361 relations: Aérospatiale SA 321 Super Frelon, Abba Eban, Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Abdul Rahman Arif, Abu Tor, Abu-Ageila, Afula, Air supremacy, Ajloun, AK-47, Al-Aqsa Mosque, Albert Mandler, Alea iacta est, Alexandria, American Colony, Jerusalem, American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise, Amman, Amos Oz, AMX-13, An-Nekhel Fortress, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-runway penetration bomb, Antonov An-12, Anwar Sadat, Arab Legion, Arab–Israeli conflict, Arabic, Ariel Sharon, Arish, Armoured fighting vehicle, Armoured personnel carrier, Artillery, As-Samu, Asad Ghanma, Avraham Sela, Avraham Yoffe, B-10 recoilless rifle, B-11 recoilless rifle, Baghdad, Bangalore torpedo, Battalion, Battle of Ammunition Hill, Benny Morris, Berghahn Books, Bethlehem, Bethoron, BM-21 Grad, Bofors 40 mm gun, Brigade, ..., BTR-152, BTR-40, BTR-50, BTR-60, Cabinet of Israel, Cairo, Camp David Accords, Cave of the Patriarchs, Ceasefire, Centurion tank, Chaim Herzog, Cheryl Rubenberg, Chief of Naval Operations, Civil defense siren, Cobra (missile), Collective security, Combat Engineering Corps, Combined Arms Research Library, Conspiracy theories in the Arab world, Damascus, Dan (ancient city), Dan, Israel, Danny Matt, Dassault Mirage III, Dassault Mystère IV, Dassault Ouragan, Dassault Super Mystère, David Ben-Gurion, David Elazar, David Rubinger, Dean Rusk, Derek Hopwood, Division (military), DShK, East Jerusalem, Egypt, Egyptian Air Force, Eitan Haber, El-Qantarah el-Sharqiyya, Elad Peled, Eli Cohen, Encyclopædia Britannica, Etzioni Brigade, Ezer Weizman, Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Fedayeen, Flag of Syria, FN FAL, FN MAG, Fog of war, Foreign relations of Mauritania, Fouga CM.170 Magister, France, French Hill, Friendly fire, Frogman, Galilee, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gary A. 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Johnson, M113 armored personnel carrier, M2 Browning, M2 Half Track Car, M3 Half-track, M4 Sherman, M40 recoilless rifle, M47 Patton, M48 Patton, Maginot Line, Mahmoud Riad, Mandelbaum Gate, Martin van Creveld, Mechanized infantry, Mediterranean Sea, Medium bomber, Menachem Begin, Michael Oren, Middle East, Middle East Policy, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mil Mi-4, Mil Mi-6, MIM-23 Hawk, Minesweeper, Missile boat, Mitla Pass, Mobilization, Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy, Mohamed Hassanein Heikal, Mordechai Gur, Mordechai Hod, Moshe Dayan, Mossad, Mount Scopus, Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Nablus, Nadav Safran, Nahal Oz, Napalm, National unity government, Negative (photography), Negev Nuclear Research Center, Nekhel, Netanya, New Historians, Nirim, Nord Noratlas, North Yemen Civil War, Nureddin al-Atassi, Obusier de 155 mm Modèle 50, Odd Bull, Old City (Jerusalem), Operation Focus, Origins of the Six-Day War, Pakistan Air Force, Palestine Liberation Organization, Palestinians, Panhard AML, Panzer IV, Paratrooper, Paul Schutzer, Phillip Adams, Pincer movement, Port Said, Preemptive war, PT-76, Purple Line (ceasefire line), Quneitra, Rachel's Tomb, Radar, Radio National, Rafael Eitan, Rafah, Ramallah, Ramat David Airbase, Ramat Rachel, Ramla, Ras Sedr, Reconnaissance, Red Sea, RL-83 Blindicide, Robert McNamara, Rockefeller Museum, Royal Jordanian Air Force, Royal Jordanian Army, Royal Ordnance L7, RPD machine gun, RPK, S-75 Dvina, Saiful Azam, Salah Jadid, Samu Incident, Samuel Segev, Satchel, Saudi Arabia, Sea of Galilee, Sharm el-Sheikh, Shayetet 13, She'ar Yashuv, Sheikh Zuweid, Shlomo Arel, Shmuel Gonen, Shuafat, Signals intelligence, Sikorsky H-34, Sinai Peninsula, Six Days of War, Sortie, Soviet Union, SS.10, Steven Pressfield, Strafing, Straits of Tiran, Strategic depth, SU-100, Sud Aviation Vautour, Suez Canal, Suez Crisis, Sukhoi Su-7, Super Sherman, Surface-to-surface missile, Syria, Syrian Arab Air Force, Syrian Navy, Syrian towns and villages depopulated in the Arab–Israeli conflict, T-34, T-54/55, Tank, Tank destroyer, Tel Aviv, Temple Mount, Territorial waters, The Age, The New York Times, The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, The Washington Post, Thomas Hinman Moorer, Time (magazine), Tripoli, Tupolev Tu-16, U Thant, United Arab Republic, United Nations Emergency Force, United Nations Security Council, United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, United States Army Combined Arms Center, United States Department of State, United States Navy, United States Secretary of State, Universal Newsreel, USS Liberty (AGTR-5), USS Liberty incident, Uzi, Uzi Narkiss, Waqf, Warsaw, West Bank, Western Wall, Yekutiel Adam, Yigal Allon, Yitzhak Rabin, Yom Kippur War, Yossi Peled, Zaid ibn Shaker, Ze'ev Schiff, ZSU-57-2, 122 mm howitzer 2A18 (D-30), 130 mm towed field gun M1954 (M-46), 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20), 155 mm Long Tom, 1929 Hebron massacre, 1948 Arab–Israeli War, 1949 Armistice Agreements, 1968 Polish political crisis, 7th Armored Brigade (Israel), 8th Armored Brigade (Israel). 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The Aérospatiale (formerly Sud Aviation) SA 321 Super Frelon (Super Frelon – "Super Hornet") is a three-engined heavy transport helicopter produced by Sud Aviation (later Aérospatiale) of France.
Abba Eban (אבא אבן; born Aubrey Solomon Meir Eban; later adopted Abba Solomon Meir Eban; 2 February 1915 – 17 November 2002) was an Israeli diplomat and politician, and a scholar of the Arabic and Hebrew languages.
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Mohamed Abdel Hakim Amer (محمد عبد الحكيم عامر,; 11 December 1919 – 14 September 1967) was an Egyptian general and political leader.
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Abdul Munim Riad (1919–1969) (عبد المنعم رياض) was a general and chief of staff of the Egyptian Armed Forces.
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Hajj Abdul Rahman Mohammed Arif Aljumaily (Arabic عبد الرحمن محمد عارف الجميلي; April 14, 1916August 24, 2007) was the third President of Iraq, a position he held from April 16, 1966 to July 17, 1968.
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Abu Tor (أبو طور or الثوري, אבו תור) (lit. "Father of the Bull") is a mixed Jewish and Arab neighborhood in Jerusalem, south of the Old City.
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Abu-Ageila is a strategically important road junction and dam in the north of the Sinai peninsula, approximately 45 km southeast of El Arish.
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Afula (עֲפוּלָה) is a city in the North District of Israel, often known as the "Capital of the Valley" due to its strategic location in the Jezreel Valley.
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Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.
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Ajloun(عجلون, ‘Ajlūn), also spelled Ajlun, is the capital town of the Ajloun Governorate, a hilly town in the north of Jordan, located 76 kilometers (around 47 miles) north west of Amman.
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The AK-47 (also known as Kalashnikov, AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash) is a selective-fire (semi-automatic and automatic), gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
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Al-Aqsa Mosque (المسجد الاقصى al-Masjid al-Aqṣā,, “the Farthest Mosque”), also known as Al-Aqsa and Bayt al-Muqaddas, is the third holiest site in Islam and is located in the Old City of Jerusalem.
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Avraham Albert Mandler (אברהם מנדלר; 3 May 1929 Linz, Austria – 13 October 1973, Sinai, Egypt) was an Israeli major general.
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Alea iacta est ("The die is cast") is a Latin phrase attributed by Suetonius (as iacta alea est) to Julius Caesar on January 10, 49 BC as he led his army across the River Rubicon in Northern Italy.
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Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
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The American Colony was a colony established in Jerusalem in 1881 by members of a Christian utopian society led by Anna and Horatio Spafford.
The American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE) is a non-profit 501(c)(3) U.S. based organization established in 1993 "to strengthen the U.S.-Israel relationship." AICE Executive Director is foreign policy analyst Mitchell G. Bard, a former editor of the Near East Report, a newsletter published by the American Israel Public Affairs Committee, and the author of many books.
Amman (عمّان), is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, with an estimated population of 4,000,000 and a land area of.
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Amos Oz (עמוס עוז; born May 4, 1939, birth name Amos Klausner) is an Israeli writer, novelist, journalist and intellectual.
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The AMX-13 is a French light tank produced from 1953 to 1985.
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The Fortress of an-Nekhel is a Ksar (castle) located in the Nekhel Municipality of the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
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Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-runway penetration bombs are systems involving bombs or bomblets which are designed to disrupt the surface of an airfield runway and make it unusable for flight operations.
The Antonov An-12 (NATO reporting name: Cub) is a four-engined turboprop transport aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
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Muhammad Anwar El Sadat (محمد أنور السادات; 25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981.
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The Arab Legion was the regular army of Transjordan and then Jordan in the early part of the 20th century.
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The Arab–Israeli conflict (الصراع العربي الإسرائيلي Al-Sira'a Al'Arabi A'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-ערבי Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) refers to the political tension and military conflicts between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Ariel Sharon (אריאל שרון;,, also known by his diminutive Arik, אַריק, born Ariel Scheinermann, אריאל שיינרמן‎; February 26, 1928 – January 11, 2014) was an Israeli politician and general who served as the 11th Prime Minister of Israel until he was incapacitated by a stroke.
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Arish or Al-Arīsh (العريش) is the capital and largest city (with 114,900 inhabitants) of the Egyptian governorate of North Sinai, as well as the largest city on the entire Sinai Peninsula, lying on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula, northeast of Cairo.
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An armoured (or armored) fighting vehicle (AFV) is a combat vehicle, protected by strong armour and generally armed with weapons, which combines operational mobility, tactical offensive, and defensive capabilities.
An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
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As Samu' or es-Samu' (السموع) is a town in the Hebron Governorate of the West Bank, Palestinian territories, 12 kilometers south of the city of Hebron and 60 kilometers southwest of Jerusalem.
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Asad Ghanma (14 February 1930 - 18 July 2006) (أسعد غنما) was a Jordanian Orthodox Christian general.
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Avraham Sela is a scholar on the Middle East and international relations, currently the A. Ephraim and Shirley Diamond Professor of International Relations and a senior research fellow at the Harry S. Truman Institute, both at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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Avraham Yoffe (אברהם יפה, born 25 October 1913, died 11 April 1983) was an Israeli general during the Six-Day War.
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The B-10 recoilless rifle (Bezotkatnojie orudie-10, known as the RG82 in East Germany) is a Soviet 82 mm smoothbore recoilless rifle.
The B-11 recoilless rifle (It is also known as RG107) is a Soviet 107 mm smoothbore recoilless rifle.
Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.
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A Bangalore torpedo is an explosive charge placed within one or several connected tubes.
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A battalion is a military unit.
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Ammunition Hill (גבעת התחמושת, Giv'at HaTahmoshet) was a fortified Jordanian military post in the northern part of Jordanian-occupied East Jerusalem and a the western slope of Mount Scopus.
Benny Morris (בני מוריס; born 8 December 1948) is an Israeli historian.
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Berghahn Books is a publisher of scholarly books and academic journals in the humanities and social sciences, with a special focus on social & cultural anthropology, European history, politics, and film & media studies.
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Bethlehem (بيت لحم "House of Meat", בֵּית לֶחֶם, Modern:, lit. "House of Bread") is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem.
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Bethoron (also Beth-Horon) (House of Horon) was an ancient biblical town strategically located on the Gibeon-Aijalon road, guarding the "ascent of Beth-Horon." Upper Bethoron appears in Joshua and Lower Bethoron in.
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The BM-21 launch vehicle (БМ-21 "Град"), (Grad) a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher, and a M-21OF rocket were developed in the early 1960s.
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--> The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.
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A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
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The BTR-152 (also known as BTR-140) was a non-amphibious Soviet wheeled armored personnel carrier (БТР, from Бронетранспортер/Bronetransporter, literally "armoured transporter")) that entered Soviet service in 1950. By the early 1970s, it had been replaced in the infantry vehicle role by the BTR-60. However, it remained in service in the Soviet Army and the Russian Army until 1993 in a variety of other roles. It was also exported to many Third World countries.
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The BTR-40 (БТР, from Бронетранспортер, or Bronetransporter, literally "armoured transporter".) is a Soviet non-amphibious, wheeled armoured personnel carrier and reconnaissance vehicle.
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The BTR-50 (BTR stands for Bronetransporter (БТР, Бронетранспортер, literally "armored transporter") is a Soviet amphibious armored personnel carrier (APC) based on the PT-76 light tank. The BTR-50 is tracked, unlike most in the BTR series, which are wheeled. The BTR-50 shares many similarities with two other APCs, the OT-62 TOPAS and the Type 77. While the OT-62 is an improved copy of the BTR-50 developed jointly by Czechoslovakia and Poland, the Type 77, based on the Type 63 amphibious light tank developed by the People's Republic of China (PRC), is not a copy of the BTR-50.
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The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers (APCs).
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The Cabinet of Israel (officially: ממשלת ישראל Memshelet Yisrael, Government of Israel) is a formal body composed of government officials called ministers, chosen and led by the Prime Minister.
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Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
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The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David.
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The Cave of the Patriarchs, also called the Cave of Machpelah (Hebrew: מערת המכפלה,, trans. "cave of the double tombs") and known by Muslims as the Sanctuary of Abraham or the Ibrahimi Mosque (الحرم الإبراهيمي), is a series of subterranean chambers located in the heart of the old city of Hebron (Al-Khalil) in the Hebron Hills.
A ceasefire (or truce) is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
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The Centurion, introduced in 1945, was the primary British main battle tank of the post-World War II period.
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Major-General Chaim Herzog (חיים הרצוג; 17 September 1918 – 17 April 1997) was an Israeli politician, general, lawyer and author who served as the sixth President of Israel between 1983 and 1993.
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Cheryl A. Rubenberg (born January 3, 1946) is a writer and researcher specializing in the Middle East, formerly an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at Florida International University.
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The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is a statutory office held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior naval officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy.
A civil defense siren (also colloquially referred to as an air-raid siren or tornado siren) is a siren used to provide emergency population warning of approaching danger and sometimes to indicate when the danger has passed.
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The Cobra was a Swiss/German anti-tank missile designed by the Oerlikon-Contraves and Bölkow GmbH companies.
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Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.
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The Israeli Combat Engineering Corps (חיל ההנדסה הקרבית, Heil HaHandasa HaKravit) is the combat engineering forces of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Combined Arms Research Library (CARL) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas is a United States Army library which supports the United States Army Command and General Staff College.
Conspiracy theories are a prevalent feature of Arab culture and politics.
Damascus (دمشق) is the capital and the second-largest city of Syria after Aleppo.
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Dan (דן), is a city mentioned in the Bible, described as the northernmost city of the Kingdom of Israel, belonging to the Tribe of Dan.
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Dan (דָּן) is a kibbutz in the northern part of the Hula Valley, at the foot of Mt. Hermon, in the Upper Galilee, Israel.
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Danny Matt (דני מט, December 10, 1927 – December 5, 2013) was a decorated career Israeli military officer who served in the Israel Defense Forces from 1948 until 1992.
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The Dassault Mirage III is a family of single-seat, single-engine, fighter aircraft produced by Dassault Aviation for the French Air Force and widely exported.
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The Dassault MD.454 Mystère IV was a 1950s French fighter-bomber aircraft, the first transonic aircraft to enter service with the French Air Force.
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The Dassault M.D.450 Ouragan (Hurricane) was the first French-designed jet fighter-bomber to enter production, playing a key role in resurgence of the French aviation industry after World War II.
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The Dassault Super Mystère was a French fighter-bomber and was the first Western European supersonic aircraft to enter mass production.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886, Płońsk – 1 December 1973, Tel Aviv, Israel) was the primary founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
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David "Dado" Elazar (27 August 1925 – 15 April 1976) was the ninth Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), serving in that capacity from 1972 to 1974.
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David Rubinger (Hebrew: דוד רובינגר) (born 1924) is an Israeli photographer.
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David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson.
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Derek Hopwood OBE is an Emeritus Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and University Reader in Modern Middle Eastern Studies.
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A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
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The DShK 1938 (ДШК, for Дегтярёва-Шпагина Крупнокалиберный, Degtyaryova-Shpagina Krupnokaliberny, 'Degtyaryov-Shpagin Large-Calibre') is a Soviet heavy machine gun firing the 12.7×108mm cartridge.
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East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was not part of Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–1949 Arab–Israeli War.
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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia, via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
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The Egyptian Air Force (EAF) (القوات الجوية المصرية), is the aviation branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces.
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Eitan Haber (איתן הבר, born 12 March 1940) is an Israeli journalist and publicist.
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Al Qantarah El Sharqiyya (30.85° N 32.31° E) is a northeastern Egyptian city on the eastern side of the Suez Canal located in the Egyptian governorate of Ismailia, northeast of Cairo and south of Port Said.
Elad Peled (born 1927) is a former Israeli general.
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Eliahu (Eli) ben Shaoul Cohen (אֱלִיָּהוּ בֵּן שָׁאוּל כֹּהֵן‎, ايلي كوهين‎; 26 December 1924 – 18 May 1965) was an Israeli spy.
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Etzioni Brigade (חֲטִיבַת עֶצְיוֹנִי, Hativat Etzyoni), also 6th Brigade and Jerusalem Brigade, was an infantry brigade in the Haganah and Israel Defense Forces in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
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Ezer Weizman (עזר ויצמן; 15 June 1924 – 24 April 2005) was the seventh President of Israel, first elected in 1993 and re-elected in 1998.
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Sheikh Fahad Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (10 August 1945 – 2 August 1990) (الشيخ الشهيد فهد الأحمد الجابر الصباح.) was a member of the House of Sabah and a Kuwaiti military officer who was also the founder of the Kuwait Olympic Committee.
Fedayeen (فِدائيّين fidāʼīyīn, "those who sacrifice themselves") is a term used to refer to various military groups.
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As a result of the ongoing Syrian civil war, there are currently two governments claiming to be the de jure government of Syria, using different flags to represent the state.
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The Fusil Automatique Léger ("Light Automatic Rifle") or FAL is a semi-automatic/selective fire battle rifle produced by the Belgian armaments manufacturer Fabrique Nationale de Herstal (FN).
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The FN MAG is a Belgian 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, designed in the early 1950s at Fabrique Nationale (FN) by Ernest Vervier.
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The fog of war (Nebel des Krieges) is the uncertainty in situational awareness experienced by participants in military operations.
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The foreign relations of The Islamic Republic of Mauritania have been dominated since independence by the issues of the Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara or Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) as well as recognition of its independence by its neighbours, particularly Morocco.
The Fouga CM.170 Magister is a 1950s French two-seat jet trainer.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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French Hill (הגבעה הצרפתית, HaGiv'a HaTzarfatit, التلة الفرنسية, at-tel al-faransiya), also Giv'at Shapira (גִּבְעַת שַׁפִּירָא) is a neighborhood and Israeli settlement in northern East Jerusalem.
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Friendly fire is an attack by a military force on friendly forces while attempting to attack the enemy, either by misidentifying the target as hostile, or due to errors or inaccuracy.
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A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes combat.
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Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil; الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel which overlaps with much of the administrative Northern District and Haifa District of the country.
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Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death.
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Gary A. Olson (born December 12, 1954) is a scholar of rhetoric and culture, a literary biographer, and President of Daemen College.
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Gaza (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), ISBN 0-19-861263-X, p. 761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory in Palestine, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". غزة,; עזה), also referred to as Gaza City, is a Palestinian city in the Gaza Strip, with a population of 515,556, making it the largest city in the State of Palestine.
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The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X - p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...".), or simply Gaza, is a pene-exclave region of Palestine on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
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George Lenczowski (pol. Jerzy Lenczowski; February 2, 1915 - February 19, 2000) was a lawyer, diplomat, scholar, and Professor of Political Science, Emeritus, at the University of California, Berkeley.
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Gidi Pass (ممر جدي) is a strategically important pass in the Sinai.
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Giv'at Ha'Em (גבעת האם) is a hill named for Henrietta Szold, known as the mother (em, אם) of Youth Aliya.
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The Israeli GOC Army headquarters (זְרוֹעַ הַיַבָּשָׁה, Zro'a ha-Yabasha, "Ground Arm"), known unofficially as MAZI, is a multi-corps command headquarters created in 1998, which amalgamates the ground forces of the Israel Defense Forces.
The Golan Heights (هضبة الجولان or مرتفعات الجولان, רמת הגולן), or simply the Golan or the Syrian Golan, is a region in the Levant.
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The Golani Brigade (חֲטִיבַת גּוֹלָנִי, also known as the 1st Brigade) is an Israeli regular service infantry brigade that is subordinated to the 36th Division and traditionally associated with the Northern Command.
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Gush Etzion (גּוּשׁ עֶצְיוֹן, Etzion Bloc) is a cluster of Jewish communities located in the Judaean Mountains directly south of Jerusalem and Bethlehem in the Judean Hills.
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Guy Arnold (born 1932) is a British author based in Marylebone, London, and a specialist in north-south relations who writes mainly in the areas of African history and politics, and international affairs.
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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News the Land ") is Israel's oldest daily newspaper.
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Hadassah Medical Center (מרכז רפואי הדסה) is a medical organization that operates two university hospitals at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus in Jerusalem, Israel, as well as schools of medicine, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacology affiliated with the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Hafez al-Assad (حافظ الأسد, Levantine pronunciation:; 6 October 1930 – 10 June 2000) was a Syrian statesman, politician and general who was President of Syria from 1971 to 2000, Prime Minister from 1970 to 1971, Regional Secretary of the Regional Command of the Syrian Regional Branch and Secretary General of the National Command of the Ba'ath Party from 1971 to 2000.
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Hans Tabor (April 25, 1922 – November 19, 2003) was a Danish diplomat and politician representing the Social Democratic Party.
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Har Adar (הַר אֲדָר) is an Israeli settlement and local council in the Seam Zone and the Maccabim sub-region of the West Bank.
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A hardened aircraft shelters (HAS) or protective aircraft shelter (PAS) is a reinforced hangar to house and protect military aircraft from enemy attack.
Harel Brigade (Hativat Harel) is a reserve brigade of the Israel Defense Forces, today part of the Northern Command.
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Hatzor (חָצוֹר), officially Hatzor Ashdod to distinguish it from Hatzor HaGlilit, is a kibbutz in southern Israel.
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The Hawker Hunter is a transonic British jet aircraft developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
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Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.
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The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, ha-Universita ha-Ivrit B'irushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, al-Ǧāmiʻah al-ʻIbriyyah fil-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university established in 1918, 30 years before the State of Israel.
Hebron (Arabic: الخليل;, Standard Hebrew:; ISO 259-3) is a Palestinian.
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On 1 January 1956 Anglo-Egyptian Sudan become the independent Republic of the Sudan.
The Hula Valley (עמק החולה, translit. Emek HaHula; also transliterated as Huleh Valley) is an agricultural region in northern Israel with abundant fresh water.
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Hussein bin Talal (حسين بن طلال,; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) was King of Jordan from the abdication of his father, King Talal, in 1952, until his death.
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The Ilyushin Il-14 (NATO reporting name: Crate) was a Soviet twin-engine commercial and military personnel and cargo transport aircraft that first flew in 1950, and entered service in 1954.
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The Ilyushin Il-18 (NATO reporting name: Coot) is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era.
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The Ilyushin Il-28 (Илью́шин Ил-28 NATO reporting name: Beagle) is a jet bomber of the immediate postwar period that was originally manufactured for the Soviet Air Forces.
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An infantry fighting vehicle (IFV), or mechanized infantry combat vehicle (MICV), is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to carry infantry into battle and provide direct fire support.
The Institute of National Remembrance – Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej – Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu; IPN) is a Polish government-affiliated research institute with lustration prerogatives and prosecution powers founded by specific legislation.
The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) (Arabic: القوة الجوية العراقية; Al Quwwa al Jawwiya al Iraqiya) is the aerial warfare service branch of the Iraqi Armed Forces, responsible for the policing of international borders and surveillance of national assets.
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The Iraqi Republic (الجمهورية العراقية) was a state forged in 1958 under the rule of President Muhammad Najib ar-Ruba'i and Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim.
Al-Issawiya (العيساوية) is an urban, Arab neighborhood in Jerusalem.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Israel Tal (ישראל טל, September 13, 1924, – September 8, 2010 also known as Talik (Hebrew: טליק), was an Israel Defense Forces (IDF) general known for his knowledge of tank warfare and for leading the development of Israel's Merkava tank.
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The Israeli Air Force (IAF;, Zroa HaAvir VeHahalal, "Air and Space Arm", commonly known as, Kheil HaAvir, "Air Corps") operates as the aerial warfare branch of the Israel Defense Forces.
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The Israeli disengagement from Gaza (תָּכְנִית הַהִתְנַתְּקוּת,; in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as "Gaza expulsion" and "Hitnatkut", was the withdrawal of the Israeli army from Gaza, and the dismantling of all Israeli settlements in the Gaza Strip in 2005.
Israeli MIA are members of the Israel Defense Forces who are missing in action.
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The Israeli Navy (חיל הים הישראלי, Ḥeil HaYam HaYisraeli (English: Sea Corps); البحرية الإسرائيلية) is the naval warfare service arm of the Israel Defense Forces, operating primarily in the Mediterranean Sea theater as well as the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea theater.
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Israeli settlements are Israeli civilian communities built on lands occupied by Israel since the 1967 Six-Day War.
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The Israeli-occupied territories are the territories still occupied by Israel following the Six-Day War of 1967.
The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (النزاع الفلسطيني - الإسرائيلي al-Niza'a al'Filastini al 'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-פלסטיני Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
ISU-152 was a Soviet multirole fully enclosed and armored assault gun or armored self-propelled gun, also capable of serving as a heavy tank destroyer developed and used during World War II, with a subsequent use, mainly in the Soviet military, until the 1970s.
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Jabel Mukaber (جبل مكبر) (ג'בל מוכאבר) is a predominantly Arab neighborhood in southern East Jerusalem.
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Jenin (جنين) is a Palestinian city in the northern West Bank.
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Jericho (أريحا; יריחו) is a city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfoot'za, תפוצה) or Exile (Hebrew: Galut, גלות; Yiddish: Golus) refers to the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites, and later Jews out of what is considered their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and the communities built by them across the world.
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The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (مرج إبن عامر "Marj Ibn Amer") is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
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John B. Quigley is a professor of law at the Moritz College of Law at the Ohio State University, where he is the Presidents' Club Professor of Law.
Jordan (الأردن), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
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The Jordan River (in traditional English River Jordan) (נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן nehar hayarden; نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ nahr al-urdun) is a -long river in West Asia flowing to the Dead Sea.
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The Jordan Valley (עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, Emek Hayarden; الغور, Al-Ghor or Al-Ghawr) forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley.
The Jordanian Armed Forces (القوات المسلحة الأردنية), also referred to as the Arab Army (الجيش العربي), with all of its branches, is under direct control of the King of Jordan who is the Commander-in-Chief.
Jordanian occupation of the West Bank refers to the occupation and annexation of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) by Jordan (formerly Transjordan), during a period of nearly two decades (1948–1967) in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Joseph's Tomb (קבר יוסף, Qever Yosef, قبر يوسف, Qabr Yūsuf) is a funerary monument located at the eastern entrance to the valley that separates Mounts Gerizim and Ebal, 325 yards northwest of Jacob's Well, on the outskirts of the West Bank city of Nablus, near Tell Balāṭa, the site of biblical Shechem.
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Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda Tiberian, Ἰουδαία, Ioudaía; IVDÆA, يهودية, Yahudia) is the biblical, Roman, and modern name of the mountainous southern part of Palestine.
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Kfar Saba (כְּפַר סָבָא, lit. "Grandfather's Village"), officially Kfar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Center District of Israel.
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Kfar Sirkin or Kefar Syrkin (כְּפַר סִירְקִין) is a moshav in Israel within the municipal jurisdiction of the Drom HaSharon Regional Council near the city of Petah Tikva.
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Khan Yunis (خان يونس, also spelled Khan Younis or Khan Yunus; translation: Caravanserai Yunis) is a city in the southern Gaza Strip.
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The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of 1967 Arab League summit convened in the wake of the Six-Day War, in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.
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A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; plural kibbutzim) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
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The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris of Libya and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
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Kissufim (כִּסּוּפִים, lit. Yearning) is a community in the northwestern Negev desert in Israel.
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The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. the gathering or assembly; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
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Land for peace is an interpretation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 which has formed the basis of subsequent Arab-Israeli peace making.
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Latrun (לטרון, Latrun; اللطرون, al-Latrun) is located at a strategic hilltop in the Latrun salient in the Ayalon Valley.
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Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
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Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.
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(לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל; born Levi Shkolnik ((לֵוִי שׁקוֹלנִיק) October 25, 1895 – February 26, 1969) served as the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death from a heart attack in 1969.
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This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–1963).
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The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier that was developed by Food Machinery Corp (FMC).
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed towards the end of World War I by John Browning.
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The M2 Half Track Car was a half-track armored vehicle produced by the United States during World War II.
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The Carrier, Personnel Half-track M3, also known as the M3 Half-track, was an American armored personnel carrier widely used by the Allies during World War II and in the Cold War.
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The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most numerous battle tank used by the United States and some other Western Allies in World War II.
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The M40 recoilless rifle is a lightweight, portable, crew-served 106 mm weapon intended primarily as an anti-tank weapon made in the United States.
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The M47 Patton is an American tank, the second tank to be named after General George S. Patton, commander of the U.S. Third Army during World War II and one of the earliest American advocates of tanks in battle.
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The M48 Patton is a main battle tank that was designed in the United States.
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The Maginot Line (Ligne Maginot), named after the French Minister of War André Maginot, was a line of concrete fortifications, obstacles, and weapons installations that France constructed just before the border with Switzerland and the borders with Germany and Luxembourg during the 1930s.
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Mahmoud Riad (محمود رياض) (January 8, 1917 – January 25, 1992) was an Egyptian diplomat.
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Mandelbaum Gate is a former checkpoint between Israeli and Jordanian sectors of Jerusalem, just north of the western edge of the Old City along the Green Line.
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Martin Levi van Creveld (born 5 March 1946) is an Israeli military historian and theorist.
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Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs) or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force).
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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A medium bomber is military bomber aircraft designed to operate with medium-sized bombloads over medium range distances; the name serves to distinguish this type from larger heavy bombers and smaller light bombers.
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Menachem Begin (Menakhem Vol'fovich Begin; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of the State of Israel.
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Michael B. Oren (Hebrew: מיכאל אורן; born Michael Scott Bornstein; May 20, 1955) is an American-born Israeli historian, author, politician, former ambassador to the United States (2009-2013), and current member of the Knesset for the Kulanu party.
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The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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Middle East Policy is an academic peer-reviewed journal on the Middle East region in the field of foreign policy founded in 1982, published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Middle East Policy Council.
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Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA) is a quarterly journal on Middle East issues edited by Barry Rubin and published by the Global Research in International Affairs Center (GLORIA) of the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel, which he also owns and directs.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-15; NATO reporting name: "Fagot") is a jet fighter aircraft developed by Mikoyan-Gurevich OKB for the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-17 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-17) (NATO reporting name: Fresco) (China:Shenyang J-5) (Poland: PZL-Mielec Lim-5) is a high-subsonic fighter aircraft produced in the USSR from 1952 and operated by numerous air forces in many variants.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-19 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-19) (NATO reporting name: "Farmer") is a Soviet second-generation, single-seat, twin jet-engined fighter aircraft.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
The Mil Mi-4 (USAF/DoD reporting name "Type 36", NATO reporting name "Hound").
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The Mil Mi-6 (NATO reporting name Hook), given the article number izdeliye 50 and company designation V-6, was a Soviet/Russian heavy transport helicopter that was designed by the Mil design bureau.
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The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk (Homing All the Way Killer) is a U.S. medium-range surface-to-air missile.
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A minesweeper is a small naval warship designed to engage in minesweeping.
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A missile boat or missile cutter is a small warship armed with anti-ship missiles.
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The Mitla Pass (ممر متلة, מיתלה) is a 32 km-long snaky pass in the Sinai of Egypt, wedged between mountain ranges to the north and south, located about 50 km east of Suez.
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Mobilization is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.
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Mohamed Abdel Ghani el-Gamasy (Arabic: محمد عبد الغني الجمسي, 9 September 1921 – 7 June 2003) was an Egyptian Field Marshal (Mushir) and The Commander in Chief of The Armed Forces.
Mohamed Hassanein Heikal (محمد حسنين هيكل, born 23 September 1923) is an Egyptian journalist.
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Aluf (Maj. Gen.) Mordechai "Mottie" Hod (Hebrew: מרדכי הוד; 28 September 1926 – 29 June 2003) was the Commander of the Israeli Air Force during the 1967 Six-Day War.
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Moshe Dayan (משה דיין; 20 May 1915 – 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician.
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Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"; الموساد للاستخبارات والمهام الخاصة), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
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Mount Scopus (Hebrew הַר הַצּוֹפִים Har HaTsofim, "Mount of the Watchmen/Sentinels"; جبل المشارف, lit. "Mount Lookout", or جبل المشهد "Mount of the Scene/Burial Site", or جبل الصوانة "Mount al-Swana") is a mountain (elevation: 2710 feet or 826 meters above sea level) in northeast Jerusalem.
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Sheikh Mubarak Abdullah Al-Jaber Al-Sabah (1934–1987) (الشيخ مبارك عبد الله الجابر الصباح) was a member of the House of Sabah and the first Kuwaiti to attain the military rank of lieutenant general.
Nablus (نابلس, שכם, Biblical Shechem ISO 259-3 Škem, Greek: Νeapolis Νεάπολις) is a city in the northern West Bank, approximately north of Jerusalem, (approximately by road), with a population of 126,132.
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Professor Nadav Safran (نداف صفران, נדב ספרן, August 25, 1925, Cairo – July 5, 2003, State College, PA) was an expert in Arab and Middle East politics and a director of Harvard’s Center for Middle Eastern Studies.
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Nahal Oz (נַחַ"ל עֹז, lit. "Mighty Stream," also "Strength of the Nahal") is a kibbutz in southern Israel.
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Napalm is flammable liquid used in warfare.
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A national unity government, government of national unity, or national union government is a broad coalition government consisting of all parties (or all major parties) in the legislature, usually formed during a time of war or other national emergency.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
The Negev Nuclear Research Center (קריה למחקר גרעיני – נגב) is an Israeli nuclear installation located in the Negev desert, about thirteen kilometers to the south-east of the city of Dimona.
Nekhel (نِخِل; also spelled and pronounced Nakhl) is the capital of Nekhel Municipality of North Sinai Governorate, Sinai, Egypt.
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Netanya (נְתַנְיָה, lit., "gift of God") is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, and is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain.
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The New Historians (ההיסטוריונים החדשים, HaHistoryonim HaHadashim) are a loosely defined group of Israeli historians who have challenged traditional versions of Israeli history, including Israel's role in the Palestinian Exodus in 1948 and Arab willingness to discuss peace.
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Nirim (נִירִים, lit. Meadows) is a kibbutz in the northwestern Negev in Israel.
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The Nord Noratlas was a 1950s French military transport aircraft intended to replace the older types in service at the end of World War II.
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The North Yemen Civil War (ثورة 26 سبتمبر) was fought in North Yemen between royalist partisans of the Mutawakkilite Kingdom and supporters of the Yemen Arab Republic from 1962 to 1970.
Noureddin Mustafa Ali al-Atassi (1929 – 3 December 1992) (Arabic: نور الدين بن محمد علي الأتاسي Nūr ad-Dīn Muṣṭafā al-'Atasī) was President of Syria from February 1966 to November 1970.
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Obusier de 155 mm Modèle 50 was a French 155 mm 30 calibre howitzer of Cold War era that remained in service with some nations until the 1990s.
Norwegian General Odd Bull (1907–1991) was a career officer in the Royal Norwegian Air Force who eventually rose to the position of Chief of Air Staff.
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The Old City (העיר העתיקה, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, البلدة القديمة, al-Balda al-Qadimah, Երուսաղեմի հին քաղաք, Yerusaghemi hin k'aghak') is a walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem.
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Operation Focus (מבצע מוקד, Mivtza Moked) was the opening airstrike by Israel at the start of the Six-Day War in 1967.
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The Origins of the Six-Day War, which was fought between June 5 and June 10, 1967, by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known then as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria, lay in both longer term and immediate issues.
The Pakistan Air Force (PAF) (پاک فِضائیہ—,, reporting name: PAF), is the aerial warfare branch of the Pakistan Armed Forces, primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy.
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The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים), are an ethnic group representing the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Palestinian Arab due to Arabization of the region.
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The Panhard AML-245 (Auto Mitrailleuse Légère, or "Light Gun Car") is a fast, long-ranged, and relatively cheap first-generation armoured car with excellent reconnaissance capability.
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The Panzerkampfwagen IV (PzKpfw IV), commonly known as the Panzer IV, was a German medium tank developed in the late 1930s and used extensively during the Second World War.
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Paratroopers are military parachutists — soldiers and others trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
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Paul Schutzer (1930 – 5 June 1967) was an award-winning photojournalist for Life magazine, famous for his "The Blunt Reality of the War in Vietnam" cover photo.
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Phillip Andrew Hedley Adams, AO, FAHA, FRSA (born 12 July 1939) is an Australian humanist, social commentator, broadcaster, public intellectual and farmer.
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The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
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Port Said (بورسعيد, the first syllable has its pronunciation from French; unurbanized local pronunciation) is a city that lies in north east Egypt extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, north of the Suez Canal, with an approximate population of 603,787 (2010).
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A preemptive war is a war that is commenced in an attempt to repel or defeat a perceived imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (allegedly unavoidable) war.
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The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank which was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces.
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The purple line was the ceasefire line between Israel and Syria after the 1967 Six Day War.
Quneitra (also Al Qunaytirah, Qunaitira, or Kuneitra; القنيطرة al-Qunayṭrah) is the largely destroyed and abandoned capital of the Quneitra Governorate in south-western Syria.
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Rachel's Tomb (קבר רחל translit. Kever Rakhel), also known since the 1990s as the Bilal bin Rabah mosque (مسجد بلال بن رباح) to Muslims and UNESCO is the name given to a small religious building encased in concrete revered by Jews, Christians and Muslims.
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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
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ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide non-commercial radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
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Rafael "Raful" Eitan (רפאל "רפול" איתן, born 11 January 1929 – 23 November 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member government minister.
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Rafah (رفح) is a Palestinian city and refugee camp in the southern Gaza Strip.
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Ramallah (رام الله, pronounced Rāmallāh) is a Palestinian city in the central West Bank located north of Jerusalem at an average elevation of 880 meters above sea level, adjacent to al-Bireh.
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Ramat David Israeli Air Force Base (בָּסִיס חֵיל-הַאֲוִיר רָמַת דָּוִד Basis Kheil HaAvir Ramat David) is one of three principal airbases of the Israeli Air Force, located southeast of Haifa, close to kibbutz Ramat David and Megiddo in the Jezreel Valley.
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Ramat Rachel (רָמַת רָחֵל, lit. Rachel's Heights) is a kibbutz located south of Jerusalem in Israel, as an enclave within Jerusalem's municipal boundaries.
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Ramla (רַמְלָה, Ramla; الرملة, ar-Ramlah) (also Ramlah, Ramle, Remle and sometimes Rama) is a city in central Israel.
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Ras SedrAlso spelled: Ras Sidr, Ras Sudr, Ras Sudar (راس سدر) is an Egyptian town located on the Gulf of Suez and the Red Sea coast.
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In military operations, reconnaissance is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence.
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The Red Sea, (also the Erythraean Sea), is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
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The RL-83 Blindicide is an antitank rocket launcher produced by Mecar SA of Belgium and was an improved derivative of the M20A1 Bazooka.
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Robert Strange McNamara (June 9, 1916 – July 6, 2009) was an American business executive and the eighth Secretary of Defense, serving from 1961 to 1968 under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, during which time he played a large role in escalating the United States involvement in the Vietnam War.
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The Rockefeller Museum, formerly the Palestine Archaeological Museum, is an archaeological museum located in East Jerusalem that houses a large collection of artifacts unearthed in the excavations conducted in Mandate Palestine, in the 1920s and 1930s.
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The Royal Jordanian Air Force (RJAF; Arabic: سلاح الجو الملكي الأردني, transliterated Silāḥ ul-Jawu al-Malakī ’al-Urdunī) is the air force branch of the Jordanian Armed Forces.
The Royal Jordanian Army (Arabic: القوّات البرية الاردنيّة, "Jordanian Ground Forces") is part of the Jordanian Armed Forces (JAF).
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The Royal Ordnance L7 is the basic model of Britain's most successful tank gun.
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The RPD (Russian: ручной пулемёт Дегтярёва Ruchnoy Pulemyot Degtyaryova, English: Degtyaryov hand-held machine gun) is a 7.62mm light machine gun developed in the Soviet Union by Vasily Degtyaryov for the intermediate 7.62x39mm M43 cartridge.
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The RPK (Ruchnoy Pulemyot Kalashnikova, Ручной пулемёт Калашникова or "Kalashnikov hand-held machine gun") is a 7.62×39mm light machine gun of Soviet design, developed by Mikhail Kalashnikov in the late 1950s, parallel with the AKM assault rifle.
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The S-75 Dvina (Russian: С-75; NATO reporting name SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defense system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance.
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Group Captain Saiful Azam (born 1941) is a retired air force officer, a Bangladeshi who served as a fighter pilot with the Pakistan Air Force in the years prior to 1971.
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Salah Jadid (1926 – 19 August 1993, Arabic: صلاح جديد) was a Syrian general and political figure in the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party in Syria, and the country's de facto leader from 1966 until 1970.
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The Samu incident or Samua incident was a large cross-border assault on November 13, 1966 by Israeli military on the Jordanian-controlled West Bank village of Samu in response to an al-Fatah land mine incident two days earlier near the West Bank border, which killed 3 Israeli soldiers on a border patrol.
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Samuel Segev (15 April 1926 - 9 August 2012) was an Israeli journalist and author.
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A satchel is a bag, often with a strap.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא, بحيرة طبريا), is the largest freshwater lake in Israel, and it is approximately in circumference, about long, and wide.
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Sharm el-Sheikh (شرم الشيخ) is a city situated on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, Egypt, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea.
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Shayetet 13 (שייטת 13, lit. Flotilla 13) is the naval special forces unit of the Israeli Navy, one of the primary special operations units of the Israel Defense Forces.
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She'ar Yashuv (שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב) is a workers' moshav in the Upper Galilee in the northeastern Hula Valley in northern Israel.
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Sheikh Zuweid (also spelled Sheikh Zoweid or Shaykh Zuwayd; الشيخ زويد) is a Bedouin town in the North Sinai Governorate of Egypt near the border with the Gaza Strip.
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Shlomo Arel (born 1920) was a Major General in the IDF, and the seventh Commander of the Israeli Navy.
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Shmuel "Gorodish" Gonen (שמואל גונן; 1930 – 30 September 1991) was an Israeli general and Chief of the Southern Command of the Israel Defense Forces during the Yom Kippur War.
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Shu'fat (شعفاط), also Shuafat and Sha'fat, is a Palestinian Arab neighborhood of East Jerusalem, forming part of north-eastern Jerusalem.
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Signals intelligence (SIGINT) is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether communications between people (communications intelligence—abbreviated to COMINT) or from electronic signals not directly used in communication (electronic intelligence—abbreviated to ELINT).
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The Sikorsky H-34 (company designation S-58) is a piston-engined military helicopter originally designed by American aircraft manufacturer Sikorsky as an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft for the United States Navy.
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The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (سيناء; سينا), or "סיני" in Hebrew, is a triangular peninsula in Egypt about in area.
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Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East is a 2002 non-fiction book by American-born Israeli historian and Israeli ambassador to the United States, Michael Oren, chronicling the events of the Six-Day War fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors.
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A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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SS.10 is the designation of the Nord Aviation MCLOS wire-guided anti-tank missile designed by the French engineer Jean Bastien-Thiry, who later attempted to assassinate French President Charles de Gaulle and was sentenced to death.
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Steven Pressfield (September 1943—) is an American author, of historical fiction and non-fiction, and screenplays.
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Strafing is the military practice of attacking ground targets from low-flying aircraft using aircraft-mounted automatic weapons ranging from machine guns (5mm to 20mm) to autocannons or rotary cannons (typically 20mm to 37mm).
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The Straits of Tiran (مضيق تيران) are the narrow sea passages between the Sinai and Arabian peninsulas which separate the Gulf of Aqaba from the Red Sea.
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Strategic depth is a term in military literature that broadly refers to the distances between the front lines or battle sectors and the combatants' industrial core areas, capital cities, heartlands, and other key centers of population or military production.
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The SU-100 (Samokhodnaya ustanovka 100) was a Soviet casemate-style tank destroyer armed with a powerful 100 mm anti-tank gun.
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The Sud-Ouest Aviation (SNCASO) S.O. 4050 Vautour II was a French bomber, interceptor, and attack aircraft used by the Armée de l'Air (AdA).
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The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
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The Suez Crisis, also named the Tripartite Aggression,Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Second Arab-Israeli War; in the Arab world commonly known as the Tripartite aggression; other names include the Sinai war, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Kadesh, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") and the Kadesh Operation was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by Britain and France.
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The Sukhoi Su-7 (NATO designation name: Fitter-A) was a swept wing, supersonic fighter aircraft developed by the Soviet Union in 1955.
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The Sherman M-50 and the Sherman M-51, both known abroad as the Super Sherman, were modified versions of the American M4 Sherman tank that served with the Israel Defense Forces from the mid-1950s to early 1980s.
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A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike targets on land or at sea.
Syria (سوريا or سورية, Sūriyā or Sūrīyah), officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia.
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The Syrian Arab Air Force (القوات الجوية العربية السورية, Al Quwwat al-Jawwiyah al Arabiya as-Souriya) is the Aviation branch of the Syrian Armed Forces.
The Syrian Navy (البحرية العربية السورية) is the smallest of the Syrian Armed Forces.
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Pre-1967 Syrian towns and villages on the Golan Heights Before the Six-Day War and Yom Kippur War, the Golan Heights comprised 312 inhabited areas, including 2 towns, 163 villages, and 108 farms.
The T-34 was a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
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The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of main battle tank introduced just as the Second World War ended.
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A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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A tank destroyer or tank hunter is a type of armoured fighting vehicle, armed with a direct-fire artillery gun or missile launcher, with limited operational capacities and designed specifically to efficiently engage enemy armoured vehicles in a cost-effective manner.
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Tel Aviv (תל־אביב, تل أبيب) or Tel Aviv-Yafo (תל אביב-יפו) is the second most populous city in Israel after Jerusalem.
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The Temple Mount (הַר הַבַּיִת, Har HaBáyit), also known as the Haram (الحرم الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem"), is one of the most important religious sites in the Old City of Jerusalem.
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Territorial waters or a territorial sea as defined by the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
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The Age is a daily newspaper which has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States as it pertains to the countries of Southwest Asia.
The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.
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Thomas Hinman Moorer (February 9, 1912 – February 5, 2004) was an admiral and naval aviator in the United States Navy who served as Chief of Naval Operations from 1967 to 1970, and as the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1970 to 1974.
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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
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Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Ṭrables) is the de jure capital city and the largest city of Libya.
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The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO reporting name: Badger) was a twin-engined jet strategic bomber used by the Soviet Union.
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Thant (January 22, 1909November 25, 1974), known honorifically as U Thant was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations from 1961 to 1971; also the first one not from Europe.
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The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was a short-lived political union between Egypt and Syria.
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The first United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was established by United Nations General Assembly to secure an end to the Suez Crisis with resolution 1001 (ES-I) on November 7, 1956.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967, in the aftermath of the Six-Day War.
The U.S. Army Combined Arms Center (USACAC) is located at Fort Leavenworth and provides leadership and supervision for leader development and professional military and civilian education; institutional and collective training; functional training; training support; battle command; doctrine; lessons learned and specified areas the Commanding General, United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) designates in order to serve as a catalyst for change and to support developing relevant and ready expeditionary land formations with campaign qualities in support of the joint force commander.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America heading the U.S. Department of State, principally concerned with foreign affairs and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
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USS Liberty (AGTR-5) was a Belmont-class technical research ship that was attacked by Israel Defense Forces (IDF) during the 1967 Six-Day War.
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The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship,, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, during the Six-Day War.
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The Uzi (עוזי, officially cased as UZI) is a family of Israeli open-bolt, blowback-operated submachine guns.
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Uzi Narkiss (Hebrew: עוזי נרקיס; January 6, 1925 - December 17, 1997) was an Israeli general.
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A waqf, also spelled wakf, (وقف, pronounced; plural أوقاف, awqāf; vakıf, وقف), or mortmain property, is, under the context of 'sadaqah', an inalienable religious endowment in Islamic law, typically donating a building or plot of land or even cash for Muslim religious or charitable purposes with no intention of reclaiming the assets.
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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
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The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit or Cisjordan is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, forming the bulk of the Palestinian territories. The West Bank shares boundaries (demarcated by the Jordanian-Israeli armistice of 1949) to the west, north, and south with the state of Israel, and to the east, across the Jordan River, with Jordan. The West Bank also contains a significant coastline along the western bank of the Dead Sea. The West Bank, including East Jerusalem, has a land area of 5,640 km2 plus a water area of 220 km2, consisting of the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea. It has an estimated population of 2,676,740 (July 2013). More than 80%, about 2,100,000, are Palestinian Arabs, and approximately 500,000 are Jewish Israelis living in the West Bank, including about 192,000 in East Jerusalem, in Israeli settlements. The international community considers Israeli settlements in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, illegal under international law, though Israel disputes this. The International Court of Justice advisory ruling (2004) concluded that events that came after the 1967 occupation of the West Bank by Israel, including the Jerusalem Law, Israel's peace treaty with Jordan and the Oslo Accords, did not change the status of the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) as occupied territory with Israel as the occupying power.
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The Western Wall, Wailing Wall or Kotel (Hebrew: He-Kotel.ogg, translit.: HaKotel HaMa'aravi; Ashkenazic pronunciation: Kosel; حائط البراق, translit.: Ḥā'iṭ Al-Burāq, translat.: the Buraq Wall, or al-Mabka: the Place of Weeping) is located in the Old City of Jerusalem.
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Yekutiel "Kuti" Adam (יקותיאל "קותי" אדם) (November 3, 1927 – June 10, 1982) was an Israeli general and former Deputy Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces.
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Yigal Allon (יִגְאָל אַלּוֹן; born 10 October 1918 – died 29 February 1980) was an Israeli politician, a commander of the Palmach, and a general in the IDF.
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Yitzhak Rabin (יצחק רבין;; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general.
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The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War, or October War (or حرب تشرين; or מלחמת יום כיפור), also known as the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, was a war fought by the coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel from October 6 to 25, 1973.
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Yossi Peled (יוסי פלד, born 18 January 1941) is an Israeli general and politician, the former Aluf of the Northern Command in the Israel Defense Forces.
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Zeid Ibn Shaker, GBE, CVO (4 September 1934 – 30 August 2002) (الامير زيد بن شاكر) served as commander-in-chief of the Jordanian military for more than twelve years and Prime Minister of Jordan three times.
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Ze'ev Schiff (1 July 1932 in Lille, France – 19 June 2007 in Tel Aviv, Israel) was an Israeli journalist and military correspondent for Haaretz.
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The ZSU-57-2 (Ob'yekt 500) is a Soviet self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG), armed with two 57 mm autocannons.
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The 122-mm howitzer D-30 (GRAU index 2A18) is a Soviet howitzer that first entered service in the 1960s.
The 130 mm towed field gun M-46 M1954 (130-мм пушка M-46 обр.) is a manually loaded, towed 130 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union in the 1950s.
The 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20) (152-мм гаубица-пушка обр.), was a Soviet gun-howitzer.
The 155mm Long Tom was a 155 millimeter caliber field gun developed and used by the United States mililtary.
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The Hebron massacre refers to the killing of sixty-seven or sixty-nine Jews (including 46 yeshiva students and teachers) on 24 August 1929 in Hebron, then part of Mandatory Palestine, by Arabs incited to violence by rumors that Jews were planning to seize control of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
New!!: Six-Day War and 1929 Hebron massacre ·
The 1948 Arab–Israeli War or the First Arab–Israeli War was fought between the State of Israel and a military coalition of Arab states.
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949 Lebanon, UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949 Jordan, UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949 and Syria.
The Polish 1968 political crisis, also known in Poland as March 1968 or March events (Marzec 1968; wydarzenia, wypadki marcowe) pertains to a major student and intellectual protest action against the government of the Polish People's Republic.
The 7th Armored Brigade (חטיבה שבע, Hativa Sheva) is a military formation of the Israeli Defense Force formed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.
The 8th Armored Brigade (חטיבה שמונה, Hativa Shmoneh) was an Israeli mechanized brigade headquartered near Jerusalem.
1967 Arab War, 1967 Arab-Israeli War, 1967 Arab-Israeli conflict, 1967 Arab-Israeli war, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, 1967 Israeli-Arab war, 1967 Middle East war, 1967 Six Day War, 1967 War, 1967 ceasefire, 6 Day War, 6 Day war, 6 day war, 6 days war, 6-Day War, 6-Days War, 6-day War, 6DW, Accusations on the Six-Day War, Accusations regarding the Six-Day War, An-Naksah, An‑Naksah, Background to Six-Day War, June 1967 war, June War, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim, Milhemet Sheshet Ha‑Yamim, Six Day War, Six Day war, Six Days War, Six day war, Six days war, Six days' war, Six-Day Arab-Israeli War, Six-Day war, Six-day War, Six-day war, Six-days war, The Six Day War, The Six-Day War, Third Arab-Israeli War, Third Arab–Israeli War, מלחמת ששת הימים, حرب 1967, حرب الأيام الستة, Ḥarb 1967, Ḥarb al‑Ayyam, Ḥarb al‑Ayyam as‑Sitta.