Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, wide-spectrum, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Algol (Beta Per, β Persei, β Per), known colloquially as the Demon Star, is a bright star in the constellation Perseus.
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ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
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ALGOL 58, originally known as IAL, is one of the family of ALGOL computer programming languages.
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ALGOL 68 (short for ALGOrithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
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ALGOL W is a programming language.
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APL (named after the book A Programming Language) is a programming language developed in the 1960s by Kenneth E. Iverson.
An assembly language (or assembler language) is a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions.
B is a programming language developed at Bell Labs circa 1969.
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
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A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Windows.
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BCPL (Basic Combined Programming Language) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language designed by Martin Richards of the University of Cambridge in 1966.
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In mathematics, a binary function, or function of two variables, is a function which takes two inputs.
In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a collection of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A2.
In mathematics and mathematical logic, Boolean algebra is the branch of algebra in which the values of the variables are the truth values true and false, usually denoted 1 and 0 respectively.
In computer science, the Boolean data type is a data type, having two values (usually denoted true and false), intended to represent the truth values of logic and Boolean algebra.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
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C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C#By convention, a number sign is used for the second character in normal text; in artistic representations, sometimes a true sharp sign is used: C♯.
C string handling refers to a group of functions implementing operations on strings in the C standard library.
C++ (pronounced as cee plus plus) is a general-purpose programming language.
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Cocoa is Apple's native object-oriented application programming interface (API) for the OS X operating system.
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Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
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In programming languages, scientific calculators and similar common operator notation or operator grammar is a way to define and analyse mathematical and other formal expressions.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations Computer science is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications.
In computer science, conditional statements, conditional expressions and conditional constructs are features of a programming language which perform different computations or actions depending on whether a programmer-specified boolean condition evaluates to true or false.
CPL (from Combined Programming Language and Cambridge Programming Language before that) is a multi-paradigm programming language, that was developed in the early 1960s.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification identifying one of various types of data, such as real, integer or Boolean, that determines the possible values for that type; the operations that can be done on values of that type; the meaning of the data; and the way values of that type can be stored.
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Delphi is both an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in the valley of Phocis.
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Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941 – October 12, 2011) was an American computer scientist.
Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors.
Eiffel is an ISO-standardized, object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.
In typography, emphasis is the exaggeration of words in a text with a font in a different style from the rest of the text—to emphasize them.
In mathematics, equality is a relationship between two quantities or, more generally two mathematical expressions, asserting that the quantities have the same value or that the expressions represent the same mathematical object.
The equals sign or equality sign (.
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An expression in a programming language is a combination of one or more explicit values, constants, variables, operators, and functions that the programming language interprets (according to its particular rules of precedence and of association) and computes to produce ("to return", in a stateful environment) another value.
In computing, floating point is the formulaic representation which approximates a real number so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
Fortran (previously FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translating System) is a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
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A fraction (from fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.
The GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) is a compiler system produced by the GNU Project supporting various programming languages.
GNUstep is a free software implementation of the Cocoa (formerly OpenStep) Objective-C frameworks, widget toolkit, and application development tools for Unix-like operating systems and Microsoft Windows.
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Go, also commonly referred to as golang, is a programming language developed at Google in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson.
In mathematics an identity is an equality relation A.
An identity in object-oriented programming, object-oriented design and object-oriented analysis describes the property of objects that distinguishes them from other objects.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements.
In mathematics, an inequality is a relation that holds between two values when they are different (see also: equality).
Infix notation is the notation commonly used in arithmetical and logical formulae and statements.
Inheritance (OOP) is when an object or class is based on another object (prototypal inheritance) or class (class-based inheritance), using the same implementation (inheriting from an object or class) specifying implementation to maintain the same behavior (realizing an interface; inheriting behavior).
Java is a general-purpose computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Kenneth Lane "Ken" Thompson (born February 4, 1943), commonly referred to as ken in hacker circles, is an American pioneer of computer science.
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KornShell (ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983.
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In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule (see ''Terminology'') and smaller lower case (also small letters, or more formally minuscule, see ''Terminology'') in the written representation of certain languages. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case versions of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the font used): Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height, whilst the height of the minuscules varies, as some of them have parts higher or lower than the average, i.e. ascenders and descenders. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. Further to this, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts—although most do have a set of alternative Lining Figures— 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set. Letter case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In orthography, the uppercase is primarily reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lowercase the more common variant in text. In mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects with uppercase letters often representing "superior" objects (e.g. X could be a set containing the generic member x). Engineering design drawings are typically labelled entirely in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than lowercase, especially when space restrictions require that the lettering be small.
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In mathematics, the lexicographic or lexicographical order (also known as lexical order, dictionary order, alphabetical order or lexicographic(al) product) is a generalization of the way the alphabetical order of words is based on the alphabetical order of their component letters.
A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants,. These misarticulations often result in unclear speech.
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Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized Polish prefix notation.
In logic, a logical connective (also called a logical operator) is a symbol or word used to connect two or more sentences (of either a formal or a natural language) in a grammatically valid way, such that the sense of the compound sentence produced depends only on the original sentences.
In logic, statements p and q are logically equivalent if they have the same logical content.
Macsyma (Project MAC’s SYmbolic MAnipulator) is a computer algebra system that was originally developed from 1968 to 1982 at MIT as part of Project MAC and later marketed commercially.
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Mathematica is a computational software program used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical and computing fields, based on symbolic mathematics.
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MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language.
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Maxima is a computer algebra system based on a 1982 version of Macsyma.
Microsoft Corporation (commonly referred to as Microsoft) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Redmond, Washington, that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells computer software, consumer electronics and personal computers and services.
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Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.
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MUMPS (Massachusetts General Hospital Utility Multi-Programming System) or alternatively M, is a general-purpose computer programming language that provides ACID (Atomic, Consistent, Isolated, and Durable) transaction processing.
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In computing, NaN, standing for not a number, is a numeric data type value representing an undefined or unrepresentable value, especially in floating-point calculations.
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In computer programming, a nested function (or nested procedure or subroutine) is a function which is defined within another function, the enclosing function.
Oberon (also spelled Auberon) is a king of the fairies in medieval and Renaissance literature.
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Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Embarcadero Delphi.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of "objects", which are data structures that contain data, in the form of fields, often known as attributes; and code, in the form of procedures, often known as methods. A distinguishing feature of objects is that an object's procedures can access and often modify the data fields of the object with which they are associated (objects have a notion of "this" or "self").
Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds Smalltalk-style messaging to the C programming language.
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OCaml, originally known as Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the Caml programming language, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.
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In mathematics, an operand is the object of a mathematical operation, a quantity on which an operation is performed.
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An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
The general operation as explained on this page should not be confused with the more specific operators on vector spaces.
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
An operator is a mapping from one vector space or module to another.
In programming, operator overloading—less commonly known as operator ad hoc polymorphism—is a specific case of polymorphism, where different operators have different implementations depending on their arguments.
Pascal is a historically influential imperative and procedural programming language, designed in 1968–1969 and published in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a small and efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985.
Perl is a family of high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages.
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PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
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Polish notation, also known as Polish prefix notation or simply prefix notation, is a form of notation for logic, arithmetic, and algebra.
In mathematics, a predicate is commonly understood to be a Boolean-valued function P: X→, called the predicate on X. However, predicates have many different uses and interpretations in mathematics and logic, and their precise definition, meaning and use will vary from theory to theory.
A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.
Python is a widely used general-purpose, high-level programming language.
qsort is a C standard library function that implements a polymorphic sorting algorithm for arrays of arbitrary objects according to a user-provided comparison function.
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R is a programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics.
In computing, redirection is a function common to most command-line interpreters, including the various Unix shells that can redirect standard streams to user-specified locations.
In computer science, a reference is a value that enables a program to indirectly access a particular datum, such as a variable or a record, in the computer's memory or in some other storage device.
Reflexivity might mean.
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Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
Scheme and Common Lisp are the two principal dialects of the computer programming language Lisp.
In computer science, a set is an abstract data type that can store certain values, without any particular order, and no repeated values.
SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets.
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In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
Simula is a name for two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
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Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
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A sorting algorithm is an algorithm that puts elements of a list in a certain order.
SQL (or; Structured Query Language) is a special-purpose programming language designed for managing data held in a relational database management system (RDBMS), or for stream processing in a relational data stream management system (RDSMS).
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Standard ML (SML) is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference.
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In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable.
In computer language design, stropping is a method of explicitly marking letter sequences as having a special property such as being a keyword or certain type of variable or storage location, and thus inhabiting a different namespace from ordinary names ("identifiers"), avoiding clashes.
Swift is a multi-paradigm, compiled programming language created by Apple Inc. for iOS, OS X, and watchOS development.
In computer programming languages, a switch statement is a type of selection control mechanism used to allow the value of a variable or expression to change the control flow of program execution via a multiway branch.
Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.
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In mathematics, a ternary relation or triadic relation is a finitary relation in which the number of places in the relation is three.
In computer science, a three-way comparison takes two values A and B belonging to a type with a total order and determines whether A B in a single operation, in accordance with the mathematical law of trichotomy.
Transitivity or transitive may refer to.
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In programming languages, a type system is a collection of rules that assign a property called type to various constructs a computer program consists of, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
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In computer science, a value is an expression which cannot be evaluated any further (a normal form).
VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.
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Visual Basic.NET (VB.NET) is a multi-paradigm, high level programming language, implemented on the.NET Framework.
In mathematics, a well-order relation (or well-ordering) on a set S is a total order on S with the property that every non-empty subset of S has a least element in this ordering.
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Windows PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language built on the.NET Framework.
In programming jargon, Yoda conditions (also called Yoda notation) is a programming style where the two parts of an expression are reversed from the typical order in a conditional statement.
!=, .EQ., .GE., .GT., .LE., .LT., .NE., =!, ==, ===, Compare instruction, Comparison (computer programming), Comparison operator, Comparison operators, Comparison relation, Does not equal, Equality (computer programming), Equality (relational operator), Equality operator, Ifeq, Inequality operator, Relational expression, Relational operators, Relationship operator, Test operator, \ne, ⩵, ⩶.