84 relations: Adolf A. Berle, Agriculture, Bankruptcy, Biotechnology, Cadaver, Caesarean section, Civil law (legal system), Claim and delivery, Claim club, Common law, Company, Consumer protection, Consumerism, Contract, Conversion (law), Covenant (law), Detinue, Easement, England, Equitable servitude, Escheat, Ethics, Fealty, Fetus, Feudal land tenure in England, Feudalism, Fiqh, Fixture (property law), Fraud, Genome, Gift, Government, Human, Infectious invalidity, Intellectual property, Intestacy, James Wilson, Jews, Jurisdiction, Laissez-faire, Landlord, Law, Lease, Leasehold estate, License, List of national legal systems, Loyalty, Middle Ages, Modern history, Monarch, ..., Moore v. Regents of the University of California, Napoleonic Code, Ontology, Organ (anatomy), Ownership, Personal property, Personal rights, Personality rights, Philosophy, Possession (law), Power (social and political), Property, Quasi-property, Real estate, Real property, Rei vindicatio, Reputation, Sales, Sharia, Slavery, Society, Sparta, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Statute, Supreme Court of California, Supreme Court of the United States, Terminology, Trover, Trust law, United States, University of Pennsylvania, Urban area, Virginia, Western world. Expand index (34 more) » « Shrink index
Adolf Augustus Berle, Jr. (January 27, 1895 – February 17, 1971) was a lawyer, educator, author, and U.S. diplomat.
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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.
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Bankruptcy is a legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay the debts it owes to creditors.
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Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).
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A cadaver, also called a corpse in medical literary and legal usage or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.
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A Caesarian section (often C-section, also other spellings) is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen and uterus to deliver one or more babies.
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Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Claim and delivery, originally replevin (sometimes called revendication), is a lawsuit that enables a person to get back personal property taken wrongfully or unlawfully and get compensation for resulting losses.
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Claim clubs, also called actual settlers' associations or squatters' clubs, were a nineteenth-century phenomenon in the American West.
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Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.
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A company is an association or collection of individuals, whether natural persons, legal persons, or a mixture of both.
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Consumer protection is a group of laws and organizations designed to ensure the rights of consumers as well as fair trade, competition and accurate information in the marketplace.
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Consumerism as a social and economic order and ideology encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
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In law, a contract (or informally known as an agreement in some jurisdictions) is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties, each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between them.
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Conversion is a common law tort.
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A covenant, in its most general sense and historical sense, is a solemn promise to engage in or refrain from a specified action.
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In tort law, detinue is an action to recover for the wrongful taking of personal property.
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An easement is a non-possessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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An equitable servitude is a term used in the law of real property to describe a nonpossessory interest in land that operates much like a covenant running with the land.
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Escheat is a common law doctrine which transfers the property of a person who dies without heirs to the crown or state.
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Ethics, or moral philosophy, is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
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An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.
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In human development, a fetus (plural "fetuses"), also spelled foetus, is a prenatal human between its embryonic state and its birth.
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Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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Fiqh (فقه) is Islamic jurisprudence.
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A fixture, as a legal concept, means any physical property that is permanently attached (fixed) to real property (usually land), the removal of which would permanently damage the real property.
In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain.
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In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.
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A gift or a present is an item given to someone without the expectation of payment.
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A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled.
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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
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Infectious invalidity is a doctrine of property law that provides that under certain defined circumstances because one action is improper another action is invalid.
Intellectual property (IP) is a term referring to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law.
Intestacy is the condition of the estate of a person who dies owning property whose value is greater than the sum of their enforceable debts and funeral expenses without having made a valid will or other binding declaration.
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James Wilson (September 14, 1742August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority to interpret and apply the law, or to govern and legislate.
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Laissez-faire is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government interference such as regulations, privileges, tariffs, and subsidies.
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A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter).
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Law is a system of rules that are enforced through social institutions to govern behaviour.
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A lease is a contractual arrangement calling for the lessee (user) to pay the lessor (owner) for use of an asset.
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A leasehold estate is an ownership of a temporary right to hold land or property in which a lessee or a tenant holds rights of real property by some form of title from a lessor or landlord.
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The verb license or grant license means to give permission.
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The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of three basic systems: common law, civil law and religious law, or combinations of these.
Loyalty is faithfulness or a devotion to a person, country, group, or cause.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Modern history, also referred to as the modern period or the modern era, is the historiographical approach to the timeframe after the post-classical era (known as the Middle Ages).
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A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
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Moore v. Regents of the University of California (51 Cal. 3d 120; 271 Cal. Rptr. 146; 793 P.2d 479) was a landmark Supreme Court of California decision filed on July 9, 1990 which dealt with the issue of property rights in one's own body parts.
The Napoleonic Code (and officially Code civil des Français) is the French civil code established under Napoléon I in 1804.
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Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
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In biology, an organ or viscus is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function.
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Ownership of property may be private, collective, or common, and the property may be of objects, land/real estate or intellectual property.
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Personal property is generally considered property that is movable, as opposed to real property or real estate.
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Personal rights are the rights that a person has over their own body.
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The right of publicity, often called personality rights, is the right of an individual to control the commercial use of his or her name, image, likeness, or other unequivocal aspects of one's identity.
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Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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In law, possession is the control a person intentionally exercises toward a thing.
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In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or control the behavior of people.
In the abstract, property is that which belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.
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Quasi-property is a legal concept, in which some rights similar to ownership may accrue to a party who does an act which benefits society as a whole.
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Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property; (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
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In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is any subset of land that has been legally defined and the improvements to it have been made by human efforts: buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, roads, etc.
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Rei vindicatio is a legal action by which the plaintiff demands that the defendant return a thing that belongs to the plaintiff.
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Reputation of a social entity (a person, a social group, an organization) is an opinion about that entity, typically a result of social evaluation on a set of criteria.
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A sale is the exchange of a commodity for money or service in return for money or the action of selling something.
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Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
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Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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A human society is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social grouping sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) or Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων, Lakedaímōn) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece, situated on the banks of the Eurotas River in Laconia, in south-eastern Peloponnese.
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The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) combines an online encyclopedia of philosophy with peer reviewed publication of original papers in philosophy, freely-accessible to internet users.
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a state, city or country.
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The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
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Trover is a form of lawsuit in common-law countries for recovery of damages for wrongful taking of personal property.
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A trust is a relationship whereby property is held by one party for the benefit of another.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The University of Pennsylvania (commonly referred to as Penn or UPenn) is a private, Ivy League, research university located in Philadelphia.
An urban area is a location characterized by high human population density and vast human-built features in comparison to the areas surrounding it.
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Virginia (U.S.:, U.K.), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state located in the South Atlantic region of the United States.
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The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
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