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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia. [1]

1323 relations: A Just Russia, Academy Awards, Adolf Hitler, Adygea, Age of Enlightenment, Agriculture, Ahmadiyya, Airliner, AK-47, AK-74, Alaska, Aleksandr Lyapunov, Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Aleksandr Ptushko, Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, Alexander Belyaev, Alexander Blok, Alexander Butlerov, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Lodygin, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Ostrovsky, Alexander Prokhorov, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Rou, Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Tatarsky, Alexandrov Ensemble, Alexei Kudrin, Alexey Leonov, Alfred Nobel, Alfred Schnittke, Alisa, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Altai Mountains, Amazon rainforest, American pioneer, Amnesty International, Amur River, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andrei Rublev, Andrei Sakharov, Andrei Voznesensky, Andrew the Apostle, ..., Andrey Kolmogorov, Andrey Markov, Animal husbandry, Anna 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(Russia), Federal cities of Russia, Federal city, Federal districts of Russia, Federal law, Federal subjects of Russia, Federalism, Federation, Federation Council (Russia), Federation Island, Fedor Emelianenko, Fedot Alekseyevich Popov, Feodor Chaliapin, Feudalism, Fields Medal, FIFA World Cup, FIFA World Cup Dream Team, Figure skating, Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics, Final good, Financial crisis, Finland, Finno-Ugric peoples, Fire of Moscow (1571), First Chechen War, First Russian circumnavigation, Fishing industry by country, Flag of Russia, Flat tax, Floral emblem, Folk culture, Folk music, Folklore of Russia, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Formula One, Fort Ross, California, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Franz Josef Land, Free education, Free trade, Freedom House, Freedom in the World, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press in Russia, French invasion of Russia, Fresco, Fresh water, Functionalism (architecture), Fur trade, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Fyodor Khitruk, G-20 major economies, G8 (forum), Galina Ulanova, Galina Vishnevskaya, Garmon, Gatchina Palace, Gdańsk Bay, Gender inequality, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Geodesic, Geology of Russia, Geometry, George Gamow, Georgia (country), Georgy Zhukov, Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Gidon Kremer, Glasnost, Gleb Kotelnikov, Global city, Global Peace Index, GLONASS, Golden Age, Golden Age of Russian Poetry, Golden Horde, Golden Ring, Government of Russia, Government of the Soviet Union, Government reform of Peter the Great, Governorate of Estonia, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grande Armée, Granite, Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Great Lent, Great Northern War, Great Patriotic War (term), Great power, Great Purge, Great Recession, Grigori Perelman, Gross domestic product, Groundwater, Gulag, Gulf of Finland, Gusli, Gzhel, Hammer and sickle, Handicraft, Hanseatic League, Head of government, Head of state, Heavy industry, Heavy metal music, Hermitage Museum, Hero City, Hertza region, Heterojunction, History of Russia, History of Russian animation, History of the Jews in Russia, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, Hokkaido, Holography, Horses in warfare, House of Romanov, Household plot, Human capital flight, Human rights in Russia, Human Rights Watch, Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Huns, Hydroelectricity, Ice dancing, Ice hockey, Ice hockey at the Olympic Games, Igor of Kiev, Igor Sikorsky, Igor Stravinsky, Igor Tamm, Ilf and Petrov, Illegal immigration in Russia, Ilya Muromets (film), Ilya Prigogine, Ilya Repin, Immigration, Immune system, Impeachment, Index of Soviet Union-related articles, India, India–Russia relations, Indo-European languages, Ingria, Ingush people, Ingushetia, Innovation, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Ice Hockey Federation, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, International rankings of Russia, International relations within the Comecon, International Space Station, International Studies Quarterly, International Women's Day, International Workers' Day, Internet, Ipatiev House, Ipatovo kurgan, Ipsos MORI, Irreligion, Isaac Levitan, Islam, Islam in Russia, Islamic schools and branches, Islamism, Israel Gelfand, ITER, Ivan Argunov, Ivan Bunin, Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Ivan Kramskoi, Ivan Pavlov, Ivan Shishkin, Ivan the Terrible, Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Yefremov, Jack Frost (1964 film), Japan, Jascha Heifetz, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Joseph Stalin, Judiciary of Russia, Julian calendar, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kaftan, Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kalmyk people, Kalmykia, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kamov, Kara Sea, Karachay-Cherkessia, Karelia, Karl Bryullov, Kazakhstan, Kazan, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan Metro, Kazimir Malevich, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Sibir, Khazars, Khmelnytsky Uprising, Khokhloma, Khrushchev Thaw, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Prussia, Kino (band), Kipchaks, Kipelov, Kir Bulychev, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kokoshnik, Kolkhoz, Kolomenskoye, Konstantin Khrenov, Konstantin Leontiev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Kontinental Hockey League, Korol i Shut, Kosovorotka, Krais of Russia, Krasnodar Krai, Kremlin, Kuchum, Kunashir Island, Kupala Night, Kuril Islands, Kuzma Minin, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Kvass, Kyrgyzstan, Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, Land use statistics by country, Languages of Russia, Laptev Sea, Larisa Latynina, Laser, Latvia, Left-bank Ukraine, Lena River, Lenz's law, Leo Tolstoy, Leon Trotsky, Leonhard Euler, Leonid Andreyev, Leonid Brezhnev, Leonid Filatov, Leonid Gaidai, Leonid Kogan, Lev Artsimovich, Lev Kuleshov, Lev Yashin, Levada Center, LGBT rights in Russia, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Library of Congress, Library of Congress Country Studies, Light industry, List of battles by casualties, List of bridges in Saint Petersburg, List of Byzantine emperors, List of cosmonauts, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by electricity production, List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, List of countries by external debt, List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by natural gas exports, List of countries by natural gas production, List of countries by natural gas proven reserves, List of countries by oil exports, List of countries by oil production, List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty, List of countries by road network size, List of countries by total length of pipelines, List of countries by total renewable water resources, List of countries by waterways length, List of diplomatic missions of Russia, List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP, List of institutions of higher learning in Russia, List of journalists killed in Russia, List of largest empires, List of largest lakes of Europe, List of merchant navy capacity by country, List of metro systems, List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus', List of most expensive films, List of most-produced aircraft, List of national trees, List of rivers by length, List of rivers of Europe, List of rivers of Russia, List of Russian aerospace engineers, List of Russian biologists, List of Russian chemists, List of Russian explorers, List of Russian mathematicians, List of Russian philosophers, List of Russian physicists, List of Russian-language radio stations, List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of transcontinental countries, List of World Heritage Sites in Russia, Literary realism, Lithuania, Little Ice Age, Livonia, Livonian War, Longitude, Lunokhod programme, Makhachkala, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Manchukuo, Marc Chagall, Maria Sharapova, Mariinsky Ballet, Mariinsky Theatre, Maritime boundary, Mark Reizen, Market economy, Markov chain, Mars, Mary (mother of Jesus), Maser, Mashina Vremeni, Maslenitsa, Matryoshka doll, Maxim Gorky, Maxim Vengerov, Maya Plisetskaya, Medieval Greek, Medvedev modernisation programme, Melnitsa, Melnitsa Animation Studio, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, Michael Phelps, Michael Prawdin, Middle Ages, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Mikhail Bulgakov, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Mikhail Glinka, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Kalashnikov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Lermontov, Mikhail Lomonosov, Mikhail Sholokhov, Mikhail Vrubel, Mikoyan, Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, Military parade, Millennium of Russia, Millennium Prize Problems, Millet, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia), Mir, Modern art, Modern Greek, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongolia, Mongols, Moon, Mortality rate, Moscow, Moscow International Business Center, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow Metro, Moscow State 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A Just Russia

A Just Russia (Справедливая Россия, СР, Spravedlivaya Rossiya, SR) also translated as Fair Russia, or A Fair and Just Russia, is a social democratic political party in Russia currently holding 64 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adygea

The Republic of Adygea (r; Адыгэ Республик, Adıge Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Ahmadiyya

Ahmadiyya (officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated) is an Islamic religious movement founded in British India near the end of the 19th century.

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Airliner

An airliner is a type of transportation service for transporting passengers and air cargo.

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AK-47

The AK-47 (also known as Kalashnikov, AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash) is a selective-fire (semi-automatic and automatic), gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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AK-74

The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s, by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the mujahadeen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former USSR. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK) and Romania (PA md. 86).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.

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Alaska

Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.

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Aleksandr Lyapunov

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в,; – November 3, 1918) was a Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.

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Aleksandr Petrov (animator)

Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Александр Константинович Петров) (born July 17, 1957 in Prechistoye, Yaroslavl Oblast) is a Russian animator and animation director.

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Aleksandr Ptushko

Aleksandr Lukich Ptushko (Алекса́ндр Луки́ч Пту́шко; Олександр Лукич Птушко in Lugansk, Russian Empire (now Luhansk, Ukraine) – March 6, 1973 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet animation and fantasy film director, and Meritorious Artist of the RSFSR.

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Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov

Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Ива́нов; July 28 (July 16 OS), 1806 – July 15 (July 3), 1858) was a Russian painter who adhered to the waning tradition of Neoclassicism but found little sympathy with his contemporaries.

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Alexander Belyaev

Alexander Romanovich Belyaev (Алекса́ндр Рома́нович Беля́ев,; 16 March 1884 – 6 January 1942) was a Soviet Russian writer of science fiction.

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Alexander Blok

Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (a; 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet.

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Alexander Butlerov

Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; September 15, 1828 – August 17, 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).

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Alexander I of Russia

Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –), reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; in Moscow – in Saint Petersburg) was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881.

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Alexander III of Russia

Alexander III (p), or Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov (p; 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) was the penultimate Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland from until his death on.

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Alexander Lodygin

Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин; October 18, 1847 – March 16, 1923) was a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, one of inventors of the incandescent light bulb.

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Alexander Nevsky

Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский;; Олександр Ярославович Не́вський); 13 May 1221 – 14 November 1263) served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history.

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Alexander Ostrovsky

Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский;, Moscow, Russian Empire, Shchelykovo, Kostroma, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.

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Alexander Prokhorov

Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov, or Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov, (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров; 11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was a Soviet physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alexander Rou

Alexander Arturovich Rou (also, Rowe, from his Irish father's name) (Александр Артурович Роу, – 28 December 1973) was a Soviet film director, and People's Artist of the RSFSR (1968).

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Alexander Scriabin

Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин,; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.

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Alexander Tatarsky

Aleksander Mihailovich Tatarskiy (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Тата́рский, December 11, 1950 – July 22, 2007) was a Soviet/Russian animation film director, script writer and producer, animator and an artist of Ukrainian Jewish origin.

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Alexandrov Ensemble

Alexandrov Ensemble is an official army choir of the Russian armed forces.

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Alexei Kudrin

Alexei Leonidovich Kudrin (p; born 12 October 1960) is a Russian political figure who served in the government of Russia as Minister of Finance from 18 May 2000 to 26 September 2011.

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Alexey Leonov

Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major General.

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Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer.

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Alfred Schnittke

Alfred Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, Alfred Garrievič Šnitke; November 24, 1934August 3, 1998) was a Soviet and Russian composer.

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Alisa

Alisa (Алиса) is a Russian hard rock band, who are credited as one of the most influential bands in the Russian rock movement.

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All-time Olympic Games medal table

An all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2014, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.

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Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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American pioneer

American pioneers are any of the people in American history who migrated west to join in settling and developing new areas.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.

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Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria). The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as.

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Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Andrei Rublev

Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be the greatest medieval Russian painter of Orthodox icons and frescos.

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Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; May 21, 1921December 14, 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, Soviet dissident and human rights activist.

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Andrei Voznesensky

Andrei Andreyevich Voznesensky (Андре́й Андре́евич Вознесе́нский, May 12, 1933 – June 1, 2010) was a Soviet and Russian poet and writer who had been referred to by Robert Lowell as "one of the greatest living poets in any language." He was one of the "Children of the '60s," a new wave of iconic Russian intellectuals led by the Khrushchev Thaw.

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Andrew the Apostle

Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας, Andreas; from the early 1st century – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and called in the Orthodox tradition Prōtoklētos (Πρωτόκλητος) or the First-called, was a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter.

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Andrey Kolmogorov

Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

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Andrey Markov

Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков, in older works also spelled Markoff) (14 June 1856 N.S. – 20 July 1922) was a Russian mathematician.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.

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Anna Akhmatova

Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was a Russian modernist poet, one of the most acclaimed writers in the Russian canon.

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Anna Netrebko

Anna Yuryevna Netrebko (Анна Юрьевна Нетребко, born 18 September 1971) is a Russian operatic soprano.

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Anna Pavlova

Anna Pavlovna (Matveyevna) Pavlova (Анна Павловна (Матвеевна) Павлова; – January 23, 1931) was a Russian prima ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries.

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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

The internationally recognised Ukrainian territory of Crimea was annexed by the Russian Federation in March 2014.

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Anschluss

The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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Anti-communism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Anti-fascism

Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.

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Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов,; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian physician, playwright and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history.

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Anton Rubinstein

Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.

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Appeasement

Appeasement in a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.

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Aquarium (band)

Aquarium or Akvarium (Аква́риум) is a Russian rock group formed in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, Russia) in 1972.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Arc welding

Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point.

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Aria (band)

Aria (Ария) is a Russian heavy metal band that was formed in 1985 in Moscow.

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Aristotele Fioravanti

Ridolfo "Aristotele" Fioravanti (c. 1415 or 1420 in Bologna – c. 1486) was an Italian Renaissance architect and engineer.

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Arkady and Boris Strugatsky

The brothers Arkady (Аркадий; August 28, 1925 – October 12, 1991) and Boris (Бори́с; April 14, 1933 – November 19, 2012) Strugatsky (Струга́цкий; alternate spellings: Strugatskiy, Strugatski, Strugatskii) were Soviet-Russian science fiction authors who collaborated on their fiction.

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Arkaim

Arkaim (Аркаим) is an archaeological site situated in the Southern Urals steppe, north-to-northwest of the village of Amurskiy and south-to-southeast of the village of Alexandrovskiy, in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, just to the north from the Kazakhstan border.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Arkhip Kuindzhi

Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи; Архип Іванович Куїнджі; January 27, 1842(?) – July 24, 1910) was a Russian-born landscape painter of Greek descent.

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Armenia

Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi) is the world's oldest national church.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau (Anglicised to; at. Sezession, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern Style, Ger.. Jugendstil, Slovak. Secesia) or Jugendstil is an international philosophyDuncan (1994), 7.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Assault rifle

An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.

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Astrakhan

Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.

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Astrakhan Khanate

The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde.

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Astrakhan Oblast

Astrakhan Oblast (Астраха́нская о́бласть, Astrakhanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Astronaut

An astronaut (or cosmonaut) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Astronautics

Astronautics (alternatively cosmonautics), is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.

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Autonomous oblasts of Russia

The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects.

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Autonomous okrugs of Russia

Autonomous okrug (t), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects.

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Avant-garde

The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.

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Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff) (16 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research into the immune system.

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Balalaika

The balalaika (балала́йка) is a Russian stringed musical instrument with a characteristic triangular body and three strings.

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Ballad of a Soldier

Ballad of a Soldier (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate), is a 1959 Soviet film directed by Grigori Chukhrai and starring Vladimir Ivashov and Zhanna Prokhorenko.

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Ballets Russes

The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America.

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Ballistic missile submarine

A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.

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Bandy

Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.

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Bandy World Championship for men

The Bandy World Championships are a competition between bandy-playing nations.

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Banya (sauna)

Banya or banja (баня; бања; бања) can refer to a number of types of steam baths popular in Eastern Europe.

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Bard (Soviet Union)

The term bard ("бард" bard) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment, similarly to folk singers of the American folk music revival.

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Barents Sea

The Barents Sea (Баренцево море, Barentsevo More Barentshavet) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia with vast majority of it lying in Russian territorial waters.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain.

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Bashkirs

The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар; Башкиры) are a Turkic people indigenous to Bashkortostan, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, on the place where Europe meets Asia.

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Bashkortostan

The Republic of Bashkortostan (p; Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also known as Bashkiria (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Bast shoe

Bast shoes are shoes made primarily from bast - fiber from the bark of the linden tree or birch tree: they are a kind of basket woven and fitted to the shape of a foot.

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Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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Battle of Kulikovo

The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitri of Moscow.

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Battle of Kursk

The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943.

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Battle of Molodi

The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible's reign.

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Battle of Moscow

The Battle of Moscow (Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.

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Battle of the Neva

The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва, Nevskaya bitva, slaget vid Neva) was fought between the Novgorod Republic and Swedish armies on the Neva River, near the settlement of Ust-Izhora, on July 15, 1240.

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Battle on the Ice

The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye; Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee; битва на Чудском озере, bitva na Chudskom ozere) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus.

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Battleship Potemkin

Battleship Potemkin (Броненосец «Потёмкин», Bronenosets Potyomkin), sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Belarus

Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, and Poland.

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Belukha Mountain

Belukha Mountain (Белуха, lit "whitey"; Altai: Muztau or Üç Sümer), located in the Katun Mountains, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains in Russia.

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Bering Sea

The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.

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Bering Strait

The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait connecting the Pacific and Arctic oceans between Russia and the US state of Alaska.

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Beslan school siege

The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre) started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days and involved the capture of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), ending with the death of 385 people.

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Bessarabia

Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Big Diomede

Big Diomede Island (о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); native name Imaqłiq) is an island among the Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait.

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Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.

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Birch

Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Blintz

A blin (pl. blini) or blintchik (pl. blintchiki) is a type of thin pancakes which typically lacks a leavening agent; ISBN 9780470391303 blin and blintchick are Russian names for crêpes.

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Bloody Sunday (1905)

Bloody Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through the Bloomberg terminal, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Bohdan Khmelnytsky

Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький; Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, Bogdan Khmelnitsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki (c. 1595 – 6 August 1657), was the Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine). He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) which resulted in the creation of a Ukrainian Cossack state. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Bolshoi Ballet

The Bolshoi Ballet is an internationally renowned classical ballet company, based at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russia.

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds performances of ballet and opera.

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Borders of Russia

Russia has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two with maritime boundaries (US, Japan), as well as with the occupied Georgian territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

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Boris Kustodiev

Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев) (March 7, 1878 – May 28, 1927) was a Russian painter and stage designer.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Borscht

Borscht is a soup of Ukrainian origin that is common in Eastern and Central Europe, especially in Ashkenazi Jewish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Moldovan/Romanian, Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian cuisine.

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Brian Glyn Williams

Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

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BRIC

In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

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Broad gauge

Broad gauge railways use a track gauge (distance between the rails) greater than the standard gauge of.

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Brusilov Offensive

The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv), also known as the "June Advance", of June-September 1916 was the Russian Empire's greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Buddhism in Russia

Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands in the early 17th century.

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Bukovina

Bukovina (Bucovina; Буковина Bukovyna; Hungarian: Bukovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe, divided between modern-day Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.

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Bulat Okudzhava

Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry.

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Buran programme

The Buran (Бура́н,, Snowstorm or Blizzard) programme, also known as the VKK Space Orbiter (Воздушно Космический Корабль, Air Space Ship) programme, was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute and was formally suspended in 1993.

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Burka (Caucasus)

A burka (ნაბადი, Svan: ღა̈რთ, ауапа, кӏакӏо, щӏакӏуэ, нымӕг, ферта, верта, буртина) is a coat made from felt or karakul (the short curly fur of young lambs of the breed of that name).

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Buryatia

The Republic of Buryatia (p; Буряад Орон, Buryaad Oron) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Buryats

The Buryats (Buryat: Буряад, Buryaad; Буриад/Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American business, celebrity and technology news website launched in February 2009 and based in New York City.

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Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Byelorussian SSR or BSSR; Белару́ская Саве́цкая Сацыялісты́чная Рэспу́бліка, Белару́ская ССР Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika, Bielaruskaja SSR; Белору́сская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Белорусская ССР Belorusskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, Belorusskaya SSR), also referred to as Byelorussia, was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Bylina

Bylina or Starina (были́на; pl. были́ны Byliny; also стари́на; pl. стари́ны Stariny) is a traditional East Slavic oral epic narrative poem.

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Byzantine architecture

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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Byzantium

Byzantium (Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul.

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Cabbage roll

A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.

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Caesar (title)

Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Capital flight

Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Caspian expeditions of the Rus'

The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores,Logan (1992), p. 201 of what are nowadays Iran, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few blocks southwest of the Kremlin.

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Catherine the Great

Yekaterina Alexeyevna (Екатерина Алексеевна) or Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; –), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include the Greater Caucasus Range, which extends from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, aligned west-northwest to east-southeast and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea; and the Lesser Caucasus, which runs parallel to the greater range, at a distance averaging about south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura-Aras Lowland. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland, which at their western end converge with the highland plateau of Eastern Anatolia in the far north east of Turkey. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of above sea level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chairman of the Federation Council (Russia)

The Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Совета Федерации Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the Upper house of the Russian parliament.

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Chairman of the State Duma

The Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Государственной Думы Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Russian parliament.

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Chamomile

Chamomile or camomile is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae that are commonly used to make herb infusion to serve various medicinal purposes.

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Chapaev (film)

Chapaev (Чапаев) is a 1934 Soviet film.

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Cheburashka

Cheburashka (p), also known as Topple in earlier English translations, is a character in children's literature, from a 1966 story by Soviet writer Eduard Uspensky.

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Chechens

Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Nakhchuoi) are a Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.

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Chechnya

The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria (lit land of minerals), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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Chemical structure

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.

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Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation, is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid.

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Chicken Kiev

Chicken Kiev (Котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, Котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a popular entree of boneless chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold garlic butter with herbs, then coated with eggs and breadcrumbs, and either fried or baked.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christianity in Russia

Christians in Russia constitute by some estimates the largest religion of the country, with nearly 50% of the population identifying as Christian.

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Christianization of Kievan Rus'

The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.

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Christmas

Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Chukchi Peninsula

The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotka Peninsula, or Chukotski Peninsula (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.

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Chukchi Sea

Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Russian Far East.

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Church of the Savior on Blood

The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood (Церковь Спаса на Крови, Tserkovʹ Spasa na Krovi) is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg, Russia.

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Chuvash people

The Chuvash people (чăваш; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.

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Cinema of the Soviet Union

The cinema of the Soviet Union, not to be confused with "Cinema of Russia" despite films in the Russian language being predominant in the body of work so described, includes films produced by the constituent republics of the Soviet Union reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, albeit they were all regulated by the Central Government in Moscow.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher) are a North Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia, who were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus.

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Climate of Russia

The climate of Russia is formed under the influence of several determining factors.

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Coal

Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coat of arms of Moscow

The coat of arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a basilisk and is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.

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Coat of arms of Russia

The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis.

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Code (law)

A code is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collective leadership

Collective leadership is considered an ideal form of ruling a communist party, both within and outside a socialist state.

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Collective leadership in the Soviet Union

Collective leadership (коллективное руководство, kollektivnoye rukovodstvo) or Collectivity of leadership (коллективность руководства, kollektivnost rukovodstva), was considered an ideal form of governance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and other socialist states espousing communism.

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Collective Security Treaty Organization

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o Kollektivnoy Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance, acting as counterpart to the NATO alliance, which was signed on 15 May 1992.

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Collectivization in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascendancy of Stalin.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r; also called the Russian Commonwealth) is a regional organisation whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union.

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Communist Party of the Russian Federation

The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) (Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a Communist party in Russia.

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Complex systems

Complex systems present problems both in mathematical modelling and philosophical foundations.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.

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Conscription

Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Constitution of Russia

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.

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Constitutional Court of Russia

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia.

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Constitutionality

Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Constructivism (art)

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919 and was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art.

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Constructivist architecture

Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.

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Continental shelf of Russia

The continental shelf of Russia (also called the Russian continental shelf or the Arctic shelf in the Arctic region) is a continental shelf adjacent to Russia.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2 The CPI currently ranks 177 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt).".

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Cosmonautics Day

Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on April 12.

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Cossacks

Cossacks (козаки́, koza'ky; казаки́ or каза́ки), kazaki are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who became known as members of autonomous, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.

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Crimea

The Crimean Peninsula (Кры́мский полуо́стров, Кри́мський піво́стрів, Къырым ярымадасы), also known simply as Crimea (Крым, Крим, Къырым), is a major land mass on the northern coast of the Black Sea that is almost completely surrounded by water.

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Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Qırım Hanlığı قرم خانلغى or Qırım Yurtu قرم يورتى; Крымское ханство Krymskoye khanstvo; Кримське ханство Kryms’ke khanstvo; Chanat Krymski), was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire during 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.

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Crimean status referendum, 2014

Crimean status referendum, 2014 was a referendum on the status of Crimea held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of Autonomous Republic of Crimea as well as by the local government of Sevastopol, both subdivisions of Ukraine at the time.

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856), also known in Russian historiography as the Eastern War of 1853–1856 (Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.

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Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands

POV note: This article is a translation from the Russian Wikipedia as of April 2013 The Crimean-Nogai raids were attacks by the Khanate of Crimea and the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled earlier by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later Tsardom of Russia and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth).

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Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences)

Critical realism is a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar that combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis (Crisis de octubre), The Missile Scare, or the Caribbean Crisis (Карибский кризис, tr. Karibskiy krizis), was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba.

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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Cumania

The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dagestan

The Republic of Dagestan (or; Респу́блика Дагеста́н, Respublika Dagestan), also spelled Daghestan, is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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David Oistrakh

David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (– 24 October 1974) was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist.

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DDT (band)

DDT (or ДДТ in Cyrillic) is a popular Russian rock band founded by its lead singer and the only remaining original member, Yuri Shevchuk (Юрий Шевчук), in Ufa (Bashkir ASSR, RSFSR) in 1980.

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De-Stalinization

De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, Destalinizatsiya) refers to a process of political reform in the Soviet Union that took place after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953.

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Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (translit: Vosstanie dekabristov) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Decentralization

Decentralization or decentralisation is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one nation goes to war against another.

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Ded Moroz

Ded Moroz (Дед Мороз, Дзед Мароз, Ukrainian Дід Мороз, diminutive Dedushka Moroz Дедушка Мороз) is a Slavic fictional character similar to that of Father Christmas.

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Defender of the Fatherland Day

Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества / Den' zashchitnika Otechestva) is a holiday observed in Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and several other former republics of the Soviet Union.

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Defense industry of Russia

The Defense industry of Russia is a strategically important sector and a large employer in Russia.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states.

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Denis Fonvizin

Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Diomede Islands

The Diomede Islands (острова́ Диоми́да, ostrová Diomída), also known in Russia as Gvozdev Islands (острова́ Гво́здева, ostrová Gvozdjeva), consist of two rocky, tuya-like islands.

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Dionisius

Dionisius (Диони́сий, variously transliterated as Dionisy, Dionysiy, etc., also Dionisius the Wise) (ca. 1440 – 1502) was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Dissipative system

A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.

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Dmitri Hvorostovsky

Dmitri Aleksandrovich Hvorostovsky PAR (Дмитрий Александрович Хворостовский, born 16 October 1962), is a Russian operatic baritone.

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Dmitri Ivanovsky

Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski; Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский; 1864–1920) was a Russian botanist, the first man to discover viruses (1892) and thus one of the founders of virology.

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Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 1834 – 2 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 1834 – 20 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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Dmitri Shostakovich

Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 25 September 19069 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist, and a prominent figure of 20th-century music.

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Dmitry Donskoy

Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й,also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.

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Dmitry Levitzky

Dmytro Levytsky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Дмитро Григорович Левицький; Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий; May 1735 – 17 April 1822) was a Russian-Ukrainian portrait painter.

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Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is the tenth Prime Minister of Russia, incumbent since 2012.

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Dmitry Pozharsky

Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (Дмитрий Михайлович Пожарский) (October 17, 1577 - April 30, 1642), a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles.

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Dnieper

The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length), rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.

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Dombay, Karachay-Cherkess Republic

Dombay (Домба́й; Доммай) is an urban locality (a resort settlement) under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Karachayevsk in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia.

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Dome

A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.

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Domodedovo International Airport

Moscow Domodedovo Airport or Domodedovo International Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.

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Don Cossacks

Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

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Double-headed eagle

The double-headed eagle is a common symbol in heraldry and vexillology.

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Dressed herring

Dressed herring, colloquially known as herring under a fur coat or just fur coat (Сельдь под шубой - Seld Pod Shuboi, Шуба - Shuba) is a layered salad composed of diced salted herring covered with layers of grated boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise.

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Dymkovo toys

Dymkovo toys, also known as the Vyatka toys or Kirov toys (Дымковская игрушка, вятская игрушка, кировская игрушка in Russian) are moulded painted clay figures of people and animals (sometimes in the form of a pennywhistle).

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Dziga Vertov

David Abelevich Kaufman (Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман.) (2 January 1896 – 12 February 1954) — also known as Denis Kaufman or his pseudonym Dziga Vertov or Vertof (Дзи́га Ве́ртов, "spinning top") — was a Soviet pioneer documentary film, newsreel director and cinema theorist.

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East European Plain

The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica. predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the Polish Plain (Middle European), and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward.

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East Germany

East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945.

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East Siberian Sea

The East Siberian Sea (Russian: r) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.

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East Slavic languages

The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe.

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East Slavs

The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking East Slavic languages.

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Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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Eastern Orthodox church architecture

An Orthodox church as a church building of Eastern Orthodoxy has a distinct, recognizable family of styles among church architectures.

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Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline

The Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO pipeline, Нефтепровод "Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан" (ВСТО)) is a pipeline system for exporting Russian crude oil to the Asia-Pacific markets (Japan, China and Korea).

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Economy of Russia

Russia has a high-income mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.

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Economy of the Soviet Union

The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى,, "Festival of the Sacrifice"), also called the Feast of Sacrifice or Bakr-Eid, is the second of two religious holidays celebrated by Muslims worldwide each year.

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Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر,, "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival or Hari Raya Puasa and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).

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El Lissitzky

Lazar Markovich Lissitzky (Ла́зарь Ма́ркович Лиси́цкий) (– December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лиси́цкий, על ליסיצקי), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect.

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Eldar Ryazanov

Eldar Aleksandrovich Ryazanov (Эльда́р Алекса́ндрович Ряза́нов; b. 18 November 1927) is a Soviet/Russian film director whose comedies, satirizing the daily life of the country, are very famous throughout the former Soviet Union.

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Electric arc

An electric arc or arc discharge is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing plasma discharge, resulting from a current through normally nonconductive media such as air.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light by the flow of electric current.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a technique for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Elena Obraztsova

Elena Vasiliyevna Obraztsova (Елена Васильевна Образцова; 7 July 1939 – 12 January 2015) was a Russian mezzo-soprano.

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Elizabeth of Russia

Elizaveta Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta and Elizabeth, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.

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Emancipation reform of 1861

The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (Крестьянская реформа 1861 год, Krestyanskaya reforma 1861 goda, literally: "the Peasant Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.

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Emil Gilels

Emil Grigoryevich Gilels (sometimes transliterated Hilels; Емі́ль Григо́рович Гі́лельс,, Эми́ль Григо́рьевич Ги́лельс, Emiľ Grigoriević Gileľs; October 19, 1916 – October 14, 1985) was a Soviet pianist, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th century.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumption through using less of an energy service.

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Energy superpower

An energy superpower is a nation that supplies large amounts of energy resources (crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) to a significant number of other states, and therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage.

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Environment of Russia

The environment of Russia.

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Era of Stagnation

The Era of Stagnation (also called the Period of Stagnation, Stagnation Period, Stagnation Era, the Brezhnevian Stagnation, or the Brezhnev Stagnation) was a period of economic, political, and social stagnation in the Soviet Union, which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).

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Ernst Neizvestny

Ernst Iosifovich Neizvestny (Эрнст Ио́сифович Неизве́стный) (born 1925) is a Russian-American sculptor, painter, graphic artist, and art philosopher.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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Eurasian Economic Community

The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU or EEU)Both acronyms are used as per the.

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Eurasianism

Eurasianism (Евразийство, Yevraziystvo) is a political movement in Russia, formerly within the primarily Russian émigré community, that is focused on the geopolitical concept of Eurasia.

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EuroBasket 2007

The 2007 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2007, was the 35th FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2008 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to the champion and runner-up teams (or to the third-placed team in case Spain should reach the final).

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Euroleague

The Turkish Airlines Euroleague, commonly known as the Euroleague, is the highest level tier and most important professional club basketball competition in Europe, with teams from up to 18 different countries, members of FIBA Europe.

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European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.

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European Russia

The term "European Russia" was used in the Russian Empire to refer to traditional East Slavic territories under Russian control, including what is now Belarus and most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine).

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evgeny Kissin

Evgeny Igorevitch Kissin (Евге́ний И́горевич Ки́син, Yevgeniy Igorevich Kisin; born 10 October 1971) is a Russian–British classical pianist.

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Extravehicular activity

Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.

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Extreme North

The Extreme North or Far North (Крайний Север, Дальний Север) is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources.

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Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen (–; Фаддей Фаддеевич Беллинсгаузен, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen), a Baltic-German officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.

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Far Eastern Federal University

Far Eastern Federal University (Дальневосто́чный федера́льный университе́т, Dalnevostochny federalny universitet) is an institution of higher education located in Vladivostok, Russia.

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FC Zenit Saint Petersburg

Football Club Zenit (Футбо́льный клуб «Зени́т», Zenith), also known as Zenit Saint Petersburg, is a Russian football club from the city of Saint Petersburg.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p) of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917.

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Federal Assembly (Russia)

The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).

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Federal cities of Russia

City of federal importance (Город федерального значения) or federal city in Russia is a city which has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.

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Federal city

The term Federal city (Bundesstadt in German) is a title for certain cities in Germany, Switzerland, the Russian Federation, and the United States.

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Federal districts of Russia

The federal districts (федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia.

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Federal law

Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.

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Federal subjects of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.

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Federalism

Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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Federation

A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.

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Federation Council (Russia)

Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.

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Federation Island

Federation Island (rus: Остров "Федерация") is an artificial island archipelago that was projected to be located off the coast of Sochi, Russia, in the Black Sea.

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Fedor Emelianenko

Fedor Vladimirovich Emelianenko (r) (born 28 September 1976) is a Russian Heavyweight mixed martial artist (MMA), sambist, and judoka.

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Fedot Alekseyevich Popov

Fedot Alekseyevich Popov (Федот Алексеевич Попов, also Fedot Alekseyev, Федот Алексеев; nickname Kholmogorian, Холмогорец, for his place of birth (Kholmogory), date of birth unknown, died between 1648 and 1654) was a Russian explorer who organized the first European expedition through the Bering Strait.

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Feodor Chaliapin

Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (pron; April 12, 1938) was a Russian opera singer.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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FIFA World Cup Dream Team

The FIFA World Cup Dream Team is an all-time FIFA World Cup all-star team published by FIFA in 2002 after conducting an internet poll of fans to select a World Cup dream team.

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Figure skating

Figure skating is a sport and activity in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.

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Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Final good

In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy its current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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Financial crisis

The term financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.

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Finno-Ugric peoples

The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.

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Fire of Moscow (1571)

The Fire of Moscow (1571) occurred in May of that year when the forces of the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray raided the city Moscow during the Russo–Crimean Wars.

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First Chechen War

The First Chechen War, also known as the War in Chechnya, was a conflict between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.

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First Russian circumnavigation

The first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth took place from August 1803 to August 1806.

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Fishing industry by country

This page lists the world fisheries production for 2005.

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Flag of Russia

The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields; white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.

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Flat tax

A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.

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Floral emblem

In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.

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Folk culture

Folk culture refers to the unifying expressive components of everyday life as enacted by localized, tradition-bound groups.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folklore of Russia

Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs and now is represented in the Russian fairy tales.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Formula One

Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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Fort Ross, California

Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, r Krepostʹ Ross) is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.

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Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli

Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли; 1700 in Paris, France – 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) was an Italian architect whose entire career was spent in Russia.

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Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (Земля Франца-Иосифа, Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa) is an uninhabited archipelago located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia.

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Free education

Free education refers to education that is funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition fees.

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Free trade

Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S. based government fundedGiannonea, Diego (2010)."Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case".

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Freedom in the World

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant disputed territories around the world.

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Freedom of assembly

Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their ideas.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.

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Freedom of the press in Russia

The issue of freedom of the press in Russia involves both the ability of directors of mass media outlets to carry out independent policies and the ability of journalists to access sources of information and to work without outside pressure.

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French invasion of Russia

The French Invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года; Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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Fresco

Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster.

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Fresh water

Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams.

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Functionalism (architecture)

Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.

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Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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Fyodor Dostoyevsky

Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (a; 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881), sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.

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Fyodor Khitruk

Fyodor Savelyevich Khitruk (Фёдор Саве́льевич Хитру́к; 1 May 1917 – 3 December 2012) was a Russian animator and animation director.

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G-20 major economies

The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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G8 (forum)

The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.

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Galina Ulanova

Galina Sergeyevna Ulánova (Галина Серге́евна Ула́нова, 21 March 1998) was a Russian ballet dancer.

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Galina Vishnevskaya

Galina Pavlovna Vishnevskaya (née Ivanova, Гали́на Па́вловна Вишне́вская; 25 October 192611 December 2012) was a Russian soprano opera singer and recitalist who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1966.

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Garmon

The garmon (p, from garmonika (p), which means "harmonics") is a kind of Russian button accordion, a free-reed wind instrument.

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Gatchina Palace

The Great Gatchina Palace (Большой Гатчинский дворец) was built in 1766–1781 in Gatchina town (near St. Pertersburg) by Antonio Rinaldi for Count Grigori Grigoryevich Orlov who was a favourite of Catherine II.

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Gdańsk Bay

Gdańsk Bay or the Bay of Gdańsk or Danzig Bay (Zatoka Gdańska; Gduńskô Hôwinga; Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea.

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Gender inequality

Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender.

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПСС) was the title given to the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Geodesic

In mathematics, particularly differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".

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Geology of Russia

The geology of Russia, the world's largest country, which extends over much of northern Eurasia, consists of several stable cratons and sedimentary platforms bounded by orogenic (mountain) belts.

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Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Gamow

George Gamow (August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Russian: Гео́ргий Анто́нович Га́мов), was a theoretical physicist and cosmologist – notably an early advocate and developer of Lemaître's Big Bang theory.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgy Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974), was a Soviet career officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played the most pivotal role in leading the Red Army drive through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and other nations from the occupation of the Axis Powers and, ultimately, to conquer Berlin.

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Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography

The Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography (Всероссийский государственный университет кинематографии имени С.А.Герасимова, meaning All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after S. A. Gerasimov), aka VGIK, is a film school in Moscow, Russia.

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German occupation of Czechoslovakia

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.

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Gidon Kremer

Gidon Kremer (Gidons Krēmers; born 27 February 1947) is a Latvian classical violinist and conductor.

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Glasnost

Glasnost (гла́сность,, lit. "publicity") has several general and specific meanings.

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Gleb Kotelnikov

Gleb Yevgeniyevich Kotelnikov (Котельников, Глеб Евгеньевич in Russian, – November 22, 1944), was the Russian-Soviet inventor of the knapsack parachute (first in the hard casing and then in the soft pack), and braking parachute.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.

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Global Peace Index

The Global Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.

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GLONASS

GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "GLObal NAvigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

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Golden Age

The term Golden Age (Chryson Genos) comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five (or more) Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and then the present (Iron), which is a period of decline, sometimes followed by the Leaden Age.

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Golden Age of Russian Poetry

Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by Russian philologists to the first half of the 19th century.

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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ordu, Зүчийн улс, Züchii-in Uls; r; Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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Golden Ring

The Golden Ring (Золото́е кольцо&#769) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia.

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Government of Russia

The Government of the Russian Federation (Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции) exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.

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Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Правительство СССР) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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Government reform of Peter the Great

The government reforms of Peter I were aimed at modernizing the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models.

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Governorate of Estonia

The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Province of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.

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Grand Duchy of Moscow

The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), or Grand Principality of Moscow (also known in English simply as Muscovy), was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.

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Grande Armée

The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Grazhdanskaya Oborona

Grazhdanskaya Oborona (Russian: Гражданская Оборона), Russian for Civil Defense, or ГО, often referred to as ГрОб, Russian for coffin) were one of the earliest Soviet and Russian psychedelic/punk rock bands. They influenced many Soviet and, subsequently, Russian bands. From the early 1990s, the band's music began to evolve in the direction of psychedelic rock and shoegaze, and band leader Yegor Letov's lyrics became more metaphysical than political.

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Great Lent

Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in Orthodox Christianity including Western Rite Orthodoxy, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe.

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Great Patriotic War (term)

The term Great Patriotic War (Вели́кая Оте́чественная война́, Velíkaya Otéchestvennaya voyná) is used in Russia and some other former republics of the Soviet Union to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany with its allies.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Purge

The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большой террор) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.

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Great Recession

The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Grigori Perelman

Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (a; Григо́рий Я́ковлевич Перельма́н; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician who made landmark contributions to Riemannian geometry and geometric topology before apparently withdrawing from mathematics.

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Gross domestic product

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Groundwater

Groundwater (or ground water) is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Gulag

The Gulag (ru-Gulag.ogg) was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s.

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Gulf of Finland

The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Gusli

Gusli (p) is the oldest Russian multi-string plucked instrument.

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Gzhel

Gzhel is a Russian style of ceramics which takes its name from the village of Gzhel and surrounding area, where it has been produced since 1802.

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Hammer and sickle

The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (Серп и молот) is a Communist symbol that was conceived during the Russian Revolution.

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Handicraft

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns.

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Head of government

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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Head of state

A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Heavy industry

Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.

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Heavy metal music

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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Hermitage Museum

The State Hermitage (p, Gosudarstvenny Ermitazh) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Hero City

Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (Eastern Front was known in the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).

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Hertza region

Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ţinutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herţa) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.

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Heterojunction

A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.

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History of Russia

The history of Russia begins with that of the Eastern Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples.

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History of Russian animation

The History of Russian animation is the film art produced by Russian animation makers.

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History of the Jews in Russia

The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.

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History of the Russo-Turkish wars

The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.

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Hokkaido

, formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan's second largest island; it is also the largest and northernmost of Japan's 47 prefectures.

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Holography

Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.

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Horses in warfare

The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.

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House of Romanov

The House of Romanov (Рома́нов) was the second imperial dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, which reigned from 1613 until the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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Household plot

Household plot is a legally defined farm type in all former socialist countries in CIS and CEE.

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight, sometimes called brain drain, refers to the emigration of intelligent, well-educated individuals for better pay or conditions, causing their places of origin to lose skilled people, or "brains." Typically, such emigrating individuals have learned English and have moved to the United Kingdom, the United States or some other English-speaking country.

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Human rights in Russia

Human rights instruments, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (fully) and the European Convention of Human Rights (with reservations).

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters.

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa or Cwa) is a zone of subtropical climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters.

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Huns

The Huns were a nomadic group of people who are known to have lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

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Ice dancing

Ice dancing is a discipline of figure skating that draws from ballroom dancing.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Ice hockey at the Olympic Games

Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920.

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Igor of Kiev

Igor I (Old East Slavic/Russian: Игорь; Ukrainian: Ігор; Old Norse: Ingvar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.

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Igor Sikorsky

Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (a, tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),Fortier, Rénald.

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Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor.

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Igor Tamm

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.

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Ilf and Petrov

Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Feinsilberg (Илья Арнольдович Файнзильберг, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeni Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev or Katayev (Евгений Петрович Катаев, 1903–1942) were two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s. They did much of their writing together, and are almost always referred to as "Ilf and Petrov". They were natives of Odessa.

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Illegal immigration in Russia

There are an estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.

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Ilya Muromets (film)

Ilya Muromets (Илья Муромец), known in the US as The Sword and the Dragon and in the UK as The Epic Hero and the Beast (significantly altered versions), is a Soviet fantasy film directed by the noted fantasy director Aleksandr Ptushko, made at Mosfilm and released in 1956.

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Ilya Prigogine

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин, Ilya Romanovich Prigozhin; 25 January 1917 – 28 May 2003) was a Belgian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

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Ilya Repin

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин, Ілля Юхимович Рєпін; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.

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Immigration

Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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Immune system

The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Impeachment

Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.

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Index of Soviet Union-related articles

Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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India–Russia relations

Indo-Russian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Ingria

Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland - bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

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Ingush people

The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia.

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Ingushetia

The Republic of Ingushetia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ɪnɡʊˈʂetʲɪjə; Гӏалгӏай Мохк), also referred to as simply Ingushetia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the North Caucasus region.

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Innovation

Innovation is a new idea, more effective device or process.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Ice Hockey Federation

The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; French: Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.

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International rankings of Russia

The following are international rankings of Russia.

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International relations within the Comecon

The "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance" (Comecon) was an economic organization of communist states, created in 1949, and dissolved in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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International Studies Quarterly

International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.

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International Women's Day

International Women's Day (IWD), originally called International Working Women's Day, is celebrated on March 8 every year.

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International Workers' Day

International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day in some places, is a celebration of laborers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labor movement, anarchists, socialists, and communists and occurs every year on May Day, 1 May, an ancient European spring holiday.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.

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Ipatiev House

Ipatiev House (Russian: Дом Ипатьева) was a merchant's house in Yekaterinburg where the former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his family and members of his household were murdered following the Bolshevik Revolution.

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Ipatovo kurgan

Ipatovo kurgan refers to kurgan 2 of the Ipatovo Barrow Cemetery 3, a cemetery of kurgan burial mounds, located near the town of Ipatovo in Stavropol Krai, Russia, some northeast of Stavropol.

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Ipsos MORI

Ipsos MORI is the second largest market research organisation in the United Kingdom, formed by a merger of Ipsos UK and MORI, two of Britain's leading survey companies, in October 2005.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Isaac Levitan

Isaac Ilyich Levitan (Исаа́к Ильи́ч Левита́н; August 30, 1860 &ndash) was a classical Russian landscape painter who advanced the genre of the "mood landscape.".

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam in Russia

Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia.

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Islamic schools and branches

This article summarizes the different branches and various types of schools in Islam.

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Islamism

Islamism (اسلام پرستی; إسلاموية), also known as Political Islam, is a set of ideologies holding that "Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life." Islamism is a controversial concept not just because it posits a political role for Islam but also because its most extreme advocates believe their Islamic views are superior to all others', and that the contrary idea that Islam is, or can be, apolitical is an error.

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Israel Gelfand

Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a Soviet mathematician who is widely considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century.

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ITER

ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which is currently building the world's largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor adjacent to the Cadarache facility in the south of France.

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Ivan Argunov

Ivan Petrovich Argunov (Иван Петрович Аргунов) (1729–1802) was a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Russian school of portrait painting.

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Ivan Bunin

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Ivan Ivanov-Vano

Ivan Pyetrovich Ivanov-Vano (Ива́н Петро́вич Ивано́в-Вано́) (January 27, 1900, Moscow – March 25, 1987, Moscow) was a Soviet animator and Russian animation director, sometimes called the "Patriarch of Soviet animation".

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Ivan Kramskoi

Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi (June 8 (O.S. May 27), 1837, Ostrogozhsk – April 6 (O.S. March 24), 1887, Saint Petersburg; Ива́н Никола́евич Крамско́й) was a Russian painter and art critic.

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Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

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Ivan Shishkin

Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin (Ива́н Ива́нович Ши́шкин; 25 January 1832 – 20 March 1898) was a Russian landscape painter closely associated with the Peredvizhniki movement.

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible (Ivan Grozny), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death.

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Ivan Turgenev

Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (p; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and playwright.

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Ivan Yefremov

Ivan Antonovich (real patronymic Antipovich) Yefremov (Ива́н Анто́нович (Анти́пович) Ефре́мов; April 22, 1908 – October 5, 1972), last sometimes spelled Efremov, was a Soviet paleontologist, science fiction author and social thinker.

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Jack Frost (1964 film)

Morozko (Морозко, Morózko) is a Soviet film (Gorky Film Studio) originally released in 1964.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Jascha Heifetz

Jascha Heifetz (– December 10, 1987) was a violinist, widely considered to be one of the finest violinists of modern times.

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Jewish Autonomous Oblast

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome gegntIn standard Yiddish:, yidishe oytonome gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) in the Russian Far East, bordering with Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and with Heilongjiang province of China.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

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Judiciary of Russia

The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Kabardino-Balkaria

The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.

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Kaftan

A kaftan or caftan (Arabic: قفطان qaftân) is a variant of the robe or tunic, versions of which have been worn by several cultures around the world for thousands of years.

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Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad (p), formerly called Königsberg (Königsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Królewiec; Karaliaučius), is a seaport city and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), on the Baltic coast.

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Kalmyk people

The Kalmyk people (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Hal'mgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Khalimag) or Kalmyks are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.

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Kalmykia

The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Hal'mg Tanghch) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).

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Kamov

Kamov is a Russian rotorcraft manufacturing company, founded by Nikolai Ilyich Kamov, who started building his first rotary-winged aircraft in 1929, together with N. K. Skrzhinskii.

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Kara Sea

The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoe More) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.

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Karachay-Cherkessia

The Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика, Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika; Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика; Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ), also called Karachay-Cherkessia (Karachay-Circassia) (Карача́ево-Черке́сия, Karachayevo-Cherkesiya) and the Karachay-Circassian Republic, is a republic of Russia located in the North Caucasus area of southern European Russia.

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Karelia

Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Karl Bryullov

Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Карл Па́влович Брюлло́в; 12 December 1799 – 11 June 1852), also transliterated Briullov or Briuloff and referred to by his friends as "The Great Karl", was a Russian painter.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.

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Kazan

Kazan (p; Qazan) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan (Volga region) Federal University

Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет; Qazan federal universitetı) is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan Metro

Kazan Metro (Каза́нское метро́; Казан метросы Tatar Latin: Qazan metrosı) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazimir Malevich

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (February 23, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a Polish-Russian painter and art theoretician.

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Khanate of Kazan

The Khanate of Kazan (قازان خانليغى; Russian: Казанское ханство, tr: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian-Tatar Turkic state which occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.

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Khanate of Sibir

The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Uralo-Siberian Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia.

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Khazars

The Khazars (Hazarlar, Xäzärlär., כוזרים (Kuzarim), خزر (khazar), Хаза́ры, خزر, Χάζαροι, p./Cosri/Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the breakup of the western Turkish steppe empire, known as the Khazar Khanate or Khazaria.

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Khmelnytsky Uprising

The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Повстання Хмельницького; also known as the Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Ukrainian War of Liberation) was a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine between the years 1648–1657 which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland.

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Khokhloma

Khokhloma or Khokhloma painting (Хохлома or Хохломская роспись in Russian, or Khokhlomskaya rospis') is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft style and national ornament, known for its vivid flower patterns, red and gold colors over a black background, and the effect it has when applied to wooden tableware or furniture, making it look heavier and metal-like.

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Khrushchev Thaw

The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply Ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Київ; Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Old East Slavic Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Greek Ῥωσία, Latin Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Old Norse Garðaríki) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

The Principality of Galicia–Volhynia, or Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old Ruthenian Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Королѣвство Русь, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Королівство Русі, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae, Regnum Russiae), was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia of present-day Ukraine that was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic.

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Kino (band)

Kino (Кино́ "film", also "cinema", often written uppercase, КИНО; pronounced) was an iconic Soviet post-punk band headed by Viktor Tsoi.

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Kipchaks

The Kipchak (also spelled Qipchaq, Kypchak, Kupchak or Kıpçak) were a Turkic nomadic people.

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Kipelov

Kipelov (Кипелов) is a Russian heavy metal band formed and led by former Aria vocalist Valery Kipelov.

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Kir Bulychev

Kir Bulychov or Bulychev (Кир Булычёв) (18 October 1934 – 5 September 2003) was a pen name of Igor Vsevolodovich Mozheiko (И́горь Все́володович Може́йко), a Soviet Russian science fiction writer and historian.

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Klyuchevskaya Sopka

Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Ключевская сопка; also known as Kliuchevskoi, Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia.

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Kokoshnik

The kokoshnik (p) is a traditional Russian head-dresses worn by women and girls to accompany the sarafan, primarily worn in the northern regions of Russia in the 16th to 19th centuries.

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Kolkhoz

A kolkhoz (p, колгосп,, plural kolkhozes) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.

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Kolomenskoye

Kolomenskoye (Коло́менское) is a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, Russia, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name).

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Konstantin Khrenov

Konstantin Konstantinovich Khrenov (Константин Константинович Хренов; 13 February 1894 – 12 October 1984) was a Soviet engineer and inventor who in 1932 introduced underwater welding and cutting of metals.

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Konstantin Leontiev

Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontyev (Константи́н Никола́евич Лео́нтьев; born January 25, 1831 in Kudinovo, Kaluga Governorate; died November 24, 1891 in Sergiyev Posad) was a conservative, monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East in order to oppose the catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences from the West.

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Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (Konstanty Ksawerowicz Rokossowski, Константи́н Константи́нович (Ксаве́рьевич) Рокоссо́вский; – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister.

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory, of Polish and Russian descent.

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Kontinental Hockey League

The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.

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Korol i Shut

Korol' i Shut (King and Jester, Король и Шут) were a Russian horror punk band from Saint Petersburg that took inspiration and costumes from tales and fables.

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Kosovorotka

A kosovorotka (p) is a Russian, skewed-collared shirt.

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Krais of Russia

The Russian Federation is divided into 85 subjects, of which nine are krais, or krays ("edges" or "frontiers", sing. krai or kray).

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Krasnodar Krai

Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District.

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Kremlin

A kremlin (ˈkrʲemlʲ, fortress; same root as in kremen (krʲɪˈmʲenʲ, flint)) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities.

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Kuchum

Kuchum Khan, Kuchum Khan of Sibir (Tatar: Küçüm, Күчүм, Russian: Кучум; in Siberian Tatar Köçöm is pronounced approximately as /kœtsœm/ - Көцөм, English name comes from Tatar pronunciation) (died ca. 1605) was the last khan of the Khanate of Sibir (1563–1598).

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Kunashir Island

Kunashir Island (Кунаши́р; 国後島, Kunashiri-tō; クナシㇼ or クナシㇽ, Kunasir), possibly meaning Black Island or Grass Island in Ainu, is the southernmost island of the Kuril Islands, which is under Russian jurisdiction.

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Kupala Night

Kupala Night, also known as Ivan Kupala Day (Feast of St. John the Baptist; Иван-Купала; Купалле; Іван Купала; Noc Kupały), is celebrated in Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic countries and Russia currently on the night of 6/7 July in the Gregorian or New Style calendar, which is 23/24 June in the Julian or Old Style calendar still used by many Orthodox Churches.

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Kuril Islands

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p; Japanese), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean.

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Kuzma Minin

Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early-17th century.

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Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin

Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin, (1878 – February 15, 1939) was an important Russian and Soviet painter and writer.

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Kvass

Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic fermented beverage commonly made from black or regular rye bread.

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Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan; Киргизия or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Кыргызская Республика Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia.

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Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Байгал нуур, Baygal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Turkic, "the rich lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Lake Ladoga

Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia just outside the outskirts of Saint Petersburg.

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Lake Onega

Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.

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Land use statistics by country

This article includes the table with land use statistics by country.

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Languages of Russia

Of all the languages of Russia, Russian is the only official language.

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Laptev Sea

The Laptev Sea (мо́ре Ла́птевых, more Laptevykh) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Larisa Latynina

Larisa Semyonovna Latynina (Лариса Семенівна Латиніна, Лари́са Семёновна Латы́нина; born 27 December 1934) is a former Soviet gymnast.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Latvia

Latvia (Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.

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Left-bank Ukraine

Left-bank Ukraine (Лівобережна Україна, Livoberezhna Ukrayina; Левобережная Украина, Levoberezhnaya Ukraina; Lewobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East) bank of the Dnieper River, comprising the modern-day oblasts of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy as well as the eastern parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.

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Lena River

The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлгэ, Zülge, Buryat: Зүлхэ, Zülhe; Өлүөнэ, Ölüöne) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob River and the Yenisei River).

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Lenz's law

Lenz's law is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й,; –), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian novelist regarded as one of the greatest of all time.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий;; born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein; – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (17071783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist.

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Leonid Andreyev

Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (Леони́д Никола́евич Андре́ев, – September 12, 1919) was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer.

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Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.

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Leonid Filatov

Leonid Alekseyevich Filatov (a; 24 December 1946 – 26 October 2003) was a Soviet and Russian actor, director, poet, pamphleteer, who shot to fame while a member of troupe at Taganka Theatre under director Yury Lyubimov.

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Leonid Gaidai

Leonid Iovich Gaidai (Леони́д И́ович Гайда́й; 30 January 1923, Svobodny, Amur Oblast – 19 November 1993, Moscow) was one of the most popular Soviet comedy directors, enjoying immense popularity and broad public recognition in the former USSR & modern Russia.

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Leonid Kogan

Leonid Borisovich Kogan (Леони́д Бори́сович Ко́ган; Леонід Борисович Коган; November 14, 1924 – December 17, 1982) was a preeminent Soviet violinist during the 20th century.

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Lev Artsimovich

Lev Andreevich Artsimovich (Арцимович, Лев Андреевич in Russian; also transliterated Arzimowitsch) (February 25, 1909 (NS) – March 1, 1973) was a Soviet physicist, academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1953), member of the Presidium of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (since 1957), and Hero of Socialist Labor (1969).

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Lev Kuleshov

Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov (Лев Влади́мирович Кулешо́в; – 29 March 1970) was a Soviet filmmaker and film theorist who taught at and helped establish the world's first film school, the Moscow Film School.

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Lev Yashin

Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Лев Ива́нович Я́шин, 22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990), nicknamed the "Black Spider" or the "Black Panther", was a Soviet-Russian football goalkeeper, considered by many to be the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the game.

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Levada Center

Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organisation.

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LGBT rights in Russia

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) persons in Russia face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT persons.

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Liberal Democratic Party of Russia

The Political party LDPR (Политическая партия ЛДПР), http://ldpr.ru/events/The_Charter_LDPR_changes/ formerly the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (Либерально-Демократическая Партия России – Liberal'no-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii), is a far-right political party in the Russian Federation.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Light industry

Light industry is industry that is usually less capital-intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries).

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List of battles by casualties

The following is a list of the casualty count in battles in world history.

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List of bridges in Saint Petersburg

There are 342 bridges in the city limits of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of cosmonauts

This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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List of countries by electricity production

This is a list of countries by electricity generation per year based on multiple sources.

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List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources

This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.

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List of countries by external debt

This is a list of countries by external debt, the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

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List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)).

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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List of countries by natural gas exports

This is a list of countries by natural gas exports mostly based on The World Factbook.

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List of countries by natural gas production

This is a list of countries by natural gas production based on statistics from the International Energy Agency.

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List of countries by natural gas proven reserves

This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).

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List of countries by oil exports

This is a list of oil-producing countries by oil exports based on The World Factbook and other Sources.

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List of countries by oil production

This is a list of countries by oil production.

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List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty

These are the lists of countries of the world by percentage of population living in poverty.

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List of countries by road network size

This is a list of countries by total road network size of both paved and unpaved.

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List of countries by total length of pipelines

This is a list of countries by total length of pipelines mostly based on The World Factbook accessed in June 2008.

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List of countries by total renewable water resources

This is a list of countries by total renewable water resources mostly based on The World Factbook.

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List of countries by waterways length

This is a list of countries by total waterways length mostly based on The World Factbook accessed in May 2009.

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List of diplomatic missions of Russia

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Russia.

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List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP

The article is a list of Russia Federal subjects by Gross Regional Product (GRP) in main years.

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List of institutions of higher learning in Russia

The following is a list of universities and other higher educational institutions in Russia, based primarily on the National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility webpage of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

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List of journalists killed in Russia

The dangers to journalists in Russia have been well known since the early 1990s but concern at the number of unsolved killings soared after Anna Politkovskaya's murder in Moscow on 7 October 2006.

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List of largest empires

An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories and variety of different ethnic groups.

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List of largest lakes of Europe

This is a list of lakes of Europe with an average area greater than 100 km².

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List of merchant navy capacity by country

List of merchant navy capacity by flag is a list of the world foremost fleets of registered trading vessels ranked in both gross register tonnage (GRT) and deadweight tonnage (DWT) sorted by flag state.

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List of metro systems

This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide.

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List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus'

The following is a list of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' principalities following the Mongol invasion.

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List of most expensive films

Due to the secretive nature of Hollywood accounting it is not clear which film is the most expensive film ever made.

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List of most-produced aircraft

This is a list of the most-produced aircraft types whose numbers exceed or exceeded 5,000.

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List of national trees

This is a list of national trees, most official, but some unofficial.

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List of rivers by length

This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.

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List of rivers of Europe

These are the main rivers in Europe (ecologically, the extreme west of the Palearctic ecozone - which includes Russia in the east).

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List of rivers of Russia

Russia can be divided into a European and an Asian part.

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List of Russian aerospace engineers

This list of Russian aerospace engineers includes the designers of aircraft, rocketry and spacecraft, and developers of auxiliary aerospace technologies from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian biologists

This list of Russian biologists includes the famous biologists from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of Russian chemists

This list of Russian chemists includes the famous chemists and material scientists of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of Russian explorers

The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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List of Russian mathematicians

This list of Russian mathematicians includes the famous mathematicians from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian philosophers

Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements.

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List of Russian physicists

This list of Russian physicists includes the famous physicists from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian-language radio stations

This is a list of radio stations in Russian language.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density

This is a list of countries and dependencies ranked by human population density and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile.

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List of states with nuclear weapons

There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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List of transcontinental countries

This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, known as transcontinental states, or more properly as intercontinental states.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Russia

This a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia.

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Literary realism

Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.

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Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climate Optimum).

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Livonia

Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; -ruЛифляндия / Liflyandiya) is a historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Longitude

Longitude (or, British also), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lunokhod programme

Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.

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Makhachkala

Makhachkala (p; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала; Kumyk: Магьачкъала, Mahačqala), “Fort Maghach”, is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.

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Man and the Biosphere Programme

Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.

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Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.

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Marc Chagall

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist.

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Maria Sharapova

Maria Yuryevna Sharapova (a; born 19 April 1987) is a Russian professional tennis player, who is ranked world No.

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Mariinsky Ballet

The Mariinsky Ballet is a classical ballet company based at the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Mariinsky Theatre

The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky, Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Maritime boundary

A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

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Mark Reizen

Mark Osipovich Reizen, also Reisen or Reyzen (Марк Осипович Рейзен, born in Zaitsevo village, Ekaterinoslav province, Russian Empire (now Ukraine) – died November 25, 1992 Moscow, Russia) was a leading Soviet opera singer with a beautiful and expansive bass voice.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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Markov chain

A Markov chain (discrete-time Markov chain or DTMC), named after Andrey Markov, is a random process that undergoes transitions from one state to another on a state space.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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Mary (mother of Jesus)

According to the New Testament, Mary (Miriam: מרים; BC – AD), also known as Saint Mary or the Virgin Mary, was a Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus.

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Maser

A maser, an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation", is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mashina Vremeni

Mashina Vremeni (Russian for Time Machine) is a Russian rock band founded in 1969.

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Maslenitsa

Maslenitsa (Ма́сленица, Масниця, Масьленіца, also known as Butter Week, Crepe week, or Cheesefare Week), is an Eastern Slavic religious and folk holiday, celebrated during the last week before Great Lent, that is, the eighth week before Eastern Orthodox Pascha (Easter).

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Matryoshka doll

A matryoshka doll (a, matrëška), also known as a Russian nesting doll, or Russian doll, refers to a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another.

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Maxim Gorky

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; 28 March 1868 – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рькій or Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.

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Maxim Vengerov

Maxim Alexandrovich Vengerov (Максим Александрович Венгеров,; born 1974) is an Israeli violinist, violist, and conductor who was born in the Soviet Union.

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Maya Plisetskaya

Maya Mikhaylovna Plisetskaya (Ма́йя Миха́йловна Плисе́цкая; 20 November 1925 – 2 May 2015) was a Soviet-born ballet dancer, choreographer, ballet director, and actress, who held Spanish and Lithuanian citizenship.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander, and the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and the Modern Greek language. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still strongly influenced by Ancient Greek, it was also influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, which is the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the church.

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Medvedev modernisation programme

The Medvedev modernisation programme is an initiative launched by President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev in 2009, which aims at modernising Russia's economy and society, decreasing the country's dependency on oil and gas revenues and creating a diversified economy based on high technology and innovation.

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Melnitsa

Melnitsa (Мельница, Russian for windmill) is a Russian folk rock band.

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Melnitsa Animation Studio

Melnitsa Animation Studio (Студия анимационного кино «Мельница», "melnitsa" meaning "windmill") is one of the most prominent and successful companies in the Russian animation industry.

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Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly

Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.

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Michael Phelps

Michael Fred Phelps II (born June 30, 1985) is an American competition swimmer and the most decorated Olympian of all time, with a total of 22 medals.

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Michael Prawdin

Michael Prawdin was the pseudonym of Michael Charol (20 January 1894 – 23 December 1970), a Russian-German historical writer.

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Middle Ages

In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mikhail Baryshnikov

Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov (Михаи́л Никола́евич Бары́шников; born January 27, 1948), nicknamed "Misha" (Russian diminutive of the name "Mikhail"), is a Russian-American dancer, choreographer, and actor born in the Soviet Union, often cited alongside Vaslav Nijinsky and Rudolf Nureyev as one of the greatest ballet dancers in history.

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Mikhail Bulgakov

Mikhaíl Afanasyevich Bulgakov (Михаи́л Афана́сьевич Булга́ков,; – March 10, 1940) was a Russian writer and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.

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Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky

Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (Михаи́л О́сипович Доли́во-Доброво́льский; Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky or Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski; Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski; in Gatchina near Saint Petersburg — in Heidelberg, Germany), was a Polish-Russian engineer, electrician, and inventor.

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Mikhail Glinka

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.

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Mikhail Kalashnikov

Lieutenant-General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Михаи́л Тимофе́евич Кала́шников; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian general, inventor, military engineer, writer and small arms designer.

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Mikhail Kutuzov

Duke Mikhail Illarionovich Golenischev-Kutuzov (Russian: князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov contributed much to the military history of Russia and is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals under the reign of Catherine II. He took part in the suppression of the Bar Confederation's uprising, in three of the Russo-Turkish Wars and in the Napoleonic War, including two major battles at Austerlitz and the battle of Borodino.William T. Worthington, Great military leaders: a bibliography with vignettes, p. 131 However, Kutuzov is credited most with his leadership during the French invasion of Russia. Under Kutuzov's command, the Russian army faced the Grande Armée at the Battle of Borodino and later counter-attacked once Napoleon retreated from Moscow, pushing the French out of the Russian homeland.Christopher Duffy, Borodino and the War of 1812, Scribner, p. 165 In recognition of this, Kutuzov was awarded the title of Duke of Smolensk. A memorial was built at Moscow in 1973 to commemorate the 1812 war and Kutuzov's leadership. An order of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation is also named after him. Kutuzov was highly regarded in the works of Russian and Soviet historians.

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Mikhail Lermontov

Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –), a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (a; –) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.

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Mikhail Sholokhov

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Шо́лохов; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Mikhail Vrubel

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Вру́бель; March 17, 1856 – April 14, 1910, all n.s.) is usually regarded amongst the Russian painters of the Symbolist movement and of Art Nouveau.

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Mikoyan

Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (Российская самолетостроительная корпорация «МиГ»), or RSK MiG, is a Russian joint stock company.

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Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant

Mil Helicopters (Миль) is the short name of the Soviet Russian helicopter manufacturer Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (Московский вертолётный завод им.) (design bureau prefix Mi), named after the constructor Mikhail Mil.

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Military parade

A military parade (square bashing in British military slang) is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manoeuvring known as drilling or marching.

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Millennium of Russia

The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin.

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Millennium Prize Problems

The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.

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Millet

Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (Russian MFA; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign affairs of Russia.

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Mir

Mir (Мир,; lit. Peace) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, owned by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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Modern art

Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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Modern Greek

Modern Greek (νέα ελληνικά or νεοελληνική γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasion of Rus'

The Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir, and Kiev, part of the Mongol invasion of Europe.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.

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Mongols

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Moon

The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Moscow

Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.

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Moscow International Business Center

Moscow International Business Center (Московский Международный Деловой Центр; ММДЦ), also referred to as Moscow-City or Moskva-City (Москва-Сити) is a commercial district in central Moscow, Russia.

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Moscow Kremlin

The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

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Moscow Metro

The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast towns of Krasnogorsk, Reutov and Kotelniki.

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Moscow State University

Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

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Moscow theater hostage crisis

The Moscow theater hostage crisis, also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege, was the seizure of the crowded Dubrovka Theater on 23 October 2002 by 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya.

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Mother Russia

Mother Russia (Россия-Матушка, transliterated as Rossiya-Matushka) is a national personification of Russia, appearing in patriotic posters, statues etc.

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Mother's Day

Mother's Day is a modern celebration honoring one's own mother, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society.

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Motto

A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim, a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.

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Mount Elbrus

Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Min̡i taw) is a dormant volcano located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia of Russia, near the border with Georgia.

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Mstislav Rostropovich

Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich, KBE (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopol'dovič Rostropovič,; March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor.

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Multi-party system

A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have a similar or equal chance of gaining control of government offices, separately or in coalition government.

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Multinational state

A multinational state is a sovereign state which is viewed as comprising two or more nations.

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Murmansk

Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, an inlet of the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, close to the Russia's borders with Norway and Finland.

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Murom

Murom (p; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River.

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Music in the Soviet Union

Music in the Soviet Union varied in many genres and epochs.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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Naryshkin Baroque

Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.

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Natalia Gutman

Natalia Grigoryevna Gutman (Наталья Григорьевна Гутман) (born 14 November 1942 in Kazan) is a Russian cellist.

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National Anthem of Russia

The State Anthem of the Russian Federation (p) is the name of the official national anthem of Russia.

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National Hockey League

The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league composed of 30 member clubs: 23 in the United States and 7 in Canada.

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National parks of Russia

There are currently forty-one national parks in Russia, a list of which is given below.

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National personification

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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NATO–Russia relations

NATO–Russian relations, relations between the NATO military alliance and the Russian Federation were established in 1991.

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Nature reserve

A nature reserve (natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

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Nautilus Pompilius (band)

Nautilus Pompilius (Наутилус Помпилиус), sometimes nicknamed Nau (Нау), was a prominent Soviet/Russian rock band formed by the lead singer Vyacheslav Butusov and bassist Dmitry Umetsky while the two studied in Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg) Institute of Architecture (now called Urals Academy of Architecture).

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.

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Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire

Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

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Neo-primitivism

Neo-primitivism was a Russian art movement which took its name from the 31-page pamphlet Neo-primitivizm, by Aleksandr.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos and κλασσικός klassikòs classicus) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.

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Nevsky Prospect

Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia.

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New Siberian Islands

The New Siberian Islands (Новосиби́рские острова, Novosibirskiye Ostrova) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.

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New Year tree

New Year trees are decorated trees similar to Christmas trees that are displayed to specifically celebrate the New Year.

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Nicholas Roerich

Nicholas Roerich (October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist, theosophist, perceived by some in Russia as an enlightener, philosopher, and public figure, who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the occult.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– September 11, 1971) was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.

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Nikolai Berdyaev

Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian religious and political philosopher.

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Nikolai Gogol

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (p; Мико́ла Васи́льович Го́голь, Mykola Vasyliovych Hohol; –) was a Russian dramatist, novelist and short story writer of Ukrainian ethnicity.

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Nikolai Lobachevsky

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (a; &ndash) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry.

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Nikolai Rubinstein

Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (Никола́й Григо́рьевич Рубинште́йн; &ndash) was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer.

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Nikolay Basov

Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Никола́й Генна́диевич Ба́сов; 14 December 1922 – 1 July 2001) was a Soviet physicist and educator.

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Nikolay Benardos

Nikolay Nikolayevich Benardos (Никола́й Никола́евич Бенардо́с) (1842–1905) was a Russian inventor who in 1881 introduced carbon arc welding, which was the first practical arc welding method.

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Nikolay Brusentsov

Nikolay Petrovich Brusentsov (Никола́й Петро́вич Брусенцо́в; 7 February 1925 in Kamenskoe, Ukrainian SSR – 4 December 2014) was a Russian computer scientist, most famous for having built a (balanced) ternary computer, Setun, together with Sergei Sobolev in 1958.

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Nikolay Danilevsky

Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Даниле́вский; 28 November 1822 – 7 November 1885) was a Russian naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher, historian, and ideologue of the pan-Slavism and Slavophile movement who expounded a view of world history as circular.

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Nikolay Gumilyov

Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (a; April 15 NS 1886 – August 25, 1921) was an influential Russian poet, literary critic, traveler, and military officer.

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Nikolay Nekrasov

Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia won him Fyodor Dostoyevsky's admiration and made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Chernyshevsky.

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Nikolay Slavyanov

Nikolay Gavrilovich Slavyanov (Никола́й Гаври́лович Славя́нов) (1854–1897) was a Russian inventor who in 1888 introduced arc welding with consumable metal electrodes, or shielded metal arc welding, the second historical arc welding method after carbon arc welding invented earlier by Nikolay Benardos.

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Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky

Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (Никола́й Его́рович Жуко́вский;, Orekhovo, Vladimir Governorate – March 17, 1921, Moscow) was a Russian scientist and a founding father of modern aero- and hydrodynamics.

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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is, with a population of 1,250,619, the fifth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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Nizhny Novgorod Metro

The Nizhny Novgorod Metro (Нижегородское метро), formerly known as Gorky Metro (Горьковское Метро) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural νομάδες, nomades; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another.

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Nomadic pastoralism

Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism where livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.

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Non-aggression pact

A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.

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Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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Nord Stream

Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.

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North Asia

North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of Siberia and Russian Far East in the Asian portion of Russia – the area east of the Ural Mountains.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (or Ciscaucasia; p) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and within European Russia.

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North Korea

North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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North-Eastern Federal University

North-Eastern Federal University (NEFU), previously known as Yakutsk State University, is a school for higher learning in Yakutsk, Siberia.

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Northern Crusades

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Poland and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Northern Sea Route

The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping lane officially defined by Russian legislation from the Kara Sea to the Pacific Ocean specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from Kara Gates strait between the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.

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Northwestern Federal District

Northwestern Federal District (Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug) is one of the nine federal districts of Russia.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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Novaya Zemlya

Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. new land), also known, especially in Dutch, as Nova Zembla, is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in the North of Russia and the extreme Northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.

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Novgorod Republic

The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ земьлѧ / Novgorodskaja zemľa) was a medieval Russian state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th centuries, which included the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions.

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Novorossiysk

Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.

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Novosibirsk

Novosibirsk (p) is the third most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg and the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,523,801 (2013 est.). It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District.

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Novosibirsk Metro

Novosibirsk Metro is a metro system in Novosibirsk, Russia.

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Nu Virgos

Nu Virgos (ВІА Гра) was the name used to promote the musical group VIA Gra (ВИА Гра) outside of Ukraine and other nearby countries.

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Nu, pogodi!

Nu, pogodi! (p, "Well, Just You Wait!") is a Soviet/Russian animated series produced by Soyuzmultfilm.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station.

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Nuclear power by country

Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries.

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Nuclear power in Russia

In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation.

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Nuclear-powered icebreaker

A nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered ship purpose-built for use in waters covered with ice.

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Ob River

The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia and is the world's seventh longest river.

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Oblasts of Russia

The Russian Federation is divided into 83 subjects (subyekty), of which 46 are oblasts (Области; "provinces", sing. oblast).

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Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant

Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES), was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Official languages of the United Nations

The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written when budget allows.

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Oil reserves

Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.

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Oium

Oium or Aujum was a name for an area in Scythia, where arguably the Goths under their king Filimer settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551.

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Okroshka

Okróshka (окрошка) is a cold soup of Russian origin.

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Old Bolshevik

Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к, stary bolshevik), also Old Bolshevik Guard or Old Party Guard, became an unofficial designation for those who were members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Old East Slavic

Old East Slavic (also referred to as RusianLunt, Horace G. Old Church Slavonic Grammar, Seventh Edition, 2001. (sic, with one ‘s’, from Rus’) and Old Russian, but not to be confused with the child dialects of the later post-Kievan Rus', Old Russian and Old Ruthenian) was a language used in the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.

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Old New Year

The Old New Year or the Orthodox New Year is an informal traditional holiday, celebrated as the start of the New Year by the Julian calendar.

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Oleg of Novgorod

Oleg of Novgorod (Russian: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the early 10th century.

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Olivier salad

Olivier salad (салат Оливье)It is called "Olivier salad" in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, as well as in Iran and the United States.

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Onion dome

An onion dome (луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glava; compare лук, luk, "onion") is a dome whose shape resembles an onion.

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Oranienbaum, Russia

Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.

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Orenburg Oblast

Orenburg Oblast (Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Ostern

The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western (also known as "Borscht Western") was the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries' take on the Western.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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Outline of Russia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.

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Outline of space technology

Space technology – technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Pafnuty Chebyshev

Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (p) (–) was a Russian mathematician.

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Paganism

Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own or Judaism.

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Pair skating

Pair skating is a figure skating discipline.

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Palace Square

Palace Square (p), connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire.

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Palekh miniature

Palekh miniature (Палехская миниатюра) is a Russian folk handicraft of miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc.). Palekh Russian lacquer art on papier-mâché first appeared in 1923 in the village of Palekh, located in the district of (Ivanovo Oblast), and is based on a long local history of icon painting.

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Pancake

A pancake is a flat cake, often thin, and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may also contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often with oil or butter.

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Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars were a group of Eurasian nomads of the early Middle Ages of uncertain origins,: "...

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Pantheism

Pantheism is the belief that the Universe (or Nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God.

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Papakha

Papakha, also known as astrakhan hat in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus.

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Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus'

The Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' was an attack by the Rus' on cities on the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and on the coast of the Paphlagonia, marking the first known contact between the Rus' and the Byzantine Empire.

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Parachute

A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag, or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift.

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were a series of three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of the sovereign Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Paskha

Paskha, Pascha, Pashka, or Pasha (Russian: Па́сха, "Easter") is a festive dish made in Eastern Orthodox countries which consists of food that is forbidden during the fast of Great Lent.

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Patron saint

A patron saint or a patron hallow is a saint who in Roman Catholicism is regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Pavel Yablochkov

Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (also transliterated as Jablochkoff) (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (&ndash) was a Russian electrical engineer, businessman and the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and the transformer.

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Pavlovsk Palace

Pavlovsk Palace is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by Paul I of Russia in Pavlovsk, within Saint Petersburg.

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Pazyryk burials

The Pazyryk (Пазырык) burials are a number of Scythian Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

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PBC CSKA Moscow

PBC CSKA Moscow is a Russian professional basketball team that is based in Moscow, Russia.

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Pechenegs

The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family.

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Pelmeni

Pelmeni (пельме́ни — plural, пельмень pelʼmenʼ — singular) are dumplings consisting of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough.

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Peoples of the Caucasus

This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.

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Peredvizhniki

Peredvizhniki (pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who in protest at academic restrictions formed an artists' cooperative; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s (1986), widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Peter and Fevronia Day

The Day of Saint Peter and Saint Fevronia (День Святых Петра и Февроньи / Den' Svyatyh Petra i Phevronii) also known as the Day of Family, Love and Faithfulness (День семьи, любви и верности / Den' sem'i lyubvi i vernosti), the Orthodox patrons of marriage, was officially introduced in Russia in 2008.

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Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропа́вловская кре́пость, Petropavlovskaya Krepost) is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706-1740.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to the 1 January.

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Peterhof Palace

The Peterhof Palace (p, Dutch for Peter's Court) is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great.

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Petrograd Soviet

The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy sovet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.

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Petroleum industry in Russia

The petroleum industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world.

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Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is the city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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PFC CSKA Moscow

PFC Central Sport Club of the Army, Moscow (Профессиональный футбольный клуб – ЦСКА) is a Russian professional football club.

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PGM-19 Jupiter

The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).

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Phanagoria

Phanagoria (Phanagóreia) was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus.

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Pharmaceutical drug

A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Pinsk Marshes

The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Prypiackija baloty or Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.

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Piracy

Piracy is typically an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea.

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Pirozhki

Pirozhki (пирожки, plural form of pirozhok, literally a "small pie"), sometimes transliterated as pyrizhki or pyrizhky (пиріжки), is a generic word for individual-sized baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings.

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Pitirim Sorokin

Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Russian: Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин; January 21, 1889 – February 11, 1968) was a Russian American sociologist born in modern-day Komi (Finno-Ugric region of Russia).

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.

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Poincaré conjecture

In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Polar climate

Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers.

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Polarity (international relations)

Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.

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Pole of Cold

The Poles of Cold are the places in the southern and northern hemispheres where the lowest air temperatures have been recorded.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (also known as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland), was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation, of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the king of Poland and the grand duke of Lithuania.

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Political status of Crimea

The political status of the Crimea is the subject of a political and territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia.

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Polotsk

Polotsk (Polatsk, По́лацк, По́лоцк, Połock) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much")The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Pontic–Caspian steppe

The Pontic–Caspian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and western Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.

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Population transfer in the Soviet Union

Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population, often classified as "enemies of workers," deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.

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Portrait painting

Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the 15 independent states that emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its dissolution in December 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union.

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Potential superpowers

A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be, or is in the process of becoming, a superpower at some point during the 21st century.

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Power of Siberia

The Power of Siberia (Сила Сибири) pipeline (formerly known as Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline under construction in Eastern Siberia to transport Yakutia's gas to Primorsky Krai and Far East countries.

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Power of the purse

The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Президент Российской Федерации, Romanized: President Rossiiskoi Federatsii) is the head of state, Supreme Commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Russian Federation.

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Pressure suit

A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive, even breathing pure oxygen at positive pressure.

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Primary Chronicle

The Tale of Bygone Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.

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Prime Minister of Russia

The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, Romanized: Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (Премьер-министр, Romanized: Prem'yer-ministr) is the second most powerful official of the Russian Federation, who, under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law On the Government of the Russian Federation, "heads the Government of the Russian Federation".

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Principality of Tver

Principality of Tver (Тверское княжество) was a Russian principality or duchy, which existed between the 13th and the 15th centuries.

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Privatization in Russia

Russian privatization describes the series of reforms that resulted in the large-scale privatization of state-owned assets immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union, most importantly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.

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Probiotic

Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed.

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Pskov

Pskov (p, ancient Russian spelling "Плѣсковъ", Pleskov) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

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Public holidays in Russia

The following is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Government of Russia.

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Pulkovo Airport

Pulkovo Airport (Аэропорт Пулково, Aeroport Pulkovo) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Pyongyang

Pyongyang (literally: "Flat Land" or "Peaceful Land", approved: P’yŏngyang; several variants) is the capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea) and the largest city in the country.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;r; often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English. His names are also transliterated "Piotr" or "Petr"; "Ilitsch", "Il'ich" or "Illyich"; and "Tschaikowski", "Tschaikowsky", "Chajkovskij" and "Chaikovsky" (and other versions; the transliteration varies among languages). The Library of Congress standardized the usage Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893),Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, rendering his lifespan as 25 April 1840 – 25 October 1893.

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Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov

Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov (Пётр Павлович Ершов; March 6, 1815 – August 30, 1869) was a Russian poet and author of the famous fairy-tale poem The Little Humpbacked Horse (Konyok-Gorbunok).

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Qacarlar) was a PersianizedAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3 royal family of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Quartet on the Middle East

The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

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Radio Day

Radio Day (Russian: День радио Den' Radio), Communications Workers' Day (as it is officially known in Russia) or Radio and Television Day (Ден на радиото и телевизията, as it is known in Bulgaria) is a commemoration of the development of radio in Russia.

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Railway electrification system

A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.

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Rayonism

Rayonism (or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that developed in Russia in 1911.

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Realism (arts)

Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Banner

Red Banner (Красное знамя) was a symbol of the USSR associated with the Soviet state flag.

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Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (RDBRF), also known as Red Book (Красная книга) or Russian Red Data Book is a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi, as well as some local subspecies (such as the Ladoga seal) that exist within the territory of the Russian Federation and its continental shelf and marine economic zone.

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Red Square

Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.

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Red star

A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology.

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Red Terror

Red Terror was a campaign of mass killings, torture, and systematic oppression conducted by the Bolsheviks after they seized power in Petrograd and Moscow in 1917.

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Religion in Russia

Religion in Russia is diverse, with a 1997 law naming Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism as important in Russian history.

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Religious denomination

A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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Republic of Crimea

The Republic of Crimea (or; p; Crimean Tatar: Къырым Джумхуриети, Qırım Cumhuriyeti; Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym) is a federal subject of Russia, located on the Crimean Peninsula.

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Republics of Russia

The Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are republics.

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Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Resident registration in Russia

Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.

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Revolution of 1905

The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.

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Rhythmic gymnastics

Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or teams of 5 or more manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: clubs, hoop, ball, ribbon, rope and freehand (no apparatus).

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Right-bank Ukraine

Right-bank Ukraine (Правобережна Україна, Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Правобережная Украина, Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historical name for a part of Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Volyn, Rivne, Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad and Kiev, as well as part of Cherkasy and Ternopil.

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Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,Jim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992), ISBN 0-571-12939-0.

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Rococo

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanization of Russian

Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin alphabet.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Steel

Ronald Lewis Steel (born March 25, 1931) is an award-winning American writer, historian, and professor.

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Rosatom

Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation (Rosatom) (Росатом), is a state corporation (non-profit organization) in Russia, established in 2007, the regulatory body of the Russian nuclear complex.

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Rossiyskaya Gazeta

Rossiyskaya Gazeta (Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian government daily newspaper of record which publishes the official decrees, statements and documents of state bodies.

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Rostov

Rostov (p; Old Norse: Rostofa) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.

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Rostov-on-Don

Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.

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Rover (space exploration)

A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.

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RT (TV network)

RT (founded as "Russia Today") is a Russian state-funded television network which runs cable and satellite television channels, as well as Internet content directed to audiences outside the Russian Federation.

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Ruble

The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.

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Rudolf Nureyev

Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев, Рудо́льф Хаме́тович Нуре́ев) (17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet dancer of ballet and modern dance, one of the most celebrated of the 20th century.

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Rurik

Rurik or Riurik (Рюрик, from Rørik; 830 – c. 879) was a legendary Varangian chieftain who gained control of Ladoga in 862, built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod, and founded the Rurik Dynasty, which ruled Kievan Rus (and later Grand Duchy of Moscow and Tsardom of Russia) until the 17th century.

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Rurik dynasty

The Rurik dynasty or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Рю́риковичі, Ру́рыкавічы) was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year 862 AD.

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Rus (name)

Originally, the name Rus’ (Русь, Rus) referred to the people, the region, and the medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rus' polities.

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Rus' people

The Rus (Русь; Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group or people who gave their name to the lands of Russia, Ruthenia, and Belarus.

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Rusiya Al-Yaum

RT Arabic, formerly known as Rusiya Al-Yaum (Arabic: روسيا اليوم, meaning Russia Today, called Россия сегодня Rossiya segodnya (read: Rasíya sivódnya) or Русия аль-Яум (Rusiya Al-Yaum) in Russian) is a Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia.

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Russia and weapons of mass destruction

According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, in 2013, Russia possessed an estimated 8,500 total nuclear warheads of which 1,800 were strategically operational.

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Russia at the Olympics

Russia has competed at the modern Olympic Games on many occasions, but as different nations in its history.

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Russia Day

Russia Day (День России, Den' Rossii) is the national holiday of the Russian Federation, celebrated on June 12.

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Russia national basketball team

The Russian national basketball team represents Russia in international basketball matches.

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Russia national football team

The Russia national football team (Национа́льная сбо́рная Росси́и по футбо́лу, Natsionálnaja sbórnaja Rossii po futbólu) represents Russia in association football and is controlled by the Russian Football Union (Российский Футбольный Союз, Rossijskij Futboľnyj Sojuz), the governing body for football in Russia.

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Russia–European Union relations

Russian-European relations are the international relations between the European Union (EU) and its largest bordering state, the Russian Federation, to the east.

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Russia–United States relations

Russia–United States relations is the bilateral relationship between Russia, a successor state to the Soviet Union, and the United States of America.

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Russian

Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including.

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Russian Academy of Arts

Russian Academy of Arts (RAKh / rus. РАХ, Росси́йская акаде́мия худо́жеств) is the State scientific Institution of Russian Federation, eligible heir to the USSR Academy of Arts.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) (Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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Russian Aerospace Defence Forces

The Russian Aerospace Defence Forces (Voyska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoy Oborony or VKO (ВКО) was the branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation responsible for air and missile defence, and the operation of Russian military satellites and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. Formed on 1 December 2011, it replaced the Space Forces. The VKO was first commanded by former Space Forces commander Col Gen Oleg Ostapenko, who was promoted to Deputy Minister of Defence in November 2012. On 24 December 2012, Aleksandr Golovko was appointed the new commander. Although it is officially translated as aerospace in English, it covers both attacks from the air and from (outer) space, and some Russian writers translate it as "air and space" instead. In August 2015, the Russian Aerospace Forces was created, and includes both the Air Force, and the Aerospace Defence Forces, with HQ in Moscow, on the recommendations of the Defense Ministry. Its full name in Russian is the Vozdushno-Kosmicheskiye Sily VS RF (Воздушно-космические силы BC РФ, Aerospace Forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation).

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Russian Air Force

The Russian Aerospace Forces (r) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

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Russian Airborne Troops

The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

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Russian America

Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of Russian colonial possessions in the Americas from 1733 to 1867.

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Russian Arctic islands

The Russian Arctic islands are a number of islands groups and sole islands scattered around the Arctic Ocean.

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Russian Ark

Russian Ark (Русский ковчег, Russkij Kovcheg) is a 2002 historical drama film directed by Alexander Sokurov.

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Russian avant-garde

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of modern art that flourished in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union, approximately 1890 to 1930—although some have placed its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960.

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Russian Bear

The Russian Bear is a widespread symbol (generally of a Eurasian brown bear) for Russia, used in cartoons, articles and dramatic plays since as early as the 16th century, and relating alike to Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union and the present-day Russian Federation.

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Russian Census (2010)

The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second in its post-Soviet history.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917-October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian constitution

Russian constitution and Constitution of the RSFSR may refer to.

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Russian cosmism

Russian cosmism was a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.

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Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.

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Russian culture

Russian culture is the culture associated with the country of Russia and, sometimes, specifically with Russians.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.

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Russian Enlightenment

The national Enlightenment differed from its Western European counterpart in that it promoted further modernization of all aspects of Russian life and was concerned with abolishing the institution of serfdom in Russia.

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Russian Fairy Tales

Russian Fairy Tales (Народные Русские Сказки, variously translated; English titles include also Russian Folk Tales), is a collection of Russian fairy tales, collected by Alexander Afanasyev and published by him between 1855 and 1863.

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Russian famine of 1601–03

The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, a third of Russian people, during the Time of Troubles, when the country was unsettled politically and later invaded by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Russian famine of 1921

The Russian famine of 1921, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Bolshevik Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) is the Russian part of the Far East, i.e. the extreme east parts of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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Russian federal highways

Russian federal highways (Автомобильные дороги федерального значения Российской Федерации or Avtomobil'nye dorogi federal'nogo znacheniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, meaning "Highways of federal importance in Russian Federation") are the most important highways in Russia which are the federal property.

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Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki) (also known as Rosstat) is the governmental statistics agency in Russia.

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Russian floating nuclear power station

Floating nuclear power stations (Russian: плавучая атомная теплоэлектростанция малой мощности, ПАТЭС ММ - lit. floating combined heat and power low-power nuclear station) are vessels projected by Rosatom that present self-contained, low-capacity, floating nuclear power plants.

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Russian Futurism

Russian Futurism was a movement of Russian poets and artists who adopted the principles of Filippo Marinetti's "Futurist Manifesto".

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Russian Grand Prix

The Russian Grand Prix (Гран-при России) is an annual auto race held at Sochi Autodrom—a street circuit built around Olympic Park in Sochi, Russia, as part of the Formula One World Championship.

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Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.

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Russian icons

The use and making of icons entered Kievan Rus' following its conversion to Orthodox Christianity in AD 988.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian literature

Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', Russia or the Soviet Union.

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Russian Musical Society

The Russian Musical Society (RMS) (Русское музыкальное общество) was an organisation founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and her protégé, pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein, with the intent of raising the standard of music in the country and disseminating musical education.

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Russian Navy

The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian military.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya Pravoslávnaya Tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy Patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian pop

Russian pop music is Russian language pop music produced either in Russia, CIS countries, Baltic states and other foreign countries in which the songs are performed primarily in Russian language, languages of the countries of the CIS, and in the other languages of the world.

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Russian presidential election, 2000

Presidential elections were held in Russia on 26 March 2000.

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Russian presidential election, 2012

The 2012 Russian presidential election was held on 4 March 2012.

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Russian Provisional Government

The Russian Provisional Government (Временное правительство России, translit.) was a provisional government of the Russian Republic established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II (March 15, 1917).

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Russian Public Opinion Research Center

Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) (Vsyerossiǐskiǐ tsentr izučenija obščestvennogo mnenija – VTsIOM), established in 1987, known as the "All-Union Center for the Study of Public Opinion" until 1992, is the oldest polling institution in post-Soviet Russia.

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Russian Railways

JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZD; Российские железные дороги (РЖД) tr. Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (RZhD)), is a Russian vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.

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Russian Revival architecture

The Russian Revival style (псевдорусский стиль, неорусский стиль) is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian rock

Rock and roll became known in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and quickly broke free from its western roots.

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Russian ruble

The ruble or rouble (рубль,, plural рубли́, rubli; see note on English spelling) (code: RUB) is the currency of Russia and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

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Russian science fiction and fantasy

Science fiction and fantasy have been part of mainstream Russian literature since the 19th century.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.

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Russian Superleague

The Russian Superleague (Чемпионат России Суперлига, Russian Championship Superleague), commonly abbreviated as RSL, was the highest division of the main professional ice hockey league in Russia.

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Russian traditional music

Russian traditional music specifically deals with the folk music traditions of the ethnic Russian people.

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Russian traditions and superstitions

Russian traditions, superstitions and beliefs include superstitions and customs of Russians.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, who speak the Russian language and primarily live in Russia. They are the most numerous ethnic group in Russia constituting more than 80% of the country's population according to the census of 2010, and the most numerous ethnic group in Europe.

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Russkaya Pravda

Russkaya Pravda (Russian Justice; Правда роусьскаꙗ, Pravda Rusĭskaya (13th century, 1280), Правда Руськая, Pravda Rus'kaya (second half of the 15th century); Русская правда, Russkaya Pravda; Руська Правда, Rus'ka Pravda) was the legal code of Kievan Rus' and the subsequent Rus' principalities during the times of feudal division.

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Russo-Crimean Wars

The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate in the 16th century for the control of Volga River region.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Russo-Persian Wars

The Russo-Persian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.

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Russo-Polish War (1654–67)

The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, or the War for Ukraine, was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–78)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of several Balkan countries.

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Rusyn language

Rusyn (Rusyn: русиньска бесїда or русиньскый язык), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is an East Slavic language variety spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.

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Ruthenia

In English, Ruthenia is a geographical exonym for a cross-border region of Europe.

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Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and as a forage crop.

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Rye bread

Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.

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Sadko (film)

Sadko (Садко) is a 1952 Russian fantasy film directed by Aleksandr Ptushko.

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Saint Basil's Cathedral

The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (Собор Василия Блаженного), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia.

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Saint George

Saint George (Γεώργιος Georgios; Georgius; to 23 April 303) was a soldier in the Roman army who later became venerated as a Christian martyr.

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Saint Isaac's Cathedral

Saint Isaac's Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor (Исаа́киевский Собо́р) in Saint Petersburg, Russia is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral (sobor) in the city.

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus); (15 March 270 AD – 6 December 343 AD), also called Nikolaos of Myra, was a historic 4th-century Christian saint and Greek Bishop of Myra (Demre, part of modern-day Turkey).

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).

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Saint Petersburg Metro

The Saint Petersburg Metro (Петербу́ргский метрополитен) is the underground railway system in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Saint Petersburg State University

Saint Petersburg State University (SPbGU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.

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Sakha Republic

The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, Sakha Öröspǖbülükete) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Sakhalin

Sakhalin (Сахалин) is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.

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Samara Metro

Samara Metro (Самарское Метро), formerly known as the Kuybyshev Metro (Куйбышевское Метро), is a rapid transit system which serves the city of Samara, Russia.

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Sambo (martial art)

Sambo (p; САМозащита Без Оружия) is a Russian martial art and combat sport.

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Santa Claus

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle and simply "Santa", is an important figure with legendary, historical and folkloric origins who, in many Western cultures, is said to bring gifts to the homes of the good children on 24 December, the night before Christmas Day.

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Sarafan

A sarafan (p, from Persian sarāрā) is a long, trapeze-shaped traditional Russian jumper dress (pinafore) worn as Russian folk costume by women and girls.

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Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage.

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Sauna

A sauna is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a historical and cultural-linguistic region in Northern Europe characterized by a common ethno-cultural North Germanic heritage and related languages.

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Sea of Azov

The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре|r.

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Sea of Japan

The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Asian mainland, the Japanese archipelago and Sakhalin.

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Sea of Okhotsk

The Sea of Okhotsk (p; Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, lying between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaidō to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast (including the Shantar Islands) along the west and north.

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Second Chechen War

The Second Chechen War was launched by the Russian Federation, starting 26 August 1999, in response to the Invasion of Dagestan by the Islamic International Brigade (IIB).

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely.

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Semi-presidential system

Semi-presidentialism is a system of government in which a president exists along with a prime minister and a Cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state.

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Semyon Dezhnev

Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev (p; sometimes spelled Dezhnyov; c. 1605 – 1673) was a Russian explorer of Siberia and the first European to sail through the Bering Strait, 80 years before Vitus Bering did.

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Seraphim of Sarov

Saint Seraphim of Sarov (Серафим Саровский) (–), born Prokhor Moshnin (Прохор Мошнин), is one of the most renowned Russian monks and mystics in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Sergei Bondarchuk

Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к, Serhiy Fedorovych Bondarchuk; 25 September 192020 October 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor.

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Sergei Bulgakov

Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov (Серге́й Никола́евич Булга́ков; – 13 July 1944) was a Russian Orthodox Christian theologian, philosopher, and economist.

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Sergei Diaghilev

Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (pron; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.

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Sergei Eisenstein

Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 22 January 1898 – 11 February 1948) was a Soviet Russian film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a, Сергі́й Па́влович Корольoв, Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov), also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) was the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics. Although Korolev was trained as an aircraft designer, his greatest strengths proved to be in design integration, organization and strategic planning. Arrested for alleged mismanagement of funds (he spent the money on unsuccessful experiments with rocket devices), he was imprisoned in 1938 for almost six years, including some months in a Kolyma labour camp. Following his release, he became a recognized rocket designer and a key figure in the development of the Soviet Intercontinental ballistic missile program. He was then appointed to lead the Soviet space program, made Member of Soviet Academy of Sciences, overseeing the early successes of the Sputnik and Vostok projects that include launching Yuri Alexeevich Gagarin into orbit on 12 April 1961, the first human in space. By the time he died unexpectedly in 1966, his plans to compete with the United States to be the first nation to land a man on the Moon had begun to be implemented. Before his death he was often referred to only as "The Chief Designer", because the Soviet leadership feared that the United States would send agents to assassinate him.Scott and Leonov, p. 53. Harford, p. 135. "Chief Designer" is a translation of Glavny Konstruktor (Russian: Главный Конструктор). Only many years later was he publicly acknowledged as the lead man behind Soviet success in space.

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Sergei Makarov (ice hockey)

Sergei Mikhailovich Makarov (Серге́й Михайлович Макаров; born 19 June 1958 in Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union) is a Russian former ice hockey right wing and two-time Olympic gold medalist.

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Sergei Prokofiev

Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 15/27 April, 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.

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Sergei Rachmaninoff

Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов;; – 28 March 1943), was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor.

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Sergei Sobolev

Sergei Lvovich Sobolev (Серге́й Льво́вич Со́болев; 6 October 1908 – 3 January 1989) was a Soviet mathematician working in mathematical analysis and partial differential equations.

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Sergey Chaplygin

Sergey Alexeyevich Chaplygin (Серге́й Алексе́евич Чаплы́гин; April 5, 1869, Ranenburg–October 8, 1942, Novosibirsk) was a Russian and Soviet physicist, mathematician, and mechanical engineer.

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Sergey Lebedev (chemist)

Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev (Серге́й Васи́льевич Ле́бедев; July 25, 1874 – May 1, 1934) was a Russian/Soviet chemist and the inventor of the polybutadiene synthetic rubber, the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber.

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Sergey Naryshkin

Sergey Yevgenyevich Naryshkin (p; born 27 October 1954) is a Russian official, politician and businessman who has been Chairman of the State Duma since December 2011.

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Sergey Zagraevsky

Sergey Zagraevsky (Сергей Вольфгангович Заграевский, סרגיי זגרייבסקי; born August 20, 1964, Moscow) is a Russian-Jewish painter, architectural historian, writer and theologian.

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Sergius of Radonezh

Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Се́ргий Ра́донежский, Sergii Radonezhsky; 14 May 1314 – 25 September 1392), also transliterated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh, was a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia.

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Setun

Setun (Сетунь) was a balanced ternary computer developed in 1958 at Moscow State University.

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Sevastopol

Sevastopol or traditionally Sebastopol (or Севасто́поль (same in Ukrainian); Aqyar; Σεβαστούπολη, Sevastoupoli) is a city located in the southwestern region of the Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea.

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Seven Years' War

The Seven Years' War was fought between 1754 and 1763, the main conflict occurring in the seven-year period from 1756 to 1763.

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Severnaya Zemlya

Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́, Northern Land) is an archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.

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Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO;; Шанхайская организация сотрудничества (ШОС), Shankhayskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

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Shashlik

Shashlik or shashlyk (խորոված khorovats, şişlik or tikə kabab, მწვადი mtsvadi, شیشلیک, шашлы́к, šašlykas, şaşlık, Biraşka şîşê, שישליק, Hindustani: شاشلِک or षअषईक), is a form of Shish kebab popular in Eastern and Central Europe (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania, Hungary), the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Central Asia, Afghanistan, India, Iran, Israel, The Levant, Mongolia, Morocco, Pakistan, Turkey, Bangladesh and other places.

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Shchi

Shchi (a) is a Russian style of cabbage soup.

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Sheremetyevo International Airport

Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Khimki, Moscow Oblast, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Shock therapy (economics)

In economics, shock therapy refers to the sudden release of price and currency controls, withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.

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Siberia

Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.

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Siberian Federal University

Siberian Federal University (Сибирский федеральный университет, Sibirskiĭ federalʹnyĭ universitet, often shortened to SibFU, СФУ) is a modern multidisciplinary university located in the eastern part of Russia, Krasnoyarsk, that combines fundamental and applied research and teaching.

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Siberian River Routes

Siberian River Routes were the main ways of communication in the Russian Siberia before the 1730s, when roads began to be built.

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Siege of Leningrad

The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade (блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: blokada Leningrada) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken by the German Army Group North against Leningrad—historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg—in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.

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Silver Age of Russian Poetry

Silver Age is a term traditionally applied by Russian philologists to the last decade of 19th century and first two or three decades of the 20th century.

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Simon Kuznets

Simon Smith Kuznets (p; Сямён (Шымон) Абрамавіч Кузьнец Siamion (Šymon) Abramavič Kuźniec; April 30, 1901 – July 8, 1985) was an American economist, statistician, demographer, and economic historian who won the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets made a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into empirical science, and to the formation of quantitative economic history.

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Sintashta

Sintashta (Синташта) is an archaeological site in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia.

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Six-party talks

The six-party talks aim to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program.

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Slavic languages

The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup of Indo-European languages, have speakers in most of Eastern Europe, much of the Balkans, parts of Central Europe, and the northern part of Asia.

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Slavic mythology

Slavic mythology is the mythological aspect of the polytheistic religion that was practised by the Slavs before Christianisation.

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Slavophilia

Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.

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Slavs

The Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group living in Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia, who speak the Indo-European Slavic languages, and share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds.

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Slovakia

Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a country in Central Europe.

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Smetana (dairy product)

Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.

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Sochi

Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.

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Social criticism

The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.

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Socialism in One Country

Socialism in One Country (Sotsyializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924, elaborated by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and finally adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.

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Socialist realism

Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in various other socialist countries.

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Socialist state

The term socialist state or socialist republic usually refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the construction of a socialist society.

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Solar cell

See also Photovoltaics A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.

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Solyanka

Solyanka (Russian: соля́нка;; Ukrainian: соля́нка) is a thick, spicy and sour soup in Russian and Ukrainian cuisines.

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Sophia Palaiologina

Zoe Palaiologina (Ζωή Παλαιολογίνα), who later changed her name to Sophia Palaiologina (София Фоминична Палеолог; ca. 1440/49. – 7 April 1503), was a Byzantine princess member of the Imperial Palaiologos family, by marriage Grand Princess of Moscow as the second wife of Grand Prince Ivan III.

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Sour cream

Sour cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.

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South Stream

South Stream (Южный Поток, Южен поток, Јужни ток/Južni tok, Južni tok, Déli Áramlat, Flusso Meridionale) is an abandoned pipeline project to transport natural gas of the Russian Federation through the Black Sea to Bulgaria and through Serbia, Hungary and Slovenia further to Austria.

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Southern Federal University

Southern Federal University, abbreviated as SFedU and formerly known as Rostov State University (1957–2006), is a public university in Rostov Oblast, Russia with campuses in Rostov-on-Don and Taganrog.

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Soviet (council)

Soviets (singular: soviet; сове́т,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.

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Soviet Army

The Soviet Army (Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.

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Soviet famine of 1932–33

The Soviet famine of 1932–33 affected the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, leading to the deaths of millions in those areas and severe food insecurity throughout the USSR.

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Soviet famine of 1946–47

The last major famine to hit the USSR "began in July 1946, reached its peak in February–August 1947 and then quickly diminished in intensity, although there were still some famine deaths in 1948." The situation spanned most of the grain-producing regions of the country: Ukraine, Moldavia and parts of central Russia.

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Soviet invasion of Poland

The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.

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Soviet montage theory

Confined to the project of Soviet expansion, film theorists of the USSR cared little for questions of meaning.

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Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation of the formerly Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertza by the Soviet Red Army during June 28 – July 4, 1940.

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Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940)

The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program comprised the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Soviet Union referendum, 1991

A referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held on 17 March 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Soviet–Japanese border conflicts

The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts was a series of combats and skirmishes, without any formal declaration of war, occurred between 1932 and 1945.

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Soviet–Japanese War (1945)

The Soviet-Japanese War of 1945 (Советско-японская война; ソビエト戦争) within the Second World War began on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Soyuz (rocket family)

Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1, and manufactured by Progress State Research and Production Rocket Space Center in Samara, Russia.

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Soyuzmultfilm

Soyuzmultfilm (p, Union Cartoon) is a Russian animation studio based in Moscow.

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Space Age

The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.

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Space exploration

Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology.

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Space group

In mathematics and physics, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.

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Space Race

The Space Race was a 20th-century (1955–1972) competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

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Space station

A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crew, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.

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Splean

Splean (Сплин) is a popular Russian rock band.

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Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (Спутник-1 "Satellite-1", or ПС-1) was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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Stability theory

In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions.

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Stabilization Fund of the Russian Federation

The Stabilization fund of the Russian Federation (Стабилизационный фонд Российской Федерации) was established based on a resolution of the Government of Russia on 1 January 2004, as a part of the federal budget to balance the federal budget at the time of when oil price falls below a cut-off price, currently set at US$27 per barrel.

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Stalinist architecture

Stalinist architecture (ста́линский ампи́р stalinskiy ampir – Stalin's Empire style or ста́линский неоренесса́нс stalinskiy neorenessans – Stalin's Neo-renaissance), also referred to as Stalinist Empire style, or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.

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State Anthem of the Soviet Union

The "State Anthem of the USSR" (r) was introduced during World War II on 15 March 1944, replacing The Internationale as the official anthem of the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

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State Duma

The State Duma (Госуда́рственная ду́ма (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), common abbreviation: Госду́ма (Gosduma)) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia.

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State Duma (Russian Empire)

The State Duma or Imperial Duma was a legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg.

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State Emblem of the Soviet Union

The State Emblem of the Soviet Union (Государственный герб Советского Союза, Gosudarstvenny gerb Sovetskogo Soyuza) was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.

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Stepan Razin

Stepan Timofeyevich Razin (Степа́н Тимофе́евич Ра́зин,; 1630 &ndash), known as Stenka Razin (Стенька), was a Cossack leader who led a major uprising against the nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Russia in 1670-1671.

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Steppe

In physical geography, a steppe (a) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Stipend

A stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship.

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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an independent international institute in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

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Stolypin reform

The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).

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Strategic bomber

A strategic bomber is a medium to long range bomber designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.

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Strategic Missile Troops

The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

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Strelna

Strelna (Стре́льна) is a municipal settlement in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, located about halfway between St. Petersburg proper and Petergof and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland.

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Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state.

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Sudebnik of 1550

Sudebnik of tsar Ivan IV (Судебник), a revised code of laws instituted by his grandfather Ivan the Great.

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Sukhoi

Sukhoi Company (JSC) (ОАО "Компания "Сухой") is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft.

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Sukhoi PAK FA

The PAK FA (ПАК ФА, Перспективный авиационный комплекс фронтовой авиации, Perspektivny Aviatsionny Kompleks Frontovoy Aviatsii, literally "Prospective Airborne Complex of Frontline Aviation") is a fifth-generation fighter programme of the Russian Air Force.

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Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad (French: Jeux olympiques d'été), first held in 1896, are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by the International Olympic Committee.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.

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Superfluidity

Superfluidity is a state of matter in which the matter behaves like a fluid with zero viscosity; where it appears to exhibit the ability to self-propel and travel in a way that defies the forces of gravity and surface tension.

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Suprematism

Suprematism (Супремати́зм) is an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.

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Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

The Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Верховный Главнокомандующий Вооружёнными Силами Российской Федерации) is the President of Russia in accordance with Article 87 of the Russian Constitution.

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Supreme Court of Russia

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases.

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Suzdal

Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Sviatoslav I of Kiev

Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: С~тославъ / Свѧтославъ Игорєвичь, Sventoslavŭ / Svantoslavŭ Igorevičǐ; Old Norse: Sveinald Ingvarsson; Святослав Игоревич, Sviatoslav Igorevich; Святослав Ігорович, Sviatoslav Ihorovych; Святаслаў Ігаравіч, Sviataslaŭ Iharavich; Светослав, Svetoslav, Σφενδοσθλάβος, Sphendosthlabos) (c. 942 – March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav, Grand prince of Kiev.

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Sviatoslav Richter

Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter (svʲjətɐsˈlaf tʲɪɐˈfʲiləvʲɪtɕ ˈrʲixtər, Святосла́в Теофі́лович Рі́хтер; – August 1, 1997) was a Soviet pianist known for the depth of his interpretations, virtuoso technique, and vast repertoire.

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Swedes (Germanic tribe)

The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe. The first author who might have written about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Sueones. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).

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Symbolism (arts)

Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.

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Synchronized swimming

Synchronized swimming is a hybrid form of swimming, dance and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers (either solos, duets, trios, combos, or teams) performing a synchronized routine of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.

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Synthetic rubber

Synthetic rubber, invariably a polymer, is any type of artificial elastomer mainly synthesised from petroleum byproducts.

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Syrniki

In Russian, Belarusian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish, and Ukrainian cuisines, syrniki (Russian: сы́рник; сирники; сырнікі) are fried quark pancakes, garnished with sour cream, varenye, jam, honey or apple sauce.

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T-34

The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.

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T-54/55

The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of main battle tank introduced just as the Second World War ended.

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T.A.T.u.

t.A.T.u. (Тату) was a Russian music duo that consisted of Julia Volkova and Lena Katina.

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Taiga

Taiga (p; from Turkic) also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

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Tamara Sinyavskaya

Tamara Ilyinichna Sinyavskaya (Тамара Ильинична Синявская; born 6 July 1943 in Moscow) is a Russian mezzo soprano from the Bolshoi Theatre.

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Tanais

Tanais (Τάναϊς Tánaïs; Танаис) was an ancient Greek city in the Don river delta, called the Maeotian marshes in classical antiquity.

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Tank

A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.

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Tatar language

The Tatar language (татар теле, татарча, tatar tele, tatarça, تاتار تيلی) is a Turkic language spoken by Volga Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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Tatars

The Tatars (Mongolic "Татар", Old Turkic tatar; modern Volga Tatar: Татарлар, Tatarlar تاتارلار; татары) are a Turkic people living in Asia and Europe.

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Tatarstan

The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Tatarstan Cömhüriäti) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the Volga Federal District.

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Tatiana Day

Tatiana Day (Татьянин день, Tatyanin den') is a Russian religious holiday observed on January 25 according to the Gregorian calendar, January 12 according to the Julian.

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Telephone numbers in Russia

Country Code: +7 International Call Prefix: 8~10 Trunk Prefix: 8 Telephone numbers in Russia are under a unified numbering plan with Kazakhstan, both of which share the international code +7.

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Television in Russia

Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels.

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Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest

Mixed forests are a temperate and humid biome.

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Tented roof

A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak.

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Ternary computer

A ternary computer (also called trinary computer) is a computer that uses ternary logic (three possible values) instead of the more common binary logic (two possible values) in its calculations.

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Terrorism in Russia

Terrorism in Russia has a long history starting from the times of the Russian Empire.

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The Cranes Are Flying

The Cranes Are Flying (Летят журавли, translit. Letyat zhuravli) is a Soviet film about World War II.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.

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The Five (composers)

The Five, also known as The Mighty Handful (Могучая кучка, Moguchaya kuchka), The Balakirev Circle, and The New Russian School, refers to a circle of composers who met in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in the years 1856–1870: Mily Balakirev (the leader), César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Borodin.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.

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The Huffington Post

The Huffington Post (sometimes abbreviated Huff Post or HuffPo) is a liberal-oriented American online news aggregator and blog, that has both localised and international editions founded by Arianna Huffington, Kenneth Lerer, Andrew Breitbart, and Jonah Peretti, featuring columnists.

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The Jamestown Foundation

The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.

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The Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theophanes the Greek

Theophanes the Greek (sometimes "Feofan Grek" from the Феофан Грек, Greek: Θεοφάνης; c. 1340 – c. 1410) was a Byzantine Greek artist and one of the greatest icon painters of Muscovite Russia, and was noted as the teacher and mentor of the great Andrei Rublev.

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Third Rome

Third Rome is the idea that some city, state, or country is the successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").

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Three-phase electric power

Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating-current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.

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Time in Russia

There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00.

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Time of Troubles

The Time of Troubles (Смутное время) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.

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Time zone

A time zone is a region that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.

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Timeline of Russian history

This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states.

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Timeline of Russian innovation

Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation.