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Research and development

Research and Development (R&D), also known in Europe as research and technical (or technological) development (RTD), is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation. [1]

49 relations: Allergan, Amortizing loan, Applied research, Applied science, Barack Obama, Basic research, Biotechnology, Budget, Commerce, Competition, David R. Henderson, Engineer, Ericsson, Europe, European environmental research and innovation policy, Fiscal year, Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, Gross profit, Industry, Innovation, Know-how, Library of Economics and Liberty, List of business and finance abbreviations, List of countries by research and development spending, Marketing, Matthew effect, Merck & Co., Mergers and acquisitions, Neglected tropical disease research and development, New product development, Novartis, Patent, Pharmaceutical industry, Publication, R&D intensity, Return on investment, Science, Science of science policy, Science policy, Scientific progress, Sovereign state, Statistics, Strategic alliance, Technological revolution, Technology, Technology demonstration, Technology life cycle, The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, University.

Allergan

Allergan, plc (formerly known as Actavis, plc) is a global pharmaceutical company focused on developing, manufacturing and commercializing branded pharmaceuticals, generic and over-the-counter medicines, and biologic products.

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Amortizing loan

In banking and finance, an amortizing loan is a loan where the principal of the loan is paid down over the life of the loan (that is, amortized) according to an amortization schedule, typically through equal payments.

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Applied research

Applied research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science.

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Applied science

Applied science is a discipline of science that applies existing scientific knowledge to develop more practical applications, like technology or inventions.

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Barack Obama

Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States, and the first African American to hold the office.

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Basic research

Basic research, also called pure research or fundamental research, is scientific research aimed to improve scientific theories for improved understanding or prediction of natural or other phenomena.

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Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the use of living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2).

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Budget

A budget is a quantitative expression of a plan for a defined period of time.

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Commerce

Commerce is the activity of buying and selling of goods and services, especially on a large scale.

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Competition

Competition in biology and sociology, is a contest between two or more organisms, animals, individuals, groups, etc., for territory, a niche, or a location of resources, for resources and goods, mates, for prestige, recognition, awards, or group or social status, for leadership.

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David R. Henderson

David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution and is also associate professor of economics at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, where he has taught since 1984.

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Engineer

An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics, and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical, societal and commercial problems.

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Ericsson

Ericsson (Telefonaktiebolaget L. M. Ericsson) is a Swedish multinational provider of communication technology and services.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European environmental research and innovation policy

The European environmental research and innovation policy is a set of strategies, actions and programmes to promote more and better research and innovation for building a resource-efficient and climate resilient society and economy in sync with the natural environment.

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Fiscal year

A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is a period used for calculating annual ("yearly") financial statements in businesses and other organizations all over the world.

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Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development

The Framework Programmes for Research and Technological Development, also called Framework Programmes or abbreviated FP1 through FP7 with "FP8" being named "Horizon 2020", are funding programmes created by the European Union/European Commission to support and foster research in the European Research Area (ERA).

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Gross profit

In accounting, gross profit or sales profit or "credit sales" is the difference between revenue and the cost of making a product or providing a service, before deducting overhead, payroll, taxation, and interest payments.

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Industry

Industry is the production of goods or services within an economy.

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Innovation

Innovation is a new idea, more effective device or process.

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Know-how

Know-how is a term for practical knowledge on how to accomplish something, as opposed to “know-what” (facts), “know-why” (science), or “know-who” (communication).

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Library of Economics and Liberty

The Library of Economics and Liberty (Econlib) is a free online library of economics books and articles of interest to libertarian views.

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List of business and finance abbreviations

This is a list of business and finance abbreviations.

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List of countries by research and development spending

This is a list of countries by research and development (R&D) spending in real terms and as per latest data available.

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Marketing

Marketing is about communicating the value of a product, service or brand to customers or consumers for the purpose of promoting or selling that product, service, or brand.

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Matthew effect

In sociology, the Matthew effect (or accumulated advantage) is the phenomenon where "the rich get richer and the poor get poorer." In both its original and typical usage it is meant metaphorically to refer to issues of fame or status but it may also be used literally to refer to cumulative advantage of economic capital.

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Merck & Co.

Merck & Co., Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

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Mergers and acquisitions

Mergers and acquisitions are both aspects of strategic management, corporate finance and management dealing with the buying, selling, dividing and combining of different companies and similar entities that can help an enterprise grow rapidly in its sector or location of origin, or a new field or new location, without creating a subsidiary, other child entity or using a joint venture.

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Neglected tropical disease research and development

Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a set of infectious diseases affecting an estimated 1.4 billion people worldwide.

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New product development

In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the complete process of bringing a new product to market.

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Novartis

Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, ranking number one in sales (57.9 billion US$) among the world-wide industry in 2013.

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Patent

A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.

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Pharmaceutical industry

The pharmaceutical industry develops, produces, and markets drugs or pharmaceuticals for use as medications.

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Publication

To publish is to make content available to the general public.

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R&D intensity

Research and Development intensity or simply, R&D intensity, is a measure of company R&D spending in knowledge and technology for the purposes of spurring innovation in the areas of basic and applied research, "and to increase factor productivity and salable output.".

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Return on investment

Return on investment (ROI) is the benefit to the investor resulting from an investment of some resource.

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Science

ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".

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Science of science policy

The science of science policy (SoSP) is an emerging interdisciplinary research area that seeks to develop theoretical and empirical models of the scientific enterprise.

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Science policy

Science policy is an area of public policy which is concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the science and research enterprise, including the funding of science, often in pursuance of other national policy goals such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring.

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Scientific progress

Scientific progress is the idea that science increases its problem-solving ability through the application of the scientific method.

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Sovereign state

In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Strategic alliance

A strategic alliance is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while remaining independent organizations.

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Technological revolution

Technological revolution is (in general meaning) a relatively short period in history when one technology (or better a set of technologies) is replaced by another technology (or by the set of technologies).

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Technology

Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the collection of techniques, skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.

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Technology demonstration

A technology demonstration or Demonstrator model is a prototype, rough example or an otherwise incomplete version of a conceivable product or future system, put together as proof of concept with the primary purpose of showcasing the possible applications, feasibility, performance and method of an idea for a new technology.

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Technology life cycle

The technology life-cycle (TLC) describes the commercial gain of a product through the expense of research and development phase, and the financial return during its "vital life".

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The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics

The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (CEE), 2nd ed., 2008, is an on-line encyclopedia of economics and is part of the Library of Economics and Liberty sponsored by the Liberty Fund.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which grants academic degrees in various subjects and typically provides undergraduate education and postgraduate education.

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Redirects here:

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_and_development

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