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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India. [1]

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Acacia

Acacia, known commonly as acacia, thorntree, whistling thorn, or wattle, is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773 based on the African species Acacia nilotica.

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Adam's Bridge

Adam's Bridge (Tamil: ஆதாம் பாலம்), also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Tamil: இராமர் பாலம், Sanskrit: रामसेतु), is a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the southeastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the northwestern coast of Sri Lanka.

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action or positive discrimination (known as employment equity in Canada, reservation in India and Nepal, and positive action in the UK) is the policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who suffer from discrimination within a culture.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Airline

An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.

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Alfred Duraiappah

Alfred Thangarajah Duraiappah (15 June 1926 – 27 July 1975) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, politician, Mayor of Jaffna and Member of Parliament.

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All Ceylon Tamil Congress

All Ceylon Tamil Congress (அகில இலங்கைத் தமிழ்க் காங்கிரஸ்), is the oldest Tamil political party in Sri Lanka.

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Alleged war crimes during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War

There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the conflict in 2009.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.

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An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon

An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon together With somewhat Concerning Severall Remarkable passages of my life that hath hapned since my Deliverance out of Captivity is a book written by the English trader and sailor Robert Knox in 1681.

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Ananda Samarakoon

Egodahage George Wilfred Alwis Samarakoon (January 13, 1911 – April 5, 1962) (known as Ananda Samarakoon) was a Sri Lankan composer and musician.

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Anatomy

Anatomy is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancestry.com

Ancestry.com Inc., formerly The Generations Network, is a privately held Internet company based in Provo, Utah, United States.

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Ancient constructions of Sri Lanka

The Ancient Sinhalese excelled in the construction of tanks (Wevas) or reservoirs, dagobas (or Stupas) and palaces, as evident from the ruins which displays a rich variety of Architectural forms.

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Angampora

Angampora (අංගම්පොර,அங்கம்போர) is a form of martial art from Sri Lanka that combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise and meditation.

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Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD or A.D.) and before Christ (BC or B.C.) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

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Anula of Anuradhapura

Queen Anula (reigned 47 BC – 42 BC) was the first queen in Sri Lankan history to have wielded meaningful power and authority.

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Anuradhapura

Anuradhapura (අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.

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Anuradhapura Kingdom

The Anuradhapura Kingdom (Sinhala: අනුරාධපුර රාජධානිය), named for its capital city, was the first established kingdom in ancient Sri Lanka.

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Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya

The Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya was an important mahavihara or large Buddhist monastery for Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka.

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Appam

Appam is a type of pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.

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Aqueduct (water supply)

An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.

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Arabs

Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.

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Architecture of ancient Sri Lanka

The architecture of ancient Sri Lanka displays a rich diversity, varying in form and architectural style from the Anuradhapura Kingdom (377 BC–1017) through the Kingdom of Kandy (1469–1815).

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Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

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Arlington County, Virginia

Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia.

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Arthur C. Clarke

Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS The award of Knight Bachelor carries the title of "Sir" and no post-nominal letters (see) meaning that the previous post-nominals, "CBE" are also still used.

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Arunachalam Mahadeva

Sir Arunachalam Mahadeva, Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (5 October 1885 - 8 June 1969) was a Sri Lankan, prominent colonial era legislator and diplomat.

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Aryan race

The Aryan race was a racial grouping commonly used in the period of the late 19th century to the mid 20th century to describe peoples of European and Western Asian heritage.

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Asela of Anuradhapura

Asela was an early monarch of Sri Lanka of the Kingdom of Anuradhapura, based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 215 BC to 205 BC.

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Ashoka

Ashoka Maurya (IAST:;; 304–232 BCE), commonly known as Ashoka and Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE.

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Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Asia Cup

The ACC Asia Cup is an international men's One Day International cricket tournament.

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Asia Times

Asia Times was a newspaper launched in Thailand by Thai tycoon Sondhi Limthongkul in 1995.

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Asian Development Bank

The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 22 August 1966 which is headquartered in Metro Manila, Philippines, to facilitate economic development in Asia.

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Asian elephant

The Asian or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus) is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia from India in the west to Borneo in the east.

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Asian Tribune

The Asian Tribune is an online newspaper that provides news and editorial on the current affairs of Asia, with a special emphasis on South Asia but mostly concentrates its news on the current Civil conflict in Sri Lanka.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is an American multinational nonprofit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism

The Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism (ASEN) is an international, interdisciplinary association for academics, researchers, students, journalists and others directly concerned with advancing the study of ethnicity and nationalism.

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Atthakatha

Aṭṭhakathā (Pali for explanation, commentary) refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Australian Broadcasting Corporation

The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's state-owned and funded national public broadcaster.

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Avukana Buddha statue

The Avukana statue is a standing statue of the Buddha near Kekirawa in North Central Sri Lanka.

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Badulla

Badulla (බදුල්ල, பதுளை) is a major city in Sri Lanka.

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Balangoda Man

Balangoda Man (Homo sapiens balangodensis) refers to hominins from Sri Lanka's late Quaternary period.

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Bambarakanda Falls

Bambarakanda Falls (also known as Bambarakele Falls) is the tallest waterfall in Sri Lanka.

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Ban Ki-moon

Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean statesman and politician who is the eighth and current Secretary-General of the United Nations.

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Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact

The Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact was an agreement signed between the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike and the leader of the main Tamil political party in Sri Lanka S. J. V. Chelvanayakam on July 26, 1957.

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Bandung Conference

The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Asia-Afrika) —was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.

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Batatotalena Cave

The Batatotalena Cave also known as the Diva Guhava in Buddhist literature,(Do not mistake it as the Batadombalena. Batandomba lena is a pre historic cave/settlement), is a cave system in Sudagala, away from the town of Kuruwita, in the Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka.

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Battle of Vijithapura

The Battle of Vijithapura was a decisive and major battle in the campaign carried out by Sri Lankan king Dutthagamani against the invading South Indian king Elara.

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Bay of Bengal

The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

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Bayila

Bayila (also known as baila) is a form of music, popular in Sri Lanka and parts of India.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Belilena

Belilena is a famous large cave in Sri Lanka.

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Bhikkhu

A bhikkhu (Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

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Bhikkhuni

A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.

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Bhuvanaikabahu VI of Kotte

Bhuvanekabahu VI (Sapumal Kumaraya) (Sinhala:සපුමල් කුමාරයා) or Chempaha Perumal Gnanaprakasar, S A critical history of Jaffna, p.103 (died 1480) was by self admission an adopted son of Parakramabâhu VI whose principal achievement was the conquest of Jaffna Kingdom in the year 1447 or 1450.

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Biodiversity

Global Biodiversity is the variety of different types of life found on Earth and the variations within species.

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Biodiversity hotspot

A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.

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Black July

Black July is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.

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Black-and-white

Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.

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Bodhi Tree

The Bodhi Tree, also known as Bo (from Sinhalese: Bo) and "peepal tree" in Nepal and Bhutan, was a large and very old sacred fig tree (Ficus religiosa) located in Bodh Gaya, India, under which Siddhartha Gautama, the spiritual teacher later known as Gautama Buddha, is said to have attained enlightenment, or Bodhi.

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Bodhi Vamsa

The Bodhi-Vamsa, or Mahabodhi-Vamsa, is a prose poem in elaborate Sanskritized Pali, composed by Upatissa in the reign of Mahinda IV of Sri Lanka about AD 980.

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Bollywood

Bollywood is the sobriquet for the Hindi language film industry, based in Mumbai, India.

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Bowling (cricket)

In the sport of cricket bowling is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman.

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British Ceylon

British Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්‍රිතාන්‍ය ලංකාව, Britanya Lankava; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai), known contemporaneously as Ceylon, was a British Crown colony between 1802 and 1948.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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British people

British people, or Britons, are the indigenous people or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, Crown Dependencies; and their descendants.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Buddhism in Sri Lanka

Theravada Buddhism is the religion of about 70% of the population of Sri Lanka.

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Bundala National Park

Bundala National Park is an internationally important wintering ground for migratory water birds in Sri Lanka.

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Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor

The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) at the United States Department of State is one of three bureaus and two offices that constitute the Office of the Under Secretary for Global Affairs.

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Burgher people

Burgher people, also known simply as Burghers, are a Eurasian ethnic group in Sri Lanka descended from Portuguese, Dutch, British and other Europeans who settled in the island.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American business, celebrity and technology news website launched in February 2009 and based in New York City.

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Business-Anti-Corruption Portal

The Business Anti-Corruption Portal (BACP) is a one-stop shop for business anti-corruption information offering tools on how to mitigate risks and costs of corruption when doing business abroad.

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C. W. W. Kannangara

Christopher William Wijekoon Kannangara (Sinhala:සි.ඩබ්ලිව්.ඩබ්ලිව්.කන්නන්ගර;13 October 1884 – 23 September 1969) was a Sri Lankan lawyer and politician.

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Cabinet (government)

A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.

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Caesarion

Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος ΙΕʹ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios IEʹ Philopatōr Philomētōr Kaisar; Ptolemaeus XV Philopator Philomētor Caesar; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion (Καισαρίων, Kaisariōn, literally "little Caesar"; Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, from September 2, 44 BC.

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Cambodia

Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Cambridge

The city of Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada

Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality enjoying primary status in a country, state, province, or other region, usually as its seat of government.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.

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Carnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon University (Carnegie Mellon or CMU; or) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

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Cashew

The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.

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Caste

Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, non-commensality and hereditary occupations.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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CBS News

CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS.

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Central Bank of Sri Lanka

The Central Bank of Sri Lanka (CBSL) is the central bank of Sri Lanka.

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Central Highlands of Sri Lanka

Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is a recognised world Heritage Site in Sri Lanka.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Province, Sri Lanka

The Central Province (මධ්‍යම පළාත Madhyama Palata, மத்திய மாகாணம் Malaiyakam Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.

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Centre-left politics

The centre-left or moderate left is an adherence to views leaning to the left but closer to the centre on the left-right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.

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Ceylon Citizenship Act

The Ceylon Citizenship Act No.

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Ceylon Civil Service

The Ceylon Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym CCS was the primer civil service of the Government of Ceylon under the British colonial rule and immediate post Independence period.

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Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1947

General elections were held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from August 23 to September 20, 1947.

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Ceylonese parliamentary election, 1956

General elections were held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1956.

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Ceylonese parliamentary election, July 1960

General elections were held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in July 1960.

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Ceylonese State Council election, 1931

The first election to the State Council of Ceylon were held from 13 to 20 June 1931.

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Che Guevara

Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14,The date of birth recorded on his birth certificate was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year. Constenla alleges that she was told by Che's mother, Celia de la Serna, that she was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal. (Anderson 1997, pp. 3, 769.) 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as el Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist.

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Cheena di

Cheena di (චීනාඩි, lit. Chinese fist) is a Chinese-derived martial art from Sri Lanka.

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Chera dynasty

The Cheras were an ancient Dravidian royal dynasty of Tamil origin who ruled in regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India.

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Chief Justice of Sri Lanka

The Chief Justice of Sri Lanka is the head of the judicial system of Sri Lanka and is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chinese language

Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Chinese people

Chinese people are the various individuals or groups of people associated with China, either by reason of ancestry or heredity, nationality, citizenship, place of residence, or other affiliations.

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Chloroxylon

Chloroxylon swietenia (Ceylon satinwood, East Indian satinwood or buruta (බුරුත in Sinhala)) is a tropical hardwood, the sole species in the genus Chloroxylon (from the Greek χλωρὸν ξύλον, "green wood").

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty (also called Choda and Cholan) was an ancient dynasty of southern India.

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Chola rule in Sri Lanka

The period of Chola rule in the island of Sri Lanka began in 993 when Raja Raja Chola sent a large Chola army which conquered the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in the north, and added it to the sovereignty of the Chola Empire.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Sri Lanka

Christianity is a minority religion in Sri Lanka.

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Christmas

Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Church of Ceylon

The Church of Ceylon is the Anglican Church in Sri Lanka, as an extraprovincial diocese of the Archbishop of Canterbury.

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Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods.

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Citigroup

Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City.

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Civil law (legal system)

Civil law, civilian law or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of late Roman law, and whose most prevalent feature is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.

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Clarence Wijewardena

Clarence Wijewardena (ක්ලැරන්ස් විජේවර්ධන; 3 August 1943 – 13 December 1996) was one of the most respected Sri Lankan musicians in Sinhala music,who pioneered the use of electric guitar in Sinhala music.

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Clem Tisdell

Clement Allan Tisdell (born 18 November 1939 in Taree, New South Wales) is an Australian economist and Emeritus Professor at the University of Queensland.

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Clothing

Clothing is fiber and textile material worn on the body.

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Coconut

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family).

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Coconut milk

Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a brown coconut.

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Coffee

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.

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Colebrooke–Cameron Commission

The Colebrooke–Cameron Commission was a Royal Commission of Eastern Inquiry sent by the British Colonial Office in 1829 to assess the administration of the island of Ceylon and to make recommendations for administrative, financial, economic, and judicial reform.

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Colombo

Colombo (Sinhala: කොළඹ, pronounced; கொழும்பு) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.

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Colombo Harbour

The Port of Colombo (known as Port of Kolomtota during the early 14th Century Kotte Kingdom) is the largest and busiest port in Sri Lanka as well as in South Asia.

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Colombo Plan

The Colombo Plan is a regional organisation that embodies the concept of collective intergovernmental effort to strengthen economic and social development of member countries in the Asia-Pacific region.

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Colombo Stock Exchange

The Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) is the main stock exchange in Sri Lanka.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Commander-in-chief

A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.

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Common law

Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.

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Commonwealth Secretariat

The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Communist Party of Sri Lanka

The Communist Party of Sri Lanka (ශ්‍රී ලංකාවේ කොමියුනිස්ට් පක්ෂය Sri Lankavay Komiyunist Pakshaya இலங்கை கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சி) is a communist party in Sri Lanka.

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Compulsory education

Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of persons, imposed by law.

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Concubinage

Concubinage is an interpersonal relationship in which a person engages in an ongoing sexual relationship with another person to whom they are not or cannot be married to the full extent of the local meaning of marriage.

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Conscription

Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservation International

Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.

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Constitution of Sri Lanka

The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka has been the constitution of the island nation of Sri Lanka since its original promulgation by the National State Assembly on 7 September 1978.

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Controlled-access highway

A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.

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Cooking plantain

A plantain, or cooking plantain, is one of the less sweet cultivated varieties (cultivars) of the genus Musa whose fruit is also known as the banana.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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County

A county, abbreviated Cnty. (US) or Co. (UK and Ireland), is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (i.e. a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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Cricket World Cup

The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.

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Criminal law

Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.

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Cristina Mittermeier

Cristina Goettsch Mittermeier (born Cristina Sofía Goettsch Cabello on November 26, 1966) in Mexico City, Mexico is an aspiring professional photographer.

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Crown colony

A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.

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Cue sports

Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by rubber.

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Culavamsa

The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa (Pāli: "Lesser Chronicle"), is a historical record, written in the Pali language, of the monarchs of Sri Lanka.

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Culture of Buddhism

Buddhist culture is exemplified through Buddhist art, Buddhist architecture, Buddhist music and Buddhist cuisine.

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Cyclone

In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth.

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D. S. Senanayake

Don Stephen Senanayake, (දොන් ස්ටීවන් සේනානායක; 20 October 1883 – 22 March 1952) was the first Prime Minister of Sri Lanka.

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Dam

A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams.

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DAWN (newspaper)

DAWN is Pakistan's oldest and most widely read English-language newspaper in Pakistan.

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Deer

Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.

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Definitions of terrorism

There is neither an academic nor an accurate legal consensus regarding the definition of terrorism.

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Democracy

Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...

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Deregulation

Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations typically in the economic sphere.

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Devanampiya Tissa of Anuradhapura

Tissa, later Devanampiya Tissa was one of the earliest rulers of Sri Lanka based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 307 BC to 267 BC.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Devolution

Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level.

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Dharma

Dharma (धर्म dharma,; धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.

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Dhatusena of Anuradhapura

Dhatusena was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled from 455 to 473 A.D. He was the first king of the Moriyan dynasty of Sri Lanka.

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Dipavamsa

The Dipavamsa or Deepavamsa (i.e., "Chronicle of the Island"; in Pali: Dīpavaṃsa), is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka.

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Districts of Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, districts (දිස්ත්‍රි‌ක්‌ක, மாவட்டம்) are the second-level administrative divisions, and are included in a province.

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Divisional Secretariats of Sri Lanka

The districts of Sri Lanka are divided into administrative sub-units known as divisional secretariats.

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Dominion

Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.

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Dominion of Ceylon

Ceylon (Sinhala: ලංකා ඩොමීනියන් රාජ්‍යය Lanka Dominian Rajyaya) was a Dominion in the Commonwealth of Nations between 1948 and 1972.

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Don Baron Jayatilaka

Sir Don Baron Jayatilaka (Sinhala:ශ්‍රිමත් දොන් බාරොන් ජයතිලක; 13 February 1868 – 29 May 1944) known as D.B. Jayatilaka was a Sri Lankan educationalist, statesmen and diplomat.

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Donoughmore Commission

The Donoughmore Commission (DC) was responsible for the creation of the Donoughmore Constitution in effect between 1931–47 in Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka).

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Donoughmore Constitution

The Donoughmore Constitution, created by the Donoughmore Commission, served Sri Lanka (Ceylon) from 1931 to 1947 when it was replaced by the Soulbury Constitution.

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Dow Jones & Company

Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp since 2007.

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Duchy

A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.

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Dudley Senanayake

Dudley Shelton Senanayake (Sinhala:ඩඩ්ලි ශෙල්ටන් සේනානායක|Tamil:டட்லி சேனநாயக்கா); 19 June 1911 – 13 April 1973) was a Ceylonese (now Sri Lanka) politician, who became the second Prime Minister of Ceylon and went on to become prime minister on three more times during the 1950s and 1960s.

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Duncan White

Duncan White, MBE (1 March 1918 – 3 July 1998) was the first Ceylonese athlete to win a medal for his country in an Olympic event.

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Dutch Ceylon

Dutch Ceylon was a governorate established in present-day Sri Lanka by the Dutch East India Company.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East Indian Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC), referred to by the British as the Dutch East India Company, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on Dutch spice trade.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders, a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders" are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Dutch–Portuguese War

The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.

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Dutugamunu

Dutugamunu (Sinhala: Duṭugämuṇu), also known as Dutthagamani duṭṭhagāmaṇī and Gāmaṇī Abhaya ("fearless Gamini"), was a Sinhalese king of Sri Lanka who reigned from 161 BC to 137 BC.

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E01 expressway (Sri Lanka)

The Southern Expressway, also known as the Southern Lanka Distributor (Sinhala: දක්ෂිණ ලංකා අධිවේගි මාර්ගය, Tamil: தென்னிலங்கை அதிவேக நெடுஞ்சாலை) is Sri Lanka's first E Class highway.

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E03 expressway (Sri Lanka)

Colombo - Katunayake Expressway is Sri Lanka's second E Class highway.

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Early flying machines

Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of the modern aeroplane by 1910.

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.

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Easter

EasterTraditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, (Old English usually Ēastrun, -on, or -an; also Ēastru, -o; and Ēostre), also called Pasch (derived, through Pascha and Greek Πάσχα Paskha, from פסחא, cognate to פֶּסַח Pesaḥ)In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Greek word Pascha is used for the celebration; in English, the analogous word is Pasch.

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Eastern Province, Sri Lanka

The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.

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Ebony

Ebony is a dense black wood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros.

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Ediriweera Sarachchandra

Ediriweera Sarachchandra (3 June 1914 – 16 August 1996) was an Sri Lankan playwright, novelist, poet, literary critic, essayist and social commentator.

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Education

Education is the process of facilitating learning.

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Edward Harper (engineer)

Edward Harper was a British engineer who travelled to Colombo in 1921 to work in the Ceylon Telegraph Department.

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Electoral district

An electoral district (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

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Ellalan

Ellāḷaṉ, known as Elara in Sinhalese, was a Tamil from the Chola country who upon capturing the throne became king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in present day Sri Lanka, from 205-161 BCE.

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Emerging markets

An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.

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Encarta

Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemism

Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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Enforced disappearances in Sri Lanka

Thousands of people have disappeared in Sri Lanka since the 1980s.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English law

English law means the legal system of England and Wales.

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Entrenched clause

An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision which makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible, i.e., inadmissible.

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Epic poetry

An epic (from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός (epikos), from ἔπος (epos) "word, story, poem") is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.

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Epigraphy

Epigraphy (from the ἐπιγραφή epi-graphē, literally "on-writing", is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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ESPNcricinfo

ESPNcricinfo (formerly CricInfo) is a sports news website exclusively for the game of cricket.

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Estuary

An estuary is a partly enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Evergreen forest

An evergreen forest is a forest consisting entirely or mainly of evergreen trees that retain green foliage all year round.

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Exclusive economic zone

An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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Executive (government)

The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.

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Executive Council of Ceylon

The Executive Council of Ceylon was the Executive Council created in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) by the British colonial administration on the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission along with the Legislative Council of Ceylon in March 1833.

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Executive president

An executive president is a president who exercises active executive power in a certain systems of government.

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Expressways of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka currently has over of designated expressways serving the southern part of the country.

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Fa Hien Cave

Pahiyangala Cave is a cave in the district of Kalutara, Western Province, Sri Lanka, according to a village legend named after the Buddhist monk fa-hien (Wade-Giles: Fa Hsien).

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Faxian

Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.

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Federalism

Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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Federation of American Scientists

The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.

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Feldspar

Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up as much as 60% of the Earth's crust.

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Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13, 1926) is a Cuban politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of the Republic of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and then President from 1976 to 2008.

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Finance

Finance is a field that deals with assets and liabilities over time under conditions of certainty and uncertainty.

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Flag carrier

A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.

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Flickr

Flickr (pronounced "flicker") is an image hosting and video hosting website, and web services suite that was created by Ludicorp in 2004 and acquired by Yahoo in 2005.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.

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Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Food processing

Food processing is the transformation of raw ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.

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Forced disappearance

In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.

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Fourth Buddhist council

Fourth Buddhist Council is the name of two separate Buddhist council meetings.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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Francisco de Almeida

Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (ca. 1450 – March 1, 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.

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Free education

Free education refers to education that is funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition fees.

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Free market

A free market is a market economy system in which the prices for goods and services are set freely by consent between vendors and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Freedom from Torture

Freedom from Torture (previously known as The Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture) is a British registered charity which provides therapeutic care for survivors of torture in the UK.

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Freedom of religion in Sri Lanka

Freedom of religion in Sri Lanka has been historically upheld through religious tolerance and multiculturalism.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials.

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Fringing reef

A fringing reef is one of the three main types of coral reefs recognized by most coral reef scientists.

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Fulbright Program

The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright-Hays Program, is a program of highly competitive, merit-based grants for international educational exchange for students, scholars, teachers, professionals, scientists and artists, founded by United States Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946.

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G. G. Ponnambalam

Ganapathipillai Gangaser Ponnambalam, QC (8 November 1901 – 9 December 1977), known as G.G. Ponnambalam, was a Sri Lankan Tamil politician in Ceylon, during the British colonial and post era independence.

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Galle

Galle (ගාල්ල;காலி) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip, 119 km from Colombo.

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Galle Trilingual Inscription

The Galle Trilingual Inscription is a stone tablet inscription in three languages, Chinese, Tamil and Persian, that was erected in 1409 in Galle, Sri Lanka to commemorate the second visit to the island by the Chinese admiral Zheng He.

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Gallup (company)

Gallup, Inc., is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.

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Gamperaliya (film)

Gamperaliya is a 1963 Sri Lankan drama film directed by Lester James Peries; it was adapted from the novel Gamperaliya by Martin Wickramasinghe.

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Gampola

Gampola (Sinhala:ගම්පොල, Tamil:கம்பளை) is a town located in Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka, governed by an Urban Council.

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Gautama Buddha

Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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Gemstone

A gemstone or gem (also called a fine gem, jewel, or a precious or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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General election

A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.

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Geographical renaming

Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area.

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Gini coefficient

The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Golu Hadawatha

Golu Hadawatha (Translation: Silence of the Heart) was a popular 1969 Sinhalese language romance film directed by maestro Lester James Peiris.

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Google Maps

Google Maps is a desktop web mapping service developed by Google.

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Government Agent (Sri Lanka)

A Government Agent (GA) or a District Secretary is a Sri Lankan civil servant of the Sri Lanka Administrative Service appointed by the central government to govern a certain district of the country.

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Government budget balance

A government budget is a government document presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

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Government of Sri Lanka

The government of Sri Lanka is a semi-presidential system determined by the Sri Lankan Constitution.

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Governors of British Ceylon

The British Governor of Ceylon was an official who ruled British Ceylon during the British colonial period between 1798 and 1948.

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Grama Niladhari

A Grama Niladhari ("village officer") is a Sri Lankan public official appointed by the central government to carry out administrative duties in a grama niladhari division, which is a subunit of a divisional secretariat.

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Graphite

Graphite, archaically referred to as Plumbago, is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of carbon.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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Great Rebellion of 1817–18

The Great Rebellion of 1817–1818, also known as the 1818 Uva-Wellassa Uprising (after the two places it had started), or simply the Uva Rebellion, was the third Kandyan War with the British, in what is now Sri Lanka.

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Green-billed coucal

The green-billed coucal (Centropus chlororhynchos) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis, and the hoatzin.

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Grievance

In general, grievance (from class. lat. gravis – heavy) is a wrong or hardship suffered, whether real or supposed, which forms legitimate grounds of complaint.

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Gross domestic product

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Group of 77

The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.

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Gulf of Mannar

The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean.

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H. R. Jothipala

Hettiarachchige Reginald Jothipala (එච්.අර්.ජොතිපාල; 12 February 1936 – 7 July 1987) was a prolific playback singer in the Sinhala cinema.

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Hajj

The Hajj (حج "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult male Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Head of government

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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Head of state

A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Hectare

The hectare (or; symbol ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to and primarily used in the measurement of land.

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Hemileia vastatrix

Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations.

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High-Speed Downlink Packet Access

High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an enhanced 3G (third-generation) mobile-telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, also dubbed 3.5G, 3G+, or Turbo 3G, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data speeds and capacity.

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High-Speed Uplink Packet Access

High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family with up-link speeds up to 5.76 Mbit/s.

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Hindi

Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu

Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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Hindu mythology

Hindu mythology is a large body of traditional narratives related to Hinduism as contained in Sanskrit literature (such as the epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, and the Vedas), Ancient Tamil literature (such as the Sangam literature and Periya Puranam), several other works, most notably the Bhagavata Purana, claiming the status of a Fifth Veda and other religious regional literature of South Asia.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Hinduism in Sri Lanka

The Hinduism, has a long tradition in Sri Lanka.

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History of Sri Lanka

The history of Sri Lanka begins around 30,000 years ago.

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Human

Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.

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Human rights in Sri Lanka

Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the United States Department of State and the European Union, have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Sri Lanka.

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Hurulu Forest Reserve

Hurulu Forest Reserve of Sri Lanka was designated as a biosphere reserve in January 1977.

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Ibis

The ibises (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae.

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IBSF World Billiards Championship

The IBSF World Billiards Championship (previously known as the World Amateur Billiards Championship) is the premier, international, non-professional tournament for the game of English billiards.

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ICC World Twenty20

The ICC World Twenty20 (also referred to as the World T20, and wrongly as the T20 World Cup) is the international championship of Twenty20 cricket.

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Idiyappam

Idiyappam (இடியாப்ப‌ம்),(ഇടിയപ്പം), (ඉඳි ආප්ප) also known as Nooputt (or Noolputtu)(Kodava: ನೋಲ್ ಪೂಟ್ಟ್) or string hoppers is a traditional Tamil, Kerala, Kodava, Tulu and Sri Lankan food consisting of rice flour pressed into noodle form and then steamed.

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Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi

Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (ITAK) (இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி, ඉලංගෙයි තමිළ් අරසු කච්චි) is a Sri Lankan political party which represents the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic minority in the country.

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Ilmenite

Ilmenite is the titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.

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Independent Television Network

Independent Television Network Limited (also known as ITN Ltd) is a Sri Lankan state governed television and radio broadcaster located in Wickramasinhapura, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War

The Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War was the deployment of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka intended to perform a peacekeeping role.

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Indian pangolin

The Indian pangolin, thick-tailed pangolin, or scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudata) is a pangolin found in the plains and hills of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan.

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Indian Peace Keeping Force

Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.

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Indian Plate

The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka

Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.

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Indo-Australian Plate

The Indo-Australian Plate was a major tectonic plate that included the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extended northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.

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Indo-Sri Lanka Accord

The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on 29 July, 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene.

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Indomalaya ecozone

The Indomalaya ecozone is one of the eight ecozones.It extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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Irrigation works in ancient Sri Lanka

The irrigation works in ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world.

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam in Sri Lanka

Islam in Sri Lanka is practiced by 99.7%Department of Census and Statistics, of the Moorish population of Sri Lanka.

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Island country

An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.

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Ivory

Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that is used in art or manufacturing.

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J. R. Jayewardene

Junius Richard Jayewardene (ජුනියස් රිචඩ් ජයවර්ධන,ஜூனியஸ் ரிச்சட் ஜயவர்தனா; 17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996), famously abbreviated in Sri Lanka as JR, was the leader of Sri Lanka from 1977 to 1989, serving as Prime Minister from 1977 to 1978 and as 2nd President of Sri Lanka from 1978 till 1989.

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Jackfruit

The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak is a species of tree in the mulberry and fig family (Moraceae).

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Jaffna

Jaffna (யாழ்ப்பாணம் Yalpanam, යාපනය Yāpanaya) is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.

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Jaffna kingdom

The Jaffna kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215-1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula after the invasion of Magha, who is identified as the founder of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.

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Jaffna Peninsula

The Jaffna Peninsula (யாழ்ப்பாண குடாநாடு Yalpana Kuthanadu) is an area in Northern Province, Sri Lanka.

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James Emerson Tennent

Sir James Emerson Tennent, 1st Baronet FRS (7 April 1804 – 6 March 1869), born James Emerson, was an Irish politician and traveller.

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Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna

The Janathā Vimukthi Peramuṇa (ජනතා විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ; மக்கள் விடுதலை முன்னணி "People's Liberation Front") is a communist and Marxist–Leninist party in Sri Lanka.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi

Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi (Sinhala:ජය ශ්‍රි මහා බොධිය) is a Sacred Fig tree in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.

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Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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K. Sripavan

Justice Kanagasabapathy J. Sripavan (கனகசபாபதி சிறீபவன் Kaṉakacapāpati Ciṟīpavaṉ, කනකසපාපති ශ්‍රීපවන්; born 29 February 1952) is a Sri Lankan lawyer, judge and the current Chief Justice of Sri Lanka.

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Kachchatheevu

Kachcha-thiva or Katchatheevu or Kachchativu (கச்சத்தீவு, කච්චතීවු) is a uninhabited island administered by Sri Lanka.

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Kadawunu Poronduwa

Kadawunu Poronduwa (Sinhala: කඩවුනු පොරොන්දුව, "The Broken Promise") was the first film to be made in the Sinhala language; it is generally considered to have heralded the coming of Sinhala Cinema.

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Kala Wewa

Kalawewa (Sinhala: කලා වැව) is an ancient reservoir in Anuradhapura District of the North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

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Kalinga (India)

Kalinga/Kalingi is an Indian caste of temple priests and cultivators, found mainly in Srikakulam.

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Kalinga Magha

Kalinga Magha (reigned 1215–1236), (କଳିଙ୍ଗ ମଘା,கலிங்க மாகன்,කාලිංග මාඝ) also known as Magha the Tyrant, is an invader who is remembered primarily for his aggressive conquest and Hindu fanaticism.

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Kandy

Kandy (මහ නුවර Maha nuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka, located in the Central Province, Sri Lanka.

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Kandy Esala Perahera

The Kandy Esala Perahera (the Esala procession of Kandy) is a grand festival celebrated with elegant costumes and is held in July and August in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

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Kandyan Convention

The Kandyan Convention was an agreement signed on the 10th of March 1815 between the British and the Chiefs of the Kandyan Kingdom, in Sri Lanka for the deposition of rule King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha.

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Kandyan dance

Kandyan dance (Sinhala: උඩරට නැටුම්) encompasses various dance forms native to the area called Kandy of the central hills region in Sri Lanka.

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Kandyan Treaty of 1638

The Kandyan Treaty of 1638 was a treaty between the Kingdom of Kandy, in Sri Lanka, and the Dutch Republic signed by King Rajasinghe II for the Kingdom of Kandy and Adam Westerwold and William Jacobsz Coster, a commander and vice commander of the Dutch Naval Forces respectively, for the Dutch East India Company.

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Kandyan Wars

The Kandyan Wars (or the Kandian Wars) refers generally to the period of warfare between the British colonial forces and the Kingdom of Kandy, on the island of what is now present day Sri Lanka, between 1796 and 1818.

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Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya

Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya or KDN is a forest complex in southern Sri Lanka.

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Kaolinite

Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.

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Karu Jayasuriya

Deshabandu Karu Jayasuriya (Sinhala:කරු ජයසුරිය) (born 29 September 1940) is a Sri Lankan politician who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka since 2015.

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Kashyapa I of Anuradhapura

Kashyapa I, also known as Kasyapa I, was a king of Sri Lanka, who ruled the country from 473 to 495 CE.

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Kavan Tissa, Prince of Ruhuna

Kavan Tissa, also known as Kavantissa, Kaha Wan Thissa,(that means who has the color of golden body).

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Kegalle

Kegalle (කෑගල්ල; கேகாலை) is a large town in Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka.

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Kingdom of Dambadeniya

The Kingdom of Dambadeniya was a medieval kingdom in what is present day Sri Lanka.

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Kingdom of Gampola

Gampola is a town located near Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.

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Kingdom of Kandy

Kingdom of Kandy was an independent monarchy of the island of Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.

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Kingdom of Kotte

The Kingdom of Kotte, centered on Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (located just outside present-day Colombo), was a kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century.

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Kingdom of Polonnaruwa

The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was the kingdom from which Sri Lankan kings ruled the island from the 8th century until 1310 CE.

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Kingdom of Sitawaka

The Kingdom of Sitawaka (Sinhala: සීතාවක) was a kingdom located in south-central Sri Lanka.

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Kingdom of Tambapanni

The Kingdom of Tambapanni, also referred to as Kingdom of Thambapanni, was the first administrative center in ancient Sri Lanka and Kingdom of Rajarata.

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Kiribath

Kiribath (milk rice) is a traditional Sri Lankan dish made from rice.

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Kottu

Kothu (chopped) or koththu roti is a Sri Lankan dish made from Godhamba roti (a type of Sri Lankan roti) and vegetables, egg and/or meat, and spices; the bread is described as similar to parotta and roti canai.

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Kubera

Kubera (कुबेर, Pali/later Sanskrit: Kuvera) also spelt Kuber, is the Lord of Wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology.

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Kurunegala

Kurunegala (කුරුණෑගල, குருணாகல்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.

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Lagoon

A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.

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Language

Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Lanka

Lanka (Sanskrit lankā "island") is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the legendary demon king Ravana in the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.

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Lanka Sama Samaja Party

The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Lanka Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a Trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka.

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Laos

Laos ((or) ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) (République démocratique populaire lao), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.

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Lasantha Wickrematunge

Lasantha Manilal Wickrematunge (5 April 1958 – 8 January 2009) was a high-profile Sri Lankan Journalist, Politician and Human Rights Activist who was assassinated in January 2009.

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Law of the Netherlands

The Netherlands is a civil law country.

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Legislative Council of Ceylon

The Legislative Council of Ceylon was the legislative body of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) established in 1833, along with the Executive Council of Ceylon, on the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission.

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Legislature

A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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Leopard

The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five "big cats" in the genus Panthera.

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Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission

The Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC, උගත් පාඩම් හා ප්‍රතිසන්ධාන කොමිෂන් සභාව, கற்றுக்கொண்ட பாடங்கள் மற்றும் நல்லிணக்க ஆணைக்குழு) was a commission of inquiry appointed by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa in May 2010 after the 26-year-long civil war in Sri Lanka.

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Lester James Peries

Sri Lankabhimanya Lester James Peries (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකාභිමාන්‍ය ලෙස්ටර් ජේම්ස් පීරිස්) (born 5 April 1919) is an internationally acclaimed Sri Lankan film director, screenwriter, and film producer.

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Liberalism

Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.

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Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழ விடுதலைப் புலிகள், දෙමළ ඊළාම් විමුක්ති කොටි, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) is a now-defunct militant organisation that was based in northern Sri Lanka.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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List of A-Grade highways in Sri Lanka

This is a list of A-grade highways in Sri Lanka sorted by route number.

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List of attacks on civilians attributed to Sri Lankan government forces

The following is a list of attacks on civilians attributed to armed groups under the control of the Sri Lankan government - Army, Navy, Air Force, Police and paramilitary groups (Home Guards/Civil Defence Force, EPDP, PLOTE, TMVP etc.). This list does not contain assassinations which are listed in a separate article.

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List of beaches in Sri Lanka

The following is a list of beaches in Sri Lanka.

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List of birds of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India.

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List of countries by Human Development Index

This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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List of countries by real GDP growth rate

This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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List of designated terrorist groups

This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.

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List of elected or appointed female heads of government

This is a list of women who have been elected or appointed as head of government of their respective countries.

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List of island countries

This is a list of island countries.

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List of mammals of Sri Lanka

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Sri Lanka.

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List of science fiction authors

Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate, or did not work in that genre.

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List of Sinhalese monarchs

The Sinhalese Monarchy was established in 543 BC with Prince Vijaya founding the Kingdom of Tambapanni and ended with Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy in 1815.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Looting

Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster, or rioting.

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Lourenço de Almeida

Lourenço de Almeida (c.1480 - March 1508) was a Portuguese explorer and military commander.

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Lovamahapaya

Lovamahapaya is a building situated between Ruvanveliseya and Sri Mahabodiya in the ancient city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.

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LTE (telecommunication)

LTE, an abbreviation for Long-Term Evolution, commonly marketed as 4G LTE, is a standard for wireless communication of high-speed data for mobile phones and data terminals.

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Lunar calendar

A lunar calendar is a calendar that is based on cycles of the lunar phases.

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Madhya Maha Vidyalaya

Madhya Maha Vidyalaya (English: Central College) in Sri Lanka is a type of government school.

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Madol Doova

Madol Doova (Sinhala: මඩොල් දූව is a children's novel written by Sri Lankan writer Martin Wickramasinghe and first published in 1947. The book recounts the misadventures of Upali Giniwella and his friends on the Southern coast of Sri Lanka during the 1890s. It later describes the efforts of Upali and his friend Jinna to lead their lives in a small deserted island. The novel has been translated into several languages, and was made into a film in 1976.

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Madurai Nayak dynasty

The Madurai Nayaks were rulers from around 1529 AD until 1736 AD, of a region comprising most of modern-day Tamil Nadu, India, with Madurai as their capital.

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Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port

The Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port (also known as the Port of Hambantota) is a maritime port in Hambantota, Sri Lanka.

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Maha Shivaratri

Maha Shivaratri is a Hindu festival celebrated annually in reverence of the god Shiva.

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Mahagama Sekara

Mahagama Sekara (Sinhala:මහගම සේකර) (7 April 1929 – 14 January 1976) is one of Sri Lanka's well known poets and was a significant figure in Sinhalese poetry.

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Mahavamsa

The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) is a historical book written in Pali of the Kings of Sri Lanka.

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Mahaweli River

The Mahaweli River (මහවැලි ගඟ, literally "Great Sandy River"; மகாவலி ஆறு), is a long river, ranking as the longest river in Sri Lanka.

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Mahinda (Buddhist monk)

Mahinda (Sanskrit Mahendra; born third century BCE in Ujjain, modern Madhya Pradesh, India) was a Buddhist monk depicted in Buddhist sources as bringing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.

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Mahinda Rajapaksa

Percy Mahendra "Mahinda" Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්‍ර "මහින්ද" රාජපක්ෂ,, மகிந்த ராசபக்ச; born 18 November 1945) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the 6th President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.

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Mahinda V of Anuradhapura

Mahinda V was King of Anuradhapura in the 11th century.

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Mahogany

Mahogany is a kind of wood—the straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the Americas,Bridgewater, Samuel.

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Maithripala Sirisena

Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena (known as Maithripala Sirisena or also referred to as “Maithri”; මෛත්‍රිපාල සිරිසේන; மைத்திரிபால சிறிசேன; born 3 September 1951) is a Sri Lankan politician who has been President of Sri Lanka since 2015.

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Malay Peninsula

The Malay Peninsula (Semenanjung Tanah Melayu, คาบสมุทรมลายู) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Maldives

The Maldives (or;, officially the Republic of Maldives; ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya) is a sovereign island country and archipelago in the Indian Ocean.

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Mammal

Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Man and the Biosphere Programme

Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.

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Mangrove

Mangroves are various large and extensive types of trees up to medium height and shrubs that grow in saline coastal sediment habitats in the tropics and subtropics—mainly between latitudes ° N and ° S.

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Mannar, Sri Lanka

Mannar (மன்னார், මන්නාරම), formerly spelled Manar, is a big town, and it's the main town of Mannar District, Northern Province, Sri Lanka, governed by an Urban Council.

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Market capitalization

Market capitalization or market cap is the total money market value of the shares outstanding of a publicly traded company; it is equal to the share price times the number of shares outstanding.

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Market economy

A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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Martin Wickramasinghe

Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (Sinhala:මාර්ටින් වික්‍රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 – 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Marxism and Leninism, and seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further.

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Matale Rebellion

The Matale Rebellion, also known as the Rebellion of 1848, took place in Ceylon against the British colonial government under Governor Lord Torrington, 7th Viscount Torrington.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, “knowledge, study, learning”) is the study of topics such as quantity (numbers), structure, space, and change.

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Maurya Empire

The Maurya Empire, also known as the Mauryan Empire, was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322–185 BCE.

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Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie) is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997.

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Maya Rata

The Maya Rata, also known as the Kingdom of Dakkinadesa, was a medieval era Sinhalese kingdom located in Western part of Sri Lanka.

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Mayor

In many countries, a mayor (or, from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or town.

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McGraw Hill Financial

McGraw Hill Financial, Inc. is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.

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Melodrama

A melodrama is a dramatic or literary work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Mesolithic

In archaeology, mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle", lithos "stone") is the culture between paleolithic and neolithic.

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Mesua ferrea

Mesua ferrea (Ceylon ironwood, Indian rose chestnut, or Cobra's saffron), is a species in the family Calophyllaceae.

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Mica

The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.

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Michael Ondaatje

Philip Michael Ondaatje, OC (born 12 September 1943), is a Sri Lankan-born Canadian novelist and poet.

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Middle East

The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.

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Mihintale

Mihintale is a mountain peak near Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka.

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Minister (government)

A minister is a politician who holds significant public office in a national or regional government, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.

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Ministry of Defence (Sri Lanka)

The Ministry of Defence is the Sri Lankan government ministry responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.

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Ministry of Education (Sri Lanka)

The Ministry Of Education (also known as the Education Ministry) is a ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to primary and secondary education in Sri Lanka.

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Ministry of Ports and Aviation (Sri Lanka)

The Ministry of Ports and Aviation is Sri Lanka's organization responsible for the development and operation of the country's shipping, port and aviation activities.

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Minneriya tank

Minneriya tank is an artificial lake in Sri Lanka made by an old civilisation; the Anuradhapura Kingdom.

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Mission (Christianity)

Christian mission is "an organized effort for the propagation of the Christian faith." Missions often involve sending individuals and groups, called "missionaries," across boundaries, most commonly geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism (conversion to Christianity, or from one Christian tradition to another).

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Monarch

A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy.

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Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication.

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Mongabay

Mongabay.com is a web site that publishes news on environmental science, energy, and green design, and features extensive information on tropical rainforests, including pictures and deforestation statistics for countries of the world.

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Monsoon

Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji

Ikhtiyar ad-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyar 'l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji (died 1206) was a TurkicThe Turkic Khilji must not be confused with the Pastun Ghalzi tribe.

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Mumbai

Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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Music genre

A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.

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Muslim

A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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Muttiah Muralitharan

Muttiah Muralitharan (also spelt Muralidaran; born 1972) is a Sri Lankan cricketer who was rated the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack in 2002.

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Myanmar

Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.

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Naga people (Lanka)

The Naga people (Nākar) appear until the third century BCE as a distinct group in the early Sri Lankan chronicles as well as early Tamil literary works.

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Nalanda

Nalanda was an acclaimed Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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National Museum of Colombo

National Museum of Colombo, also known as the Sri Lanka National Museum is one of two museums in Colombo.

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National Railway

The National Railway or National Air Line Railroad was a planned railroad between New York City and Washington, D.C. in the United States around 1870.

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National school (Sri Lanka)

A National school (ජාතික පාසල, Jathika Pasala, தேசியப் பாடசாலை) in Sri Lanka is a school that is funded and administered by the Ministry of Education of the central government as opposed to Provincial schools run by the local provincial council.

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National sport

A national sport or national pastime is a sport or game that is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.

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National symbols of Sri Lanka

The National symbols of Sri Lanka are the symbols that represent the country and its people within Sri Lanka and abroad as well as the traditions, culture, history and geography.

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National University of Malaysia

The National University of Malaysia (abbreviation: NUM; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; abbreviated UKM is a public university located in Bangi, Selangor which is about 35 km south of Kuala Lumpur. Its teaching hospital, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) is located in Cheras and also has a branch campus in Kuala Lumpur. There are 17,500 undergraduate students enrolled, and 5,105 postgraduate students of which 1368 are foreign students from 35 countries. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is one of five research universities in the country. It was ranked number 259th in the world by QS World University Rankings in 2014. It is ranked 98th place in the 100 best new universities established within the last 50 years in the world. It is the only university from Malaysia that made it in the 2012 Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) Top 50 Universities Under 50 Years Old list ranked in the 31st place. It placed 53rd and 58th in the QS Top 500 Asian University Rankings in 2011 and 2012 respectively.

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Natural rubber

Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.

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Nautical mile

A nautical mile (symbol M, NM or nmi) is a unit of distance that is approximately the length that spans one minute of arc on the surface of the Earth, measured along any meridian.

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Navi Pillay

Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

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New Delhi

New Delhi is a district in Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States.

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New York

New York is a state in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Nidhanaya

Nidhanaya (The Treasure) is a 1972 Sinhalese language film directed by Lester James Peries, starring Gamini Fonseka and Malini Fonseka.

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Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka

The 19th Amendment (19A) to the Constitution of Sri Lanka was passed by the 225-member Sri Lankan Parliament with 215 voting in favor, one against, one abstained and seven were absent, on 28 April 2015.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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Norman Myers

Norman Myers (born 24 August 1934) is a British environmentalist specialising in biodiversity and noted for his work on environmental refugees.

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North Central Province, Sri Lanka

North Central Province (උතුරු මැද පළාත Uturumeda Palata, வட மத்திய மாகாணம் Wada Maththiya Maakaanam) is a province of Sri Lanka.

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North Eastern Province, Sri Lanka

The North Eastern Province was one of the provinces of Sri Lanka.

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North Western Province, Sri Lanka

North Western Province (වයඹ පළාත Wayamba Palata, வட மேல் மாகாணம் Vada Mael Maakaanam) is a province of Sri Lanka.

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Northern Province, Sri Lanka

The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭakku Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.

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Nova Science Publishers

Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.

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Nutmeg

Nutmeg (also known as pala in Indonesia) is one of the two spices – the other being mace – derived from several species of tree in the genus Myristica.

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Odisha

Odisha (or Orissa)(odia:ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the east of India.

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Off spin

Off spin Spin bowling in the sport of cricket which is bowled by an off spinner, a right-handed spin bowler who uses his or her fingers to spin the ball from a right-handed batsman's off side to the leg side (that is, towards the right-handed batsman, or away from a left-handed batsman).

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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One man, one vote

"One man, one vote" (or "one person, one vote") is a name that has been used in many parts of the world where campaigns have arisen for universal suffrage.

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Oral literature

Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.

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Outline of Sri Lanka

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sri Lanka: Sri Lanka – island country in the northern Indian Ocean off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Paleolithic

The Paleolithic (American spelling; British spelling: Palaeolithic; pronunciation: or) Age, Era or Period is a prehistoric period of human history distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools discovered (Grahame Clark's Modes I and II), and covers roughly 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Pali

Pali is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent.

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Palk Strait

The Palk Strait (பாக்கு சலசந்தி / பாக்கு நீரிணை) is a strait between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Mannar district of the Northern Province of the island nation of Sri Lanka.

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Pallava dynasty

The Pallava dynasty existed between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India.

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Palm-leaf manuscript

Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves.

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Pandukabhaya of Anuradhapura

Pandukabhaya (437 BC – 367 BC) was King of Upatissa Nuwara and the first monarch of the Anuradhapura Kingdom and 6th over all of the island of Sri Lanka since the arrival of the Vijaya, he reigned from 437 BC to 367 BC.

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Pandyan dynasty

The Pandyan or Pandiyan or Pandian dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.

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Panic of 1847

The Panic of 1847 was a minor British banking crisis associated with the end of the 1840s railway industry boom and the failure of many non-banks.

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Parakrama Samudra

Parakrama Samudra (or Parakrama's sea or the Sea of King Parakrama) is a shallow reservoir, consisting of three separate reservoirs connected by narrow channels in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.

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Parakramabahu I

Parākramabāhu I (Pali Mahā Parākaramabāhu 1123–1186) was king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa from 1153-86.

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Parakramabahu VI of Kotte

Parâkramabâhu VI (1410/1412/1415–1467) was a king in the Sri Lankan kingdom of Kotte.

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Parliament of Sri Lanka

The Parliament of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව Sri Lanka Parlimenthuwa) is the 225-member unicameral legislature of Sri Lanka.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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Parsi

Parsi (or Parsee) is one of two Zoroastrian communities (the other being Iranis) which are primarily located in India.

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Parsi theatre

Parsi theatre is a generic term for an influential theatre tradition, staged by Parsis, and theatre companies largely-owned by Parsi-business community, which flourished between 1850 and 1930s.

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Pāli Canon

The Pāli Canon (Pali: Tipitaka) is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.

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Peacekeeping

Peacekeeping refers to activities that tend to create conditions that favor lasting peace.

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Peafowl

Peafowl include two Asiatic species (the blue or Indian peafowl originally of India and Sri Lanka and the green peafowl of Burma, Indochina, and Java) and one African species (the Congo peafowl native only to the Congo Basin) of bird in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies, known for the male's piercing call and, among the Asiatic species, his extravagant eye-spotted tail covert feathers which he displays as part of a courtship ritual.

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Pelican

Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that makes up the family Pelecanidae.

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Per capita income

Per capita income or average income is the measure of the amount of money that is being earned by person in a certain area, such as a city, region, or country, which is calculated by dividing the total income of a the area by its total population.

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Peradeniya

Peradeniya (Sinhala:පේරාදෙණිය IAST pēradeniya) is a suburb of the city of Kandy, about 50,000 inhabitants in Sri Lanka.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Persian people

The Persian people (Persian: پارسیان) are an Iranian people who speak the modern Persian language and closely related Iranian dialects and languages.

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Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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Pidurutalagala

Pidurutalagala (පිදුරුතලාගල, pronounced, Straw Plateau Rock), or Mount Pedro in English, is an ultra prominent peak, and the tallest mountain in Sri Lanka, at.

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Pirivena

A pirivena (plural: piriven) is a monastic college (similar to a seminary) for the education of Buddhist priests in Sri Lanka.

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Plantation economy

A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere.

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Policy of standardisation

The policy of standardization was a policy implemented by the Sri Lankan government in 1971 to rectify disparities created in university enrollment in Sri Lanka under Colonial rule.

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Polonnaruwa

Poḷonnaruwa (Sinhalese Poḷonnaruwa or Puḷattipura, Tamil Polaṉṉaṟuvai or Puḷatti nakaram) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

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Ponnambalam Arunachalam

Sir Ponnambalam Arunachchalam (September 14, 1853 – January 9, 1924) was a Ceylonese statesman, who served as a member of the Executive Council and the Legislative Council.

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Population

A population is a summation of all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

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Porcupine

Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.

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Portugal

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.

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Portuguese Empire

The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português), was the first global empire in history.

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Portuguese-based creole languages

Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as the lexifier language.

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Precious coral

Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral.

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President of Sri Lanka

The President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්‍රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති; இலங்கை சனாதிபதி) is the elected head of state and head of government of Sri Lanka.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a system of government where a head of government is also head of state and leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Press Freedom Index

The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organization's assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.

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Prime Minister of Sri Lanka

The Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්‍රී ලංකා අග්‍රාමාත්‍ය; இலங்கை பிரதமர்) is a member of the Cabinet of Sri Lanka.

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Princeton University

Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey, United States.

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Principality of Ruhuna

The Principality of Ruhuna also referred to as the Kingdom of Ruhuna is a region of present-day Southern and Eastern Sri Lanka.

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Privately held company

A privately held company or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.

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Privatization

Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings.

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Progressivism

Progressivism is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and social organization are vital to improve the human condition.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.

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Proscription

Proscription (proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Provinces of Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka, provinces (පළාත, மாகாணம்) are the first level administrative division.

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Public university

A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.

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Pune

Pune is the ninth-most populous city in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after the state capital city of Mumbai.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Purple-faced langur

The purple-faced langur (Semnopithecus vetulus), also known as the purple-faced leaf monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that is endemic to Sri Lanka.

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Puthandu

Puthandu (Tamil Puttāṇṭu), better known as Tamil New Year, is the celebration of the first day of the Tamil new year in mid-April by Tamils in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry in India, Sri Lankan Tamils and Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka, and by Tamils in Malaysia, Singapore, Réunion and Mauritius.

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Puttu

Puttu (Malayalam: പുട്ട്), pronounced, (Tamil: புட்டு), (Sinhala පිට්ටු) is a South Indian and Tamil breakfast dish of steamed cylinders of ground rice layered with coconut.

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Radio Ceylon

A Brief History.

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Rail transport in Sri Lanka

Rail Transport in Sri Lanka consists of a heavy-rail intercity network connecting major population centres and commuter rail serving Colombo commuter traffic.

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Raja Raja Chola I

Raja Raja Chola I (also known as Raja Kesari Varman Raja Raja Devar and Peruvudaiyar), was one of the greatest emperors of India, who ruled between 985 and 1014 CE.

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Rajarata

Rajarata (Sinhala: රජරට) (Tamil: ரஜரட) was one of three historical regions of the island of Sri Lanka for about 1,700 years from the 6th century BCE to the early 13th century CE.

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Rajasinha II of Kandy

Rajasimha II, also known as Rajasingha II (pre coronation, Prince Mahastana), was a Sinhalese King, reigned 1629 – 6 December 1687; third king of the kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka.

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Rajendra Chola I

Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola I and is considered one of the greatest rulers and military leaders of the Indian Tamil Chola Empire.

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Ramadan

Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also transliterated Ramazan, Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Ramayana

The Ramayana (रामायणम्) is a Sanskrit epic poem ascribed to the Hindu sage and Sanskrit poet Valmiki.

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Ranil Wickremesinghe

Ranil Shriyan Wickremesinghe, MP (රනිල් වික්‍රමසිංහ,ரணில் விக்ரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka since 9 January 2015, as Leader of the United National Party since 1994 and the Member of Parliament for Colombo District since 1977.

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Ranmuthu Duwa

Ranmuthu Duwa (Island of Treasures) was the first colour full-length Sinhalese language film to be produced in Sri Lanka in 1962.

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Rarh region

Rarh region (রাঢ়, Rāṛh) is a toponym for an area in the Indian subcontinent that lies between the Chota Nagpur Plateau on the West and the Ganges Delta on the East.

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Ratnapura

Ratnapura ("City of Gems" in Sinhala and Tamil) is a major city in Sri Lanka.

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Ravana

Rāvaṇa is the primary antagonist in the Hindu epic Ramayana, where he is depicted as the king of Lanka.

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Red-faced malkoha

The red-faced malkoha (Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes.

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Referendum

A referendum (in some countries synonymous with plebiscite — or a vote on a ballot question) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to vote on a particular proposal.

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Rekava

Rekava (Sinhalese language word means "Line of Destiny") is a 1956 film based on village life and their mythical beliefs in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon).

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Relic of the tooth of the Buddha

The Sacred Relic of the tooth of Buddha (Pali danta dhātuya) is venerated in Sri Lanka as a cetiya "relic" of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.

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Religious text

Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sacred, or central to their religious tradition.

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Repatriation

Repatriation is the process of returning a person to their place of origin or citizenship.

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Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka

The Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka was a 2011 report produced by a panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War.

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Republic

A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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Reservoir

A reservoir (etymology: from French réservoir a "storehouse") is an enlarged natural or artificial lake, storage pond, or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in Canary Wharf, London, England, United Kingdom and a division of Thomson Reuters.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Rienzi Crusz

Rienzi Crusz (born 17 October 1925) is a Canadian poet born in Galle, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).

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Right- and left-hand traffic

The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively.

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Right-wing politics

Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.

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Rigveda

The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise, shine" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns.

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Robert Brownrigg

General Sir Robert Brownrigg, 1st Baronet GCB (1759 – 27 April 1833) was a British statesman and soldier.

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Rock (geology)

In geology, rock is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rohan Gunaratna

Rohan Gunaratna (born 1961) is an international terrorism expert.

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Rohana Wijeweera

Patabendi Don Nandasiri Wijeweera (පටබැඳි දොන් නන්දසිරි විජෙවීර; 14 July 1943 – 13 November 1989) known as Rohana Wijeweera, was a Sri Lankan Marxist politician, rebel and the founding leader of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.

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Roti

Roti is an Indian Subcontinent flat bread, made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh.

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Routledge

Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the legal principle that law should govern a nation, as opposed to being governed by arbitrary decisions of individual government officials.

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Ruling party

The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.

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Russell Mittermeier

Russell Alan Mittermeier (born November 8, 1949) is a primatologist and herpetologist.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Ruwanwelisaya

The Ruwanwelisaya is a stupa in Sri Lanka, considered a marvel for its architectural qualities and sacred to many Buddhists all over the world.

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S. J. V. Chelvanayakam

Samuel James Veluppillai Chelvanayakam (also spelt Chelvanayagam, சாமுவேல் ஜேம்ஸ் வேலுப்பிள்ளை செல்வநாயகம்; March 31, 1898 – April 26, 1977) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, politician and Member of Parliament.

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S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike

Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (සොලමන් වෙස්ට් රිජ්වේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක,சாலமன் வெஸ்ட் ரிட்ஜ்வே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கா; 8 January 1899 – 26 September 1959) frequently referred to as S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, was the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) and founder of the left wing and Sinhala nationalist Sri Lanka Freedom Party, serving as Prime Minister from 1956 until his assassination by a Buddhist robe wearer in 1959.

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Sabaragamuwa Province

The Sabaragamuwa Province, (සබරගමුව පළාත Sabaragamuwa Palata, சபரகமுவ மாகாணம் Sabaragamuwa Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.

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Sangamitta

Saṅghamittā (Saṅghamitrā in Sanskrit) was the grand daughter of Emperor Bindusara and daughter of Emperor Ashoka and his wife, Vidisha Devi.

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Sangha

Sangha (Pali: सङ्घ saṅgha; Sanskrit: संघ saṃgha;; Tibetan: དགེ་འདུན་ dge 'dun) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly," "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of ordained Buddhist monks or nuns.

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Sanni Yakuma

Sanni yakuma, sometimes known as Daha ata sanniya is a traditional Sinhalese exorcism ritual.

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Satyagraha

Satyagraha (सत्याग्रह satyāgraha), loosely translated as "insistence on truth" (satya "truth"; agraha "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force, is a particular philosophy and practice within the broader overall category generally known as nonviolent resistance or civil resistance.

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Schools of Buddhism

Schools of Buddhism refers to the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving in which a diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) to breathe underwater.

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Sea level

Sea level is generally used to refer to mean sea level (MSL), an average level for the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.

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Seagrass

Seagrasses are flowering plants (Division Angiospermae) belonging to four plant families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae, or Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Secretary-General of the United Nations

The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations.

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Semi-presidential system

Semi-presidentialism is a system of government in which a president exists along with a prime minister and a Cabinet, with the latter two being responsible to the legislature of a state.

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Sena and Guttika

Sena and Guttika were two Tamil chiefs from South India who invaded the kingdom of Anuradhapura and killed King Suratissa.

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Serendipity

Serendipity means a "fortunate happenstance" or "pleasant surprise".

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Shafi'i

The Shafi'i (شافعي) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Sharia

Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.

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Sigiriya

Sigiriya (Lion Rock සීගිරිය, சிகிரியா, pronounced see-gi-ri-yə) is an ancient palace located in the central Matale District near the town of Dambulla in the Central Province, Sri Lanka.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is a chemical compound that is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.

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Sinhala Kingdom

The Sinhala Kingdom or Sinhalese Kingdom refers to the one and or all of the successive Sinhalese kingdoms that existed in what is today Sri Lanka.

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Sinhala Only Act

The Sinhala Only Act, formally the Official Language Act No.

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Sinhalese language

Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.

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Sinhalese New Year

Sinhalese New Year, generally known as Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද) in Sri Lanka, is the new year of the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka.

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Sinhalese people

The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya) are an ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.

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Sinharaja Forest Reserve

Sinharaja Forest Reserve is a national park and a biodiversity hotspot in Sri Lanka.

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Sirima–Gandhi Pact

The Sirima–Gandhi Pact or Srimavo-Gandhi Pact was an agreement that was signed between Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, and Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India, on 28 June 1974.

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Sirima–Shastri Pact

The Sirima–Shastri Pact or Srimavo-Shastri Pact (also known as the Indo-Ceylon Agreement and Bandaranaike-Shastri Pact) was an agreement that was signed between Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, and Lal Bahadur Shastri, the Prime Minister of India, on 30 October 1964.

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Sirimavo Bandaranaike

Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (සිරිමා රත්වත්තේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක, சிறிமா ரத்வத்தே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கே; 17 April 1916 – 10 October 2000), commonly known as Sirimavo Bandaranaike (the suffix "vo" denotes respect), was a Sri Lankan politician and the modern world's first female head of government.

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Sloth bear

The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the Stickney bear or labiated bear, is a nocturnal insectivorous bear species found wild within the Indian Subcontinent.

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Social class

Social class (or simply "class"), as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.

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Socialism

Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.

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Solomon

Solomon (ISO 259-3 Šlomo; ܫܠܝܡܘܢ Shlemun; سُليمان, also colloquially: or; Σολομών Solomōn), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew), was, according to the Bible (Book of Kings: 1 Kings 1–11; Book of Chronicles: 1 Chronicles 28–29, 2 Chronicles 1–9), Qur'an, and Hidden Words a king of Israel and the son of David.

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Soulbury Commission

The Soulbury Commission, announced in 1944 was, like its predecessor, the Donoughmore Commission, a prime instrument of constitutional reform in Sri Lanka.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and geopolitical organisation of eight countries that are primarily located in South Asia or the Indian subcontinent.

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South India

South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Province, Sri Lanka

The Southern Province (දකුණු පළාත Dakunu Palata, தென் மாகாணம் Thaen Maakaanam) of Sri Lanka is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka

The Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka is the presiding officer of the chamber.

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Special Task Force

The Special Task Force (STF) (Sinhala: Tamil) is an elite special forces unit of the Sri Lanka Police Service specializing in counter-terrorism (CT) and counter-insurgency operations.

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Spice

A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, berry, bud or vegetable substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.

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Spoonbill

Spoonbills are a group of large, long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, which also includes the ibises.

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Sport of athletics

The sport of athletics is an exclusive collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.

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Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte

Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte or Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (also known as Kotte) is a large suburb of Colombo city and the official capital of Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lanka Air Force

The Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) (ශ්‍රි ලංකා ගුවන් හමුදාව Sri Lanka Guwan Hamudawa) is the air arm and the youngest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.

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Sri Lanka Armed Forces

The Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka encompassing the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy, and the Sri Lanka Air Force; they are governed by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).

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Sri Lanka Army

The Sri Lanka Army is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.

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Sri Lanka blue magpie

The Sri Lanka blue magpie or Ceylon magpie (Urocissa ornata) is a member of the crow family living in the hill forests of Sri Lanka, where it is endemic.

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Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation

The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) (ශ්‍රී ලංකා ගුවන් විදුලි සංස්ථාච, Shrī Lankā Guvan Viduli Sansthāva, இலங்கை ஒலிபரப்புக் கூட்டுத்தாபனம், Ilangkai Oliparappuk Kūṭṭuttāpaṉam) came into existence on January 5, 1967 when Radio Ceylon became a public corporation.

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Sri Lanka Civil Security Force

The Sri Lanka Civil Security Force (also known as the Civil Defence Force, originally the National Home Guard Service) is a paramilitary force which is tasked as an auxiliary to the Sri Lanka Police.

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Sri Lanka Coast Guard

The Sri Lankan Coast Guard, officially the Department of Coast Guard, is a Sri Lankan non-ministerial government department tasked with Coast guard duties within the territorial waters of Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lanka Freedom Party

The Sri Lanka Freedom Party (ශ්‍රී ලංකා නිදහස් පක්ෂය Sri Lanka Nidahas Pakshaya, இலங்கை சுதந்திரக் கட்சி) is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lanka Kaffirs

The Sri Lankan Kaffirs (cafrinhas in Portuguese, කාපිරි kāpiriyō in Sinhala, and காப்பிலி kāpili in Tamil) are an ethnic group in Sri Lanka who are partially descended from 16th century Portuguese traders and Bantu slaves who were brought by them to work as labourers and soldiers to fight against the Sinhala Kings.

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Sri Lanka Matha

Mother Sri Lanka (ශ්‍රී ලංකා ජාතික ගීය Sri Lanka Matha; ஸ்ரீ லங்கா தாயே Sri Laṅkā Tāyē) is the national anthem of Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lanka Muslim Congress

The Sri Lanka Muslim Congress is a political party in Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lanka national cricket team

The Sri Lankan cricket team, nicknamed The Lions, is the national cricket team of Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lanka Navy

The Sri Lankan Navy is the navy of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is classed as the most vital defence force of Sri Lanka due to the country's island geography.

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Sri Lanka Railways

Sri Lanka Railway Department, branded "Sri Lanka Railways" (SLR), is Sri Lanka's railway owner and primary operator.

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Sri Lanka Standard Time

Sri Lanka Standard Time (SLST) is the time zone for Sri Lanka.

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Sri Lankan Civil War

No description.

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Sri Lankan Creole Malay

Sri Lankan Creole Malay (also known as Sri Lankan Malay and Bahasa Melayu) is an Austronesian creole language formed through a mixture of Sinhala and Tamil with Malay.

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Sri Lankan Malays

Malays of Sri Lanka (also known in Sinhalese language as Ja Minissu meaning Javanese) originated in Southeast Asia.

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Sri Lankan Moors

Sri Lankan Moors (Tamil: இலங்கைச் சோனகர் colloquially referred to as Muslims) are a community in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.23% of the country's total population.

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Sri Lankan rupee

The rupee (Sinhala: රුපියල්, Tamil: ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents.

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Sri Lankan state-sponsored colonisation schemes

Sri Lankan state-sponsored colonization schemes refers to the government program of settling mostly Sinhalese farmers from the densely populated wet zone in the sparsely populated areas of the dry zone in the North Central Province and the Eastern Province regions near tanks and reservoirs being built in major irrigation and hydro-power programs such as the Mahaweli project to create farming and fishing communities.Since irrigation settlements in the North Central and Eastern Provinces occurred under direct state sponsorship, it appeared to many Tamils as a deliberate attempt of the Sinhalese-dominated state to marginalize them further by decreasing their numbers in the area.

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Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism

Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism is the conviction of the Sri Lankan Tamil people, a minority ethnic group in the South Asian island country of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon), that they have the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community.

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Sri Lankan Tamils

Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.

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Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha of Kandy

Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha (reigned 1782–1798) was a member of the Madurai royal family and succeeded his brother, Kirti Sri Rajasinha as King of Kandy in 1782.

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Sri Vijaya Rajasinha of Kandy

Vijaya Rajasinha (reigned 1739–1747) was a member of the Madurai Nayak Dynasty and succeeded his brother-in-law Vira Narendra Sinha as the King of Kandy.

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Sri Vikrama Rajasinha of Kandy

Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1780 - January 30, 1832, born Kannasamy Nayaka) was the last of four Kings, to rule the last Sinhalese monarchy of the Kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka.

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SriLankan Airlines

SriLankan Airlines (marketed as SriLankan ශ්‍රී ලංකා ගුවන් සේවය; இலங்கை விமான சேவை) is the flag carrier of Sri Lanka.

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State Council of Ceylon

The State Council of Ceylon was the unicameral legislature for Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), established in 1931 by the Donoughmore Constitution.

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Stele

A stele (plural steles or stelai, from Greek: στήλη, stēlē) or stela (plural stelas or stelæ, from Latin) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected as a monument, very often for funerary or commemorative purposes.

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Stork

Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.

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Stupa

A stupa (Sanskrit: m.,stūpa "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing śarīra "relics", typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns, used as a place of meditation.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.

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Supermajority

A supermajority or a qualified majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified greater level of support than a more than 50% simple majority.

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Supreme Court of Sri Lanka

The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා ශ්‍රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණය) is the highest court of Sri Lanka.

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Suratissa of Anuradhapura

Suratissa was an early monarch of Sri Lanka of the Kingdom of Anuradhapura, based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 247 BC to 237 BC.

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Susanthika Jayasinghe

Susanthika Jayasinghe (සුසන්තිකා ජයසිංහ; Tamil: சுசந்திகா ஜயசிங்ஹ) (born December 17, 1975) is a Sri Lankan sprint athlete specializing in the 100 and 200 metres.

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Tamil Eelam

Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.

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Tamil language

Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.

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Tamil National Alliance

The Tamil National Alliance (தமிழ்த் தேசியக் கூட்டமைப்பு ISO 15919: tamiḻt tēciyakkūṭṭamaippu; TNA) is a political alliance in Sri Lanka that represents the country's Sri Lankan Tamil minority.

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Tamil United Liberation Front

The Tamil United Liberation Front (தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ) is a political party in Sri Lanka which seeks independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka.

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Tamils

The Tamils, also known as the Tamilans, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and native to Indian State of Tamil Nadu, Union territory of Puducherry, Northern and Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.

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Taprobana

Taprobana (Ταπροβανᾶ) or Taprobane (Ταπροβανῆ) was the historical name for an island in the Indian Ocean.

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Taraki Sivaram

Taraki Sivaram or Dharmeratnam Sivaram (11 August 1959 – 28 April 2005) was a popular Tamil journalist of Sri Lanka.

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Tarshish

Tarshish, also spelled Tharsis, (תַּרְשִׁישׁ) occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place, probably a city or country, far across the sea from the Land of Israel, which does trade with Israel and Phoenicia.

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Tea

Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia.

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Tea production in Sri Lanka

Tea production is one of the main sources of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka (formerly called Ceylon), and accounts for 2% of GDP, contributing US $1,527 million in 2013 to the economy of Sri Lanka.

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Teak

Teak is a tropical hardwood species of tree known as Tectona grandis.

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Telecommunication

Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between two or more entities (communication) includes the use of technology.

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Telephone numbers in Sri Lanka

No description.

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Telugu language

Telugu (తెలుగు telugu) is a Dravidian language and is the only language other than Hindi, English and Bengali that is predominantly spoken in more than one Indian state, being the primary language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language.

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Temperate climate

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.

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Temple of the Tooth

Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka.

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Tennis

Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).

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Test cricket

Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket.

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Textile

A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.

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Thai Pongal

Thai Pongal (Tamil: தைப்பொங்கல்) is a Tamil harvest festival.

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Thailand

Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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Theatre

Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.

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Theravada

Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the teaching of the Pāli Canon, a collection of the oldest recorded Buddhist texts, as its doctrinal core, but also includes a rich diversity of traditions and practices that have developed over its long history of interactions with various cultures and communities.

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Thesavalamai

Thesavalamai is the traditional law of the Sri Lankan Tamil inhabitants Jaffna peninsula, codified by the Dutch during their colonial rule in 1707.

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Thorium

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.

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Tissa Vitharana

Tissa Vitharana (born 30 August 1934) is a Sri Lankan professor and politician, current Cabinet Minister of Technology and Research and a member of the Parliament of Sri Lanka.

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Tourism

Tourism is travel for recreation, leisure, religious, family or business purposes, usually for a limited duration.

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Treaty of Amiens

The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Treaty of San Francisco

, or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty), mostly between Japan and the Allied Powers, was officially signed by 48 nations on September 8, 1951, at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco, California, United States. It came into force on April 28, 1952. According to Article 11 of the Treaty of San Francisco, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan. This treaty served to officially end World War II, to formally end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes, and to end the Allies' military occupation and return sovereignty to Japan. This treaty made extensive use of the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals. This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the "San Francisco System"; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history. This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is really still held by the Allies (particularly the US).

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Trincomalee

Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai, ත්‍රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

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Tripiṭaka

(Pali: Tipiṭaka) is a Sanskrit word meaning Three Baskets.

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Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests

Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as Jungle.

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Tropical climate

A tropical climate is a climate typically found within the Tropics, while a few locations outside the Tropics are considered to have a tropical climate.

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Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.

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Underdog (term)

An "underdog" is a person or group in a competition, usually in sports and creative works, who is popularly expected to lose.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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Unicameralism

In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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UNICEF

No description.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.

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United Front (Sri Lanka)

The United Front was a political alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP) and the Communist Party of Sri Lanka (CPSL) in 1968.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United National Party

The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (එක්සත් ජාතික පක්ෂය, pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya, ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி), is a political party in Sri Lanka.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency that coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations System inter-governmental body whose 47 member states are responsible for promoting and protecting human rights around the world.

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United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon Arabic:(قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL Arabic:(يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, was originally created by the United Nations Arabic:(الأمم المتحدة), with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the Government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.

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United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad

The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations Security Council on September 25, 2007 to provide a multidimensional presence of up to 350 police and military personnel to eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic The mission comes as a response to the dire situation of an estimated 230,000 refugees from Darfur who continue to flee into bordering eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic (CAR).

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United Nations Public Administration Network

The United Nations Public Administration Network mission statement is to promote the sharing of knowledge, experiences and best practices throughout the world in sound public policies, effective public administration and efficient civil services, through capacity-building and cooperation among the United Nations Member States, with emphasis on south-south cooperation and UNPAN's commitment to integrity and excellence.

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United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti

The United Nations Stabilization Mission In Haiti (UNSTAMIH) (Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti), also known as MINUSTAH, an acronym of the French translation, is a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti that has been in operation since 2004.

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United People's Freedom Alliance

The United People's Freedom Alliance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Department of State

The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.

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Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.

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University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka)

The University Grants Commission (UGC) is the body responsible for funding most of the State Universities in Sri Lanka, and operates within the frame work of the Universities Act No.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Edinburgh

The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.

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University of Michigan

The University of Michigan (U-M, UM, UMich, or U of M), frequently referred to simply as Michigan, is a public research university located in Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States.

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University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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University of Moratuwa

The University of Moratuwa (also referred as Moratuwa University) (මොරටුව විශ්වවිද්‍යාලය, மொரட்டுவை பல்கலைக்கழகம்), located on the bank of the Bolgoda Lake in Katubedda, Moratuwa, is the most sought-after technological university in Sri Lanka.

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University of Peradeniya

The University of Peradeniya (පේරාදෙණිය විශ්ව විද්‍යාලය, பேராதனைப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is a state university in Sri Lanka, funded by the University Grants Commission.

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University Teachers for Human Rights

*For the figure in Norse mythology, see Urðr The University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna) or UTHR(J) was formed in 1988 at the University of Jaffna, Jaffna in Sri Lanka as part of the national organization University Teachers for Human Rights.

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Upasampada

Upasampadā (Pali) literally means "approaching or nearing the ascetic tradition." In more common parlance it specifically refers to the rite of ordination by which one undertakes the Buddhist monastic life.

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Utilitarianism

Utilitarianism is a theory in normative ethics holding that the best moral action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Uva Province

Uva Province (ඌව පළාත Uva Palata, ஊவா மாகாணம் Uva Maakaanam) is Sri Lanka's second least populated province, with 1,259,880 people, created in 1896.

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Valagamba of Anuradhapura

Valagamba, also known as Vattagamani Abhaya and Valagambahu, was a king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom of Sri Lanka.

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Vedda people

Veddas (වැද්දා, வேடுவர் Vēṭuvar) are an indigenous people of Sri Lanka.

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Vijayabahu I of Polonnaruwa

Vijayabahu I (born, Prince Kitti) (ruled 1055–1110) was a medieval king of Sri Lanka.

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Vimaladharmasuriya I of Kandy

Vimaladharmasuriya I, also known as Konappu Bandara before Coronation and Dom Joan of Austria or Don Jhon Appuhamy, was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled the country from 1590 to 1604.

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Vimana

Vimāna is a mythological flying palace or chariot described in Hindu texts and Sanskrit epics.

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Vira Narendra Sinha of Kandy

Vira Parakrama Narendra Sinha (1707–1739 AD) was the last Sinhalese King of Sri Lanka of the Kingdom of Kandy.

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Virginia

Virginia (U.S.:, U.K.), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state located in the South Atlantic region of the United States.

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Vishvakarman

Viśwákarma (Sanskrit "all-accomplishing, maker of all, all-doer") is personified omnipotence and the abstract form of the creator God according to the Rigveda.

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Volleyball

Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.

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W. D. Amaradeva

Wannakuwatta Mitiwaduge Don Albert Perera (වන්නකුවත්ත මිටිවඩුගේ දොන් ඇල්බට් පෙරෙරා; born 5 December 1927) in Moratuwa, Sri Lanka, better known by his adopted name Amaradeva, is a Sri Lankan vocalist, violinist and composer.

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Wariyapola

Wariyapola is a town in the Kurunegala District, North Western province, Sri Lanka.

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Welfare state

A welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.

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West Bengal

West Bengal is a state in eastern India and is the nation's fourth-most populous state, with over 91 million inhabitants.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western Province, Sri Lanka

The Western Province (බස්නාහිර පළාත Basnahira Palata; மேல் மாகாணம் Mael Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.

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White people

White people is a racial classification specifier, depending on context used for people of Caucasian ancestry.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swineHeptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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Wilhelm Geiger

Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger (1856-1943) was a German Orientalist in the fields of Indo-Iranian languages and the history of Iran and Sri Lanka.

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Wilpattu National Park

Wilpattu National Park (Willu-pattu; Land of Lakes) is a park located on the island of Sri Lanka.

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Wisden Cricketers' Almanack

Wisden Cricketers' Almanack (or simply Wisden or colloquially "the Bible of Cricket") is a cricket reference book published annually in the United Kingdom.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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World Economic Forum

The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva.

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World Giving Index

The World Giving Index (WGI) is an annual report published by the Charities Aid Foundation, using data gathered by Gallup, and ranks over 130 countries in the world according to how charitable they are.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Yaksha

Yaksha (Sanskrit, Pali yakkha) is the name of a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, who are caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.

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Yala National Park

Yala National Park is the most visited and second largest national park in Sri Lanka.

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Yapahuwa

Yapahuwa was one of the ephemeral capitals of medieval Sri Lanka.

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Zheng He

Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435), formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty.

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Zoroastrianism

Zoroastrianism or Mazdaism is the religion ascribed to the teachings of the prophet Zoroaster, whose Supreme Being was Ahura Mazda.

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.lk

.lk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sri Lanka.

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10th parallel north

The 10th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 10 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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1948 Summer Olympics

The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in London, England, United Kingdom.

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1953 Ceylonese Hartal

The Hartal 1953 was a country-wide demonstration of civil disobedience and strike, commonly known as a hartal, held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 12 August 1953.

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1962 Ceylonese coup d'état attempt

The 1962 Ceylonese coup d'état attempt (also known as the Colonels coup) was a failed military coup planned in Sri Lanka (Ceylon).

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1971 JVP Insurrection

The 1971 Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna Insurrection (also known as the 1971 Revolt) was the first unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the communist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) against the Government of Ceylon under Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike.

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1986 Asia Cup

The 1986 Asia Cup (also known as the John Player Gold Leaf Trophy), was the second Asia Cup tournament, and was held in Sri Lanka between March 30 and April 6.

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1987–89 JVP Insurrection

The 1987–89 JVP Insurrection (also known as the 1989 Revolt) was the second unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna against the Government of Sri Lanka under President J. R. Jayewardene.

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1996 Cricket World Cup

The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, ITC's Wills brand, was the sixth Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).

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1997 Asia Cup

The 1997 Asia Cup (also known as the Pepsi Asia Cup 1997), was the sixth Asia Cup tournament, and the second to be held in Sri Lanka.

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200 metres

The 200 metres (also spelled 200 meters) is a sprint running event.

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2000 Summer Olympics

The 2000 Summer Olympic Games (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 2000), officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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2001: A Space Odyssey

2001: A Space Odyssey is a science-fiction narrative, produced in 1968 as both a novel, written by Arthur C. Clarke, and a film, directed by Stanley Kubrick.

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2004 Asia Cup

The eighth edition of cricket's Asia Cup (also called Indian Oil Asia Cup) was held in Sri Lanka after a gap of 4 years.

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2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.

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2007 Cricket World Cup

The 2007 ICC Cricket World Cup was the 9th edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament that took place in the West Indies from 13 March to 28 April 2007, using the sport's One Day International format.

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2008 Asia Cup

The 2008 Asia Cup (also called STAR Cricket Asia Cup) took place in Pakistan in June 2008.

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2009 ICC World Twenty20

The 2009 ICC World Twenty20 was an international Twenty20 cricket tournament which took place in England in June 2009.

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2011 Cricket World Cup

The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup.

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2011 Cricket World Cup Final

The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup Final was played between India and Sri Lanka at the Wankhede Stadium in Mumbai on 2 April 2011.

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2012 ICC World Twenty20

The 2012 ICC World Twenty20 was the fourth ICC World Twenty20 competition, an international Twenty20 cricket tournament that took place in Sri Lanka from 18 September to 7 October 2012 which was won by the West Indies.

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2014 Asia Cup

The 2014 Asia Cup was the twelfth edition of the Asia Cup cricket tournament.

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2014 ICC World Twenty20

The 2014 ICC World Twenty20 was the fifth ICC World Twenty20 competition, an international Twenty20 cricket tournament, that took place in Bangladesh from 16 March to 6 April 2014, which was won by Sri Lanka.

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3G

3G, short form of third generation, is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology.

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3G (countries)

3G countries or Global Growth Generating countries are 11 countries which have been identified as sources of growth potential and of profitable investment opportunities.

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400 metres hurdles

The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event.

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5th parallel north

The 5th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 5 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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79th meridian east

The meridian 79° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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82nd meridian east

The meridian 82° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

Administrative divisions of Sri Lanka, Ceilan, Ceilao, Cejlon, Ceylon, Ceylonese, Choshalichak Kutiyarachu, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Etymology of Sri Lanka, Free Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka, Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka, Hela Diva, Heladiva, Helaya, ISO 3166-1:LK, Ilankai, Ilankai Jananayaka, Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu, Ilaṅkai, Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Choṣhalichak Kuṭiyarachu, Independence of Sri Lanka, Island of Ceylon, Provincial capitals of Sri Lanka, Republic of Sri Lanka, S Lanka, Seilan, Shri Lamka Prajatantrika Samajaya di Janarajaya, Sielediva, Sir Lanka, Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Sri Lamka, Sri Lanak, Sri Lanca, Sri Lanka government, Sri Lankan Martial Arts, Sri Lankan Republic, Sri lanka, Sri lankan, Sri-Lanka, SriLanka, Srilanka, Srí Lanka, Subdivisions of Sri Lanka, Sulloon, The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Tourist Sri Lanka, Venerable Island, Śrī Laṃkāva, இலங்கை, இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசு, ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sri_Lanka

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