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S. A. Ayer

Subbier Appadurai Ayer (14 April 1898 – 1 April 1980) was the Minister for Publicity and Propaganda in Subhas Chandra Bose's Azad Hind Government between 1943 and 1945, and later a key defence witness during the first of the INA trials. [1]

11 relations: Azad Hind, Bangkok, Burma Campaign, Indian Independence League, Indian National Army, Indian National Army trials, Propaganda, Publicity, Reuters, Subhas Chandra Bose, Yangon.

Azad Hind

Ārzī Hukūmat-e-Āzād Hind (आर्ज़ी हुक़ूमत-ए-आज़ाद हिन्द; عارضی حکومت‌ِ آزاد ہند; आजाद हिन्द), the Provisional Government of Free India, or, more simply, Free India (Azad Hind), was an Indian provisional government established in Singapore in 1943 and was supported by Japan.

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Bangkok

Bangkok is the capital and the most populous city of Thailand.

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Burma Campaign

The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II was fought primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the forces of the Empire of Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.

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Indian Independence League

The Indian Independence League (also known as IIL) was a political organisation operated from the 1920s to the 1940s to organise those living outside of India into seeking the removal of British colonial rule over India.

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Indian National Army

The Indian National Army (INA; Azad Hind Fauj); आज़ाद हिन्द फ़ौज; آزاد ہند فوج) (Lit: Free-Indian Army) was an armed force formed by Indian nationalists in 1942 in South-East Asia during World War II. Its aim was to secure Indian independence from British rule, for which it allied with—and was supported by—Imperial Japan in the latter's campaign in South-East Asia. The army was first formed in 1942 under Mohan Singh, with Indian prisoners of war captured by Japan in the Malayan campaign and at Singapore. This first INA collapsed and was disbanded in December that year after differences between INA leadership and Japanese military over what its role was perceived to be in Japan's war in Asia. It was revived under the leadership of Subhas Chandra Bose after the his arrival in South-East Asia in 1943 and proclaimed the army of Bose's Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind (the Provisional Government of Free India). Under Bose's leadership, it drew ex-prisoners of and thousands of civilian volunteers from Indian expatriate population in Malaya and Burma. This second INA fought along with the Imperial Japanese Army against the British and Commonwealth forces in the campaigns in Burma, Imphal and Kohima, and later against the successful Burma Campaign of the Allies. Initially after its formation in 1942, it triggered concerns in the British-Indian army of further defection by Indian troops. This led to a reporting ban and a successful propaganda campaign to preserve the loyalty of the Sepoy. However, in military strategy and effectiveness, the influence of the INA on the war is considered inconsequential by historians. The end of the war saw a large number of the troops repatriated to India where some faced trials for treason. These trials became a galvanising point of the Indian Independence movement. The Bombay mutiny in the Royal Indian Navy along with other mutinies in 1946 have been credited to the nationalistic influence from the fallout of the INA trials. Historians point out these events played a crucial role in hastening the end of British rule. A number of people associated with the INA during the war later went on to hold important roles in public life in India as well as other countries in South-east Asia, most notably Lakshmi Sehgal in India, and John Thivy and Janaki Athinahappan in Malayasia. The legacy of the INA is controversial. It was associated with Imperial Japan and the other Axis powers. Japanese occupations in Burma, in Indonesia and other parts of South-East Asia were harsh, and accusations were levelled against INA-troops of being involved and complicit in Japanese war crimes. The INA's members were viewed as Axis collaborators by British soldiers. Indians after the war viewed INA-soldiers as patriots. Another different controversy relates to the conduct of independent India towards INA recruits. Widely commemorated and indulged by the Indian National Congress in the immediate aftermath of Indian independence, members of the INA were denied the status of Freedom fighter by the Government of India, which those in the Gandhian movement received. However, the army remains a popular and emotive topic in popular Indian culture as well as politics.

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Indian National Army trials

The Indian National Army trials (INA trials), or the Red Fort trials, were the British Indian trial by courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) between November 1945 and May 1946, for charges variously for treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder during Word War II.

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Propaganda

Propaganda is a form of communication aimed towards influencing the attitude of a population toward some cause or position.

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Publicity

Publicity is the movement of information with the effect of increasing public awareness of a subject.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, England, United Kingdom and a division of Thomson Reuters.

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Subhas Chandra Bose

Subhas Chandra Bose (23 January 1897 – 18 August 1945), widely known throughout India as Netaji (Hindustani: "Respected Leader"), was an Indian nationalist and prominent figure of the Indian independence movement, whose attempt during World War II to rid India of British rule with the help of Nazi Germany and Japan left a troubled legacy.

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Yangon

Yangon (ရန်ကုန်, MLCTS rankun mrui,; also known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") is a former capital of Myanmar (Burma) and the capital of Yangon Region.

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Redirects here:

S A Ayer, S. A, Ayer, Subbier Appadurai Ayer.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S._A._Ayer

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