, Coconut water, ..., Composition of the human body, Coordination complex, Copper, Crop yield, Crust (geology), Dangerous goods, Dead Sea, Desiccant, Detonation, Devonian, Diarrhea, Dietary Reference Intake, Distal convoluted tubule, Diuretic, Dye, Electroforming, Electrolysis, Electron capture, Electronegativity, Electroplating, Elk Point Group, Ester, European Union, Evaporite, Exothermic process, Explosive material, Fat, Feldspar, Fertilizer, Fire extinguisher, Fireworks, Flame, Flame test, Flypaper, Georg Ernst Stahl, Germany, Gibbs–Donnan effect, Glomerulus, Gold, Gold mining, Granite, Great Britain, Guano, Gunpowder, Haber process, Half-life, Halogen, Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, Hornblende, Horticulture, Humphry Davy, Hydrogen, Hydrolysis, Hydroponics, Hyperkalemia, Hyperpolarization (biology), Hypertension, Hypokalemia, Igneous rock, Ileus, Inductively coupled plasma, Inert gas, Ink, Ion, Ion selective electrode, Ion transporter, Ionization energy, Isotope, Israel, Italy, John Wiley & Sons, Jordan, Justus von Liebig, Kainite, K–Ar dating, Kerosene, Kilogram, Langbeinite, Leather, Lethal injection, Life, Lilac (color), Lithium, Loop diuretic, Magnetometer, Match, Melting point, Meta-analysis, Metal, Mineral, Mineral oil, Modern Standard Arabic, Muscovite, Na+/K+-ATPase, NaK, National Academy of Medicine, Neon-burning process, Nephron, New Latin, Nitrile, Nitrogen, Noble gas, North Carolina State University, Nucleosynthesis, Nut (fruit), Nutrient, Nutrient cycle, Oil, Orange juice, Organic compound, Organic synthesis, Orthoclase, Osmosis, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Parsley, Pergamon Press, Periodic table, Permian, Peroxide, PH, Phaseolus vulgaris, Photoelectric flame photometer, Pistachio, Plant, Polyhalite, Polyuria, Positron emission, Potash, Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, Potassium bisulfite, Potassium bromate, Potassium bromide, Potassium carbonate, Potassium channel, Potassium chlorate, Potassium chloride, Potassium chromate, Potassium cobaltinitrite, Potassium cyanide, Potassium fluoride, Potassium hexachloroplatinate, Potassium hydroxide, Potassium nitrate, Potassium oxide, Potassium peroxide, Potassium sodium tartrate, Potassium sulfate, Potassium superoxide, Potassium tetraphenylborate, Potato, Pound (mass), Powdered milk, Precipitation (chemistry), Prokaryote, Radioactive decay, Radioactive tracer, Radionuclide, Reactive distillation, Reagent, Redox, Reducing agent, Rieke metals, Russia, S-process, Saccharin, Salt, Salt (chemistry), Saltwater soap, Saponification, Saskatchewan, Science (journal), Seabed, Seawater, Silicon dioxide, Silver, Silvering, Soap, Sodium, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium cobaltinitrite, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium tetraphenylborate, Soil, Solubility, Solvent, Soybean, Spoil tip, Staßfurt, Stain, Stroke, Sulfuric acid, Supernova, Supernova nucleosynthesis, Superoxide, Suprachiasmatic nucleus, Sylvite, Symbol (chemistry), The Journal of Experimental Biology, The Periodic Table of Videos, Thiazide, Tomato paste, Tonne, United States, United States Department of Agriculture, Uranium, Vagus nerve, Vitreous enamel, Voltaic pile, Vomiting, Water, Weathering, Wine, Yam (vegetable), Zechstein. Expand index (216 more) » « Shrink index
An acid (from the Latin acidus/acēre meaning sour) is a chemical substance whose aqueous solutions are characterized by a sour taste, the ability to turn blue litmus red, and the ability to react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts.
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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme often called the "molecular unit of currency" of intracellular energy transfer.
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Afferent (from Latin, ad meaning "to" and ferre meaning "to carry") is an anatomical term with the following meanings.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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Air-free techniques refer to a range of manipulations in the chemistry laboratory for the handling of compounds that are air-sensitive.
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In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly القلي, القالي, “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.
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The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
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An alkalide is a chemical compound in which alkali metals are anions (that is, they bear a negative charge).
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Alkalosis refers to a process reducing hydrogen ion concentration of arterial blood plasma (alkalemia).
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An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.
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The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus, Amygdalus communis, Amygdalus dulcis) (or badam in Indian English, from بادام) is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia.
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Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Angewandte Chemie (meaning "Applied Chemistry") is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by Wiley-VCH on behalf of the German Chemical Society (Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker).
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A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water, for example, salts lacking their water of crystallisation.
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Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution; 26 August 17438 May 1794) was a French nobleman and chemist central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
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An apricot is a fruit or the tree that bears the fruit of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
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Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
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The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.
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Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.
In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.
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Aureolin (sometimes called Cobalt Yellow) is a pigment sparingly used in oil and watercolor painting.
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The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree native to Mexico and Central America, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel.
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Baking powder is a dry chemical leavening agent, a mixture of a carbonate or bicarbonate and a weak acid, and is used for increasing the volume and lightening the texture of baked goods.
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Bamboo shoots or bamboo sprouts are the edible shoots (new bamboo culms that come out of the ground) of many bamboo species including Bambusa vulgaris and Phyllostachys edulis. They are used in numerous Asian dishes and broths. They are sold in various processed shapes, and are available in fresh, dried, and canned versions.
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The banana is an edible fruit, botanically a berry, produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.
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The becquerel (symbol Bq) (pronounced) is the SI derived unit of radioactivity.
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Beer is an alcoholic beverage produced by the saccharification of starch and fermentation of the resulting sugar.
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The beetroot is the taproot portion of the beet plant, usually known in North America as the beet, also table beet, garden beet, or red or golden beet.
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Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
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In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogen carbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
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Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
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Bleach refers to a number of chemicals which remove color, whiten or disinfect, often by oxidation.
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Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels.
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Bran, also known as miller's bran, is the hard outer layers of cereal grain.
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Bromine (from βρῶμος, brómos, meaning "strong-smelling" or "stench") is a chemical element with symbol Br, and atomic number 35.
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Calcium carbide is a chemical compound with the chemical formula of CaC2.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
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Carnallite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated potassium magnesium chloride with formula KMgCl3·6(H2O).
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A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid material comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
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A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).
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Chloroplatinic acid or hexachloroplatinic acid are inorganic compound with the formula 2(H2O)x.
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Chocolate is a typically sweet, usually brown, food preparation of Theobroma cacao seeds, roasted and ground, often flavored, as with vanilla.
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Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO42−.
The circadian clock, or circadian oscillator, in most living things makes it possible for organisms to coordinate their biology and behavior with daily environmental changes in the day-night cycle.
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A circadian rhythm is any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours.
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Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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Coconut water is the clear liquid inside young green coconuts (fruits of the coconut palm).
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The elemental composition of the human body can be looked at from the point of view of either mass composition, or atomic composition.
In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.
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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
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In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
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In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet or natural satellite, which is chemically distinct from the underlying mantle.
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Dangerous/hazardous goods are solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, other living organisms, property, or the environment.
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The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח,, "Sea of Salt", also יָם הַמָּוֶת,, "The Sea of Death",The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used. and البحر الميت.), also called the Salt Sea, is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
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A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its vicinity.
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Detonation is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it.
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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about Mya (million years ago), to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about.
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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
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The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is a portion of kidney nephron between the loop of Henle and the collecting duct system.
A diuretic is any substance that promotes the production of urine.
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A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
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Electroforming is a metal forming process that forms parts through electrodeposition or electroplating on a model, known in the industry as a mandrel.
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In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
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Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
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Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom or a functional group to attract electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
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Electroplating is a process that uses electric current to reduce dissolved metal cations so that they form a coherent metal coating on an electrode.
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The Elk Point Group is a stratigraphic unit of Middle Devonian age in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin.
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In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.
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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Evaporite is a name for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
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In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo-: "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen).
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An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.
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Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.
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A fertilizer (or fertiliser in British English) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues (usually leaves) to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
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A fire extinguisher, or extinguisher, is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations.
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Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic, cultural, and religious purposes.
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A flame (from Latin flamma) is the visible, gaseous part of a fire.
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A flame test is an analytic procedure used in chemistry to detect the presence of certain elements, primarily metal ions, based on each element's characteristic emission spectrum.
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Flypaper (also known as a fly ribbon) is a fly-killing device made of paper coated with a sweetly fragrant, but extremely sticky and sometimes poisonous substance that traps flies and other flying insects when they land upon it.
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Georg Ernst Stahl (22 October 1659 – 24 May 1734) was a German chemist, physician and philosopher.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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The Gibbs–Donnan effect (also known as the Donnan's effect, Donnan law, Donnan equilibrium, or Gibbs–Donnan equilibrium) is a name for the behavior of charged particles near a semi-permeable membrane that sometimes fail to distribute evenly across the two sides of the membrane.
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Glomerulus is a common term used in anatomy to describe globular structures of entwined vessels, fibers, or neurons.
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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.
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Gold mining is the process of mining of gold or gold ores from the ground.
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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
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Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.
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Guano (via Spanish, ultimately from the Quechua wanu) is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or (in English usage) birds in general.
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Gunpowder, also known as black powder, is a chemical explosive—the earliest known.
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The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.
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The halogens or halogen elements are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).
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Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau (20 July 1700, Paris - 13 August 1782, Paris), was a French physician, naval engineer and botanist.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
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Horticulture is the branch of agriculture that deals with the art, science, technology, and business of vegetable garden plant growing.
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Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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Hydrolysis usually means the cleavage of chemical bonds by the addition of water.
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Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture and is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil.
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Hyperkalemia (hyperkalaemia in British English, hyper- high; kalium, potassium; -emia, "in the blood") refers to the condition in which the concentration of the electrolyte potassium (K+) in the blood is elevated.
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Hyperpolarization is a change in a cell's membrane potential that makes it more negative.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
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Hypokalemia (American English) or hypokalaemia (British English), also hypopotassemia or hypopotassaemia (ICD-9), refers to the condition in which the concentration of potassium (K+) in the blood is low.
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Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire) is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
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Ileus (from Greek εἰλεός eileós, "intestinal obstruction") is a disruption of the normal propulsive ability of the gastrointestinal tract.
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An inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.
An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions.
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Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design.
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An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
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An ion-selective electrode (ISE), also known as a specific ion electrode (SIE), is a transducer (or sensor) that converts the activity of a specific ion dissolved in a solution into an electrical potential, which can be measured by a voltmeter or pH meter.
In biology, an ion transporter, also called an ion pump, is a transmembrane protein that moves ions across a plasma membrane against their concentration gradient, in contrast to ion channels, where ions go through passive transport.
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The ionization energy (IE) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.
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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.
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Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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Justus Freiherr von Liebig (12 May 1803 – 18 April 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and was considered the founder of organic chemistry.
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Kainite (KMg(SO4)Cl·3H2O) is a mineral salt that consists of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate and is used as a fertilizer.
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Potassium–argon dating, abbreviated K–Ar dating, is a radiometric dating method used in geochronology and archaeology.
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Kerosene, also known as lamp oil, is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid widely used as a fuel in industry and households.
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The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg), is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) (the Metric system) and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK).
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Langbeinite is a potassium magnesium sulfate mineral with formula: K2Mg2(SO4)3.
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Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide.
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Lethal injection is the practice of injecting a person with a fatal dose of drugs (typically a barbiturate, paralytic, and potassium solution) for the express purpose of causing immediate death.
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Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.
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Lilac is a color that is a pale violet tone representing the average color of most lilac flowers.
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Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
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Loop diuretics are diuretics that act at the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney.
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Magnetometers are measurement instruments used for two general purposes: to measure the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or to measure the strength and, in some cases, the direction of the magnetic field at a point in space.
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A match is a tool for starting a fire.
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The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
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The basic tenet of a meta-analysis is that there is a common truth behind all conceptually similar studies, but which has been measured with a certain error within individual studies.
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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
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A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.
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A mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
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Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.
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Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
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-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium-potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
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NaK, or sodium-potassium alloy (commonly pronounced 'knack'), an alloy of potassium (K) and sodium (Na), is usually liquid at room temperature.
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The National Academy of Medicine, known as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) until June 30, 2015, is an American non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences.
The neon-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars (at least 8 Solar masses).
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The nephron (from Greek νεφρός - nephros, meaning "kidney") is the basic structural and functional unit of the kidney.
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New Latin (also called neo-Latin or modern Latin) was used in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
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A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.
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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
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The noble gases make a group of chemical elements with similar properties.
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North Carolina State University, officially North Carolina State University at Raleigh, is a public, coeducational, research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
Nucleosynthesis is the process that creates new atomic nuclei from pre-existing nucleons, primarily protons and neutrons.
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A nut is a fruit composed of a hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
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Nutrients are components in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow.
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A nutrient cycle (or ecological recycling) is the movement and exchange of organic and inorganic matter back into the production of living matter.
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An oil is any neutral, nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally "fat loving").
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Orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree.
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An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.
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Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis and is concerned with the construction of organic compounds via organic reactions.
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Orthoclase, or orthoclase feldspar(endmember formula KAlSi3O8), is an important tectosilicate mineral which forms igneous rock.
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Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a semi-permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.
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An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.
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In chemistry, oxidizing agent has two meanings.
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Parsley or garden parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a species of Petroselinum in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Algeria, and Tunisia), naturalized elsewhere in Europe, and widely cultivated as a herb, a spice, and a vegetable.
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Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.
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The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.
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The Permian is a geologic period and system which extends from to million years ago.
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A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen–oxygen single bond or the peroxide anion, O. The O−O group is called the peroxide group or peroxo group.
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In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or alkalinity of an aqueous solution.
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Phaseolus vulgaris, the common bean (also known as the string bean, field bean, flageolet bean, French bean, garden bean, green bean, haricot bean, pop bean, or snap bean), is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seed (known as just "beans") or unripe fruit (green beans).
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A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used in inorganic chemical analysis to determine the concentration of certain metal ions, among them sodium, potassium, lithium, and calcium.
The pistachio, (-, پسته; Pistacia vera) a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.
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Plants, also called green plants, are multicellular eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
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Polyhalite is an evaporite mineral, a hydrated sulfate of potassium, calcium and magnesium with formula: K2Ca2Mg(SO4)4·2H2O.
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Polyuria is a condition usually defined as excessive or abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
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Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a particular type of radioactive decay and a subtype of beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
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Potash is any of various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form.
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The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc., also referred to as PotashCorp, is a Canadian corporation based in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Potassium hydrogen sulfite or potassium bisulfite is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KHSO3.
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Potassium bromate (KBrO3), is a bromate of potassium and takes the form of white crystals or powder.
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Potassium bromide (KBr) is a salt, widely used as an anticonvulsant and a sedative in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with over-the-counter use extending to 1975 in the US.
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Potassium carbonate (K2CO3) is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in ethanol), which forms a strongly alkaline solution.
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In the field of cell biology, potassium channels are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms.
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Potassium chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen atoms, with the molecular formula KClO3.
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The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chloride.
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Potassium chromate (K2CrO4) is a yellow chemical indicator used for identifying concentrations of chloride ions in a salt solution with silver nitrate (AgNO3).
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Potassium cobaltinitrite, IUPAC name potassium hexanitritocobaltate(III), is a coordination compound with the formula K3.
Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN.
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Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.
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Potassium hexachloroplatinate, an inorganic compound, is an example of a comparatively insoluble potassium salt.
Potassium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula KOH, and is commonly called caustic potash.
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Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3.
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Potassium oxide (2O) is an ionic compound of potassium and oxygen.
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Potassium peroxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula K2O2.
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Potassium sodium tartrate is a double salt first prepared (in about 1675) by an apothecary, Pierre Seignette, of La Rochelle, France.
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water.
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Potassium superoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
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Potassium tetraphenylborate is the salt with the formula KB(C6H5)4). It is a colourless salt that is a rare example of a water-insoluble salt of potassium. The salt has a low solubility in water of only 1.8×10−4 g/L. It is, however, soluble in organic solvents. The insolubility of this compound has been used to determine the concentration of potassium ions by precipitation and gravimetric analysis: The compound adopts a polymeric structure with bonds between the phenyl rings and potassium. As such it is classified as an organopotassium compound.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum L. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber.
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The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, lbm, ℔) is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
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Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness.
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Precipitation is the creation of a solid.
A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
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A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radioisotope so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
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Reactive distillation is a process where the chemical reactor is also the still.
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A reagent is a "substance or compound that is added to a system in order to bring about a chemical reaction, or added to see if a reaction occurs." Although the terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably, a reactant is more specifically a "substance that is consumed in the course of a chemical reaction".
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Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.
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A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.
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Rieke metals are highly reactive metal powders prepared by the methods developed by Reuben D. Rieke.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The s-process or slow-neutron-capture-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs at relatively low neutron density and intermediate temperature conditions in stars.
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Saccharin is an artificial sweetener with effectively no food energy which is about 300–400 times as sweet as sucrose or table sugar, but has a bitter or metallic aftertaste, especially at high concentrations.
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Common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
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In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
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Saltwater soap, also called sailors' soap, is a special soap for use with saline water, like seawater.
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Saponification is a process that produces soap, usually from fats and lye.
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Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has a total area of and a land area of, the remainder being water area (covered by lakes/ponds, reservoirs and rivers).
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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.
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The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
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Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
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Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.
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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (άργυρος árguros, argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47.
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Silvering is the chemical process of coating glass with a reflective substance.
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In chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid.
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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from New Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
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Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals), Na2CO3, is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
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Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
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Sodium cobaltinitrite is a coordination compound with the formula Na3Co(NO2)6.
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Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda, is an inorganic compound.
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Sodium tetraphenylborate is the organic compound with the formula NaB(C6H5)4.
Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases, liquids, and the countless organisms that together support life on earth.
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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent to form a solution of the solute in the solvent.
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A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
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The soybean in the US, also called the soya bean in Europe (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses.
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A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil - the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
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Staßfurt (Stassfurt) is a town in the Salzlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
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A stain is a discoloration that can be clearly distinguished from the surface, material, or medium it is found upon.
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Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
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Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.
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A supernova is a stellar explosion that briefly outshines an entire galaxy, radiating as much energy as the Sun or any ordinary star is expected to emit over its entire life span, before fading from view over several weeks or months.
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Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the production of many different chemical elements in supernova explosions, first advanced by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
A superoxide, also known by the obsolete name hyperoxide, is a compound that contains the superoxide anion with the chemical formula.
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The suprachiasmatic nucleus or nuclei (SCN) is a tiny region located in the hypothalamus, situated directly above the optic chiasm.
Sylvite is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form.
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In chemistry, a symbol is a code for a chemical element.
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The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.
Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart, liver, or kidney disease).
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Tomato paste is a thick paste that is made by cooking tomatoes for several hours to reduce moisture, straining them to remove the seeds and skin, and cooking them again to reduce them to a thick, rich concentrate.
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The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart and digestive tract.
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Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
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The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electrical current to a circuit.
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Vomiting, also known as emesis, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
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Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.
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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil and minerals as well as artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, biota and waters.
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Wine (from Latin vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits.
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Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.
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The Zechstein (German either from mine stone or tough stone) is a unit of sedimentary rock layers of Middle to Late Permian (Guadalupian to Lopingian) age located in the European Permian Basin which stretches from the east coast of England to northern Poland.
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