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# Sample (statistics)

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure. [1]

## Accidental sampling

Accidental sampling (sometimes known as grab, convenience sampling or opportunity sampling) is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population that is close to hand.

## Census

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.

## Cluster sampling

Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" but relatively homogeneous groupings are evident in a statistical population.

## Data

Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information.

## Enumeration

An enumeration is a complete, ordered listing of all the items in a collection.

## Estimation theory

Estimation theory is a branch of statistics that deals with estimating the values of parameters based on measured/empirical data that has a random component.

## Extrapolation

In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

## Independence (probability theory)

In probability theory, two events are independent, statistically independent, or stochastically independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of the other.

## Independent and identically distributed random variables

In probability theory and statistics, a sequence or other collection of random variables is independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) if each random variable has the same probability distribution as the others and all are mutually independent.

## Inference

Inference is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.

## Judgment sample

Judgment sample is a type of nonrandom sample that is selected based on the opinion of an expert.

## Lecture Notes in Computer Science

Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS) is a series of computer science books published by Springer Science+Business Media (formerly Springer-Verlag) since 1973.

## Nonprobability sampling

Sampling is the use of a subset of the population to represent the whole population or to inform about (social) processes that are meaningful beyond the particular cases, individuals or sites studied.

## Probability distribution

In probability and statistics, a probability distribution assigns a probability to each measurable subset of the possible outcomes of a random experiment, survey, or procedure of statistical inference.

## Quantitative research

In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

## Quasi-Monte Carlo method

In numerical analysis, quasi-Monte Carlo method is a method for numerical integration and solving some other problems using low-discrepancy sequences (also called quasi-random sequences or sub-random sequences).

## Quota sampling

Quota sampling is a method for selecting survey participants that is a non-probabilistic version of stratified sampling.

## Random variable

In probability and statistics, a random variable, aleatory variable or stochastic variable is a variable whose value is subject to variations due to chance (i.e. randomness, in a mathematical sense).

## Random variate

In the mathematical fields of probability and statistics, a random variate is a particular outcome of a random variable: the random variates which are other outcomes of the same random variable might have different values.

## Replication (statistics)

In engineering, science, and statistics, replication is the repetition of an experimental condition so that the variability associated with the phenomenon can be estimated.

## Sample (statistics)

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure.

## Sample mean and sample covariance

The sample mean or empirical mean and the sample covariance are statistics computed from a collection of data on one or more random variables.

## Sample size determination

Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample.

## Sampling (statistics)

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.

## Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.

## Samuel S. Wilks

Samuel Stanley Wilks (June 17, 1906 – March 7, 1964) was an American mathematician and academic who played an important role in the development of mathematical statistics, especially in regard to practical applications.

## Simple random sample

In statistics, a simple random sample is a subset of individuals (a sample) chosen from a larger set (a population).

## Snowball sampling

In sociology and statistics research, snowball sampling (or chain sampling, chain-referral sampling, referral sampling) is a non-probability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.

## Statistic

A statistic (singular) is a single measure of some attribute of a sample (e.g., its arithmetic mean value).

## Statistical population

In statistics, a population is a complete set of items that share at least one property in common that is the subject of a statistical analysis.

## Statistics

Statistics is the study of the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

## Stratified sampling

In statistics, stratified sampling is a method of sampling from a population.

## Subset

In mathematics, especially in set theory, a set A is a subset of a set B, or equivalently B is a superset of A, if A is "contained" inside B, that is, all elements of A are also elements of B. A and B may coincide.

## Survey sampling

In statistics, survey sampling describes the process of selecting a sample of elements from a target population to conduct a survey.

## Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is a statistical method involving the selection of elements from an ordered sampling frame.

## William Gemmell Cochran

William Gemmell Cochran (15 July 1909, Rutherglen – 29 March 1980, Orleans, Massachusetts) was a prominent statistician; he was born in Scotland but spent most of his life in the United States.

## References

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