87 relations: Agarose gel electrophoresis, Albumin, Basic research, Buffer solution, Caister Academic Press, Calibration curve, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cervical cancer, Complementarity (molecular biology), Complementary DNA, Cycle of quantification/qualification, Cyclophilin, Densitometry, Deoxyribonucleotide, Diagnosis, Differential display, DNA, DNA microarray, DNA polymerase, Electrophoresis, Enzyme kinetics, Excited state, Exonuclease, Fluorescence, Fluorophore, Ganglion, Gene duplication, Gene expression, Genetically modified organism, Genome, Geometric mean, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, Hepatitis B virus, Herpes simplex virus, Housekeeping gene, Human papillomavirus, Hybridization probe, Infection, Influenza, Intercalation (chemistry), Laboratory, Linear regression, Logarithmic scale, Medical laboratory, Medical test, Messenger RNA, Molecular biology, Neuron, Northern blot, ..., Nuclease protection assay, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid hybridization, Nucleic acid thermodynamics, Oak, Oligonucleotide, Pharmacology, Phytophthora ramorum, Plateau (mathematics), Polymerase chain reaction, Polymerization, Primer (molecular biology), Primer dimer, Prognosis, Promoter (genetics), Quenching (fluorescence), Reverse transcriptase, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Ribosomal RNA, RNA, Sensor, Slope, Southern blot, Standard curve, Standard deviation, Standardization, Statistics, SYBR Green I, Taq polymerase, Terminator (genetics), Thermal cycler, Tissue (biology), Titration, Transcription (genetics), Tubulin, Virtual colony count, Wavelength. Expand index (37 more) » « Shrink index
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a method of gel electrophoresis used in biochemistry, molecular biology, and clinical chemistry to separate a mixed population of DNA or proteins in a matrix of agarose.
The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.
Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
Caister Academic Press is an academic publishing company that produces books on microbiology, virology, and molecular biology.
In analytical chemistry, a calibration curve is a general method for determining the concentration of a substance in an unknown sample by comparing the unknown to a set of standard samples of known concentration.
Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cervical cancer is a cancer arising from the cervix.
In molecular biology, complementarity describes a relationship between two structures each following the lock-and-key principle.
In genetics, complementary DNA (cDNA) is double-stranded DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template in a reaction catalysed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
Cycle of quantification/qualification (Cq) is a parameter used in real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques, indicating the cycle number where a PCR amplification curve meets a predefined mathematical criterion.
Cyclophilins are a family of proteins from vertebrates and other organisms that bind to cyclosporine, an immunosuppressant which is usually used to suppress rejection after internal organ transplants.
Densitometry is the quantitative measurement of optical density in light-sensitive materials, such as photographic paper or photographic film, due to exposure to light.
A deoxyribonucleotide is the monomer, or single unit, of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Differential display (also referred to as DDRT-PCR or DD-PCR) is the technique where a researcher can compare and identify changes in gene expression at the mRNA level between any pair of eukaryotic cell samples.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
A DNA microarray (also commonly known as DNA chip or biochip) is a collection of microscopic DNA spots attached to a solid surface.
The DNA polymerases are enzymes that create DNA molecules by assembling nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA.
Electrophoresis is the motion of dispersed particles relative to a fluid under the influence of a spatially uniform electric field.
Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes.
Excitation is an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state.
Exonucleases are enzymes that work by cleaving nucleotides one at a time from the end (exo) of a polynucleotide chain.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A fluorophore (or fluorochrome, similarly to a chromophore) is a fluorescent chemical compound that can re-emit light upon light excitation.
In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ganglia) is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system.
Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetically modified organism (GMO), also known as a transgenic organism, is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
In modern molecular biology and genetics, the genome is the genetic material of an organism.
In mathematics, the geometric mean is a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum).
Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (abbreviated as GAPDH or less commonly as G3PDH) is an enzyme of ~37kDa that catalyzes the sixth step of glycolysis and thus serves to break down glucose for energy and carbon molecules.
Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated HBV, is a species of the genus Orthohepadnavirus, which is likewise a part of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses.
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as human herpesvirus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and HHV-2), are two members of the herpesvirus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.
This article discusses the general topic of housekeeping genes.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans.
In molecular biology, X hybridization probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA of variable length (usually 100-1000 bases long) which is radioactively labeled.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.
Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by the influenza virus.
In chemistry, intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule (or ion) into compounds with layered structures.
A laboratory (or; informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
In statistics, linear regression is an approach for modeling the relationship between a scalar dependent variable y and one or more explanatory variables (or independent variables) denoted X. The case of one explanatory variable is called simple linear regression.
A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are usually done on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient as pertaining to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A medical test is a kind of medical procedure performed to detect, diagnose, or monitor diseases, disease processes, susceptibility, and determine a course of treatment.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, and studies how these interactions are regulated.
A neuron (or; also known as a neurone or nerve cell) is an electrically excitable cell that processes and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
The northern blot is a technique used in molecular biology research to study gene expression by detection of RNA (or isolated mRNA) in a sample.
Nuclease protection assay is a laboratory technique used in biochemistry and genetics to identify individual RNA molecules in a heterogeneous RNA sample extracted from cells.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.
In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA.
Nucleic acid thermodynamics is the study of how temperature affects the nucleic acid structure of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA).
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Oligonucleotides are short DNA or RNA molecules, oligomers, that have a wide range of applications in genetic testing, research, and forensics.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Phytophthora ramorum is the oomycete plant pathogen known to cause the disease sudden oak death (SOD).
A plateau of a function is a part of its domain where the function has constant value.
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technology in molecular biology used to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
A primer is a strand of short nucleic acid sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis.
A Primer dimer (PD) is a potential by-product in PCR, a common biotechnological method.
Prognosis (Greek πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely outcome of one's current standing.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
Quenching refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance.
A Reverse transcriptase (RT) is an enzyme used to generate complementary DNA (cDNA) from an RNA template, a process termed reverse transcription.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is one of many variants of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In molecular biology, ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule implicated in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output.
In mathematics, the slope or gradient of a line is a number that describes both the direction and the steepness of the line.
A Southern blot is a method used in molecular biology for detection of a specific DNA sequence in DNA samples.
A standard curve is a type of graph used as a quantitative research technique.
In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma, σ for the population standard deviation or s for the sample standard deviation) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.
Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.
SYBR Green I (SG) is an asymmetrical cyanine dye used as a nucleic acid stain in molecular biology.
Taq polymerase is a thermostable DNA polymerase named after the thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus from which it was originally isolated by Chien et al.
In genetics, a transcription terminator is a section of nucleic acid sequence that marks the end of a gene or operon in genomic DNA during transcription.
The thermal cycler (also known as a thermocycler, PCR machine or DNA amplifier) is a laboratory apparatus most commonly used to amplify segments of DNA via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.
Titration, also known as titrimetry, is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of an identified analyte.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Tubulin (tubul- + -in) in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.
Virtual colony count (VCC) is a kinetic, 96-well microbiological assay originally developed to measure the activity of defensins.
In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and the inverse of the spatial frequency.