182 relations: Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī, Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, Adalbert Krüger, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani, Alexandria, Almagest, Alpha Centauri, American Philosophical Society, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek astronomy, Andromeda Galaxy, Annie Jump Cannon, Anu, Apparent magnitude, Arabic, Arabs, Aratus, Argo Navis, Aristyllus, Asterism (astronomy), Astrograph, Astrometry, Astronomical catalog, Astronomische Nachrichten, Astronomy, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Axial precession, Babylonia, Babylonian astronomy, Babylonian star catalogues, Bonn, Book of Documents, Book of Fixed Stars, Brill Publishers, Cambridge University Press, Carbon star, Carte du Ciel, Catalogues of Fundamental Stars, Córdoba, Argentina, Celestial equator, Celestial sphere, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Chinese astronomy, Chinese calendar, Chinese constellations, Chinese philosophy, Chinese temple, Circumpolar star, Classic of Poetry, ..., Classical antiquity, Clay tablet, Color, Constellation, Decans, Declination, Dorrit Hoffleit, Double star, Dover Publications, Durchmusterung, Earth, Ecliptic, Eduard Schönfeld, Edward Charles Pickering, Egypt (Roman province), Egyptian astronomy, Eisenbrauns, Enki, Enlil, Enuma anu enlil, Epoch (astronomy), Equinox Publishing (London), Eudoxus of Cnidus, European Space Agency, Frank Elmore Ross, Friedrich Wilhelm Argelander, Gaia (spacecraft), Gamma Cygni, Gan De, Genitive case, Germans, Gliese 436, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greek alphabet, Han dynasty, Hartmut Jahreiß, Harvard College Observatory, HD 1237, Henry Draper, Henry L. Giclas, Hipparchus, Hipparcos, Histoire Céleste Française, History of China, History of Iran, Hubble Space Telescope, Indian astronomy, Islamic Golden Age, Japan, Jérôme Lalande, Johann Bayer, John Flamsteed, John M. Thome, Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Kassites, Korea, Lacquerware, Large Magellanic Cloud, Lü Buwei, Lüshi Chunqiu, List of Arabic star names, List of astronomical catalogues, List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, Longitude, Maragheh observatory, Max Wolf, Maya civilization, Mesopotamia, Messier object, MUL.APIN, Naked eye, Nakshatra, NASA, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Oracle bone, Parallax, Paris Codex, Paris Observatory, Past & Present, Photometry (astronomy), PPM Star Catalogue, Proper motion, Ptolemy, Qin (state), Records of the Grand Historian, Richard van der Riet Woolley, Right ascension, Robert Grant Aitken, Schmidt camera, Shang dynasty, Shi Shen, Sima Qian, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Spectroscopy, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Star catalogue, Star chart, Star clock, Stellar classification, Stellar parallax, Sumer, Telescope, The Astronomical Journal, Timocharis, Toledan Tables, Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, Twenty-Eight Mansions, Tycho Brahe, Ulugh Beg, United States Naval Observatory, United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, University of Oklahoma Press, Uranometria, Variable star, Variable star designation, Vedas, W. W. Norton & Company, Warring States period, Wars of Alexander the Great, Wilhelm Gliese, Willem Jacob Luyten, Yale University, Zhang Heng, Zhou dynasty, Zij, Zij-i Ilkhani, Zij-i Sultani, Zuo Zhuan, 47 Ursae Majoris, 61 Cygni. Expand index (132 more) » « Shrink index
, also known as Al-Zarqali or Ibn Zarqala (1029–1087), was a Muslim instrument maker, astrologer, and one of the leading astronomers of his time.
'Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (عبدالرحمن صوفی) (December 9, 903 in Rey, Iran – May 25, 986 in Shiraz, Iran) was a Persian astronomer also known as 'Abd ar-Rahman as-Sufi, or 'Abd al-Rahman Abu al-Husayn, 'Abdul Rahman Sufi, 'Abdurrahman Sufi and known in the west as Azophi.
Carl Nicolaus Adalbert Krüger (9 December 1832 – 21 April 1896) was a German astronomer.
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. (800/805-870) also known as Alfraganus in the West, was an Arab or Persian Sunni Muslim astronomer, and one of the most famous astronomers in the 9th century.
Alexandria (or; اسكندرية, in Egyptian Arabic) is the second largest city and a major economic centre in Egypt, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
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The Almagest is a 2nd-century mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths.
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Alpha Centauri (α Cen), also known as Rigil Kent or Toliman, is the closest star system to the Solar System at.
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The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation, that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth.
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Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloging work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification.
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In Sumerian mythology, Anu (also An; from Sumerian 𒀭 An, "sky, heaven") was a sky-god, the god of heaven, lord of constellations, king of gods, spirits and demons, and dwelt in the highest heavenly regions.
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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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Arabs (عرب, ʿarab) are a major panethnic group whose native language is Arabic, comprising the majority of the Arab world.
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Aratus (Ἄρᾱτος ὁ Σολεύς; ca. 315 BC/310 BC – 240 BC) was a Greek didactic poet.
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Argo Navis (the Ship Argo), or simply Argo, was a large constellation in the southern sky that has since been divided into three constellations.
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Aristyllus (fl. ca. 261 BC) was a Greek astronomer, presumably of the school of Timocharis (c.300 BC).
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In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars recognized in the Earth's night sky.
An astrograph (astrographic camera) is a telescope designed for the sole purpose of astrophotography.
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Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
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An astronomical catalog or catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery.
Astronomische Nachrichten (Astronomical Notes), one of the first international journals in the field of astronomy, was founded in 1821 by the German astronomer Heinrich Christian Schumacher.
Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Astronomy and Astrophysics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering theoretical, observational, and instrumental astronomy and astrophysics.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.
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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
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According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descendants in direct line from the work of the late Babylonian astronomers.
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.
Bonn, officially the Federal City of Bonn, is a city on the banks of the Rhine and northwest of the Siebengebirge (Seven Mountains) in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of 311,287 within its administrative limits.
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The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu, is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
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The Book of Fixed Stars (كتاب صور الكواكب) is an astronomical text written by Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (Azophi) around 964.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A carbon star is a late-type star similar to a red giant (or occasionally to a red dwarf) whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
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The Carte du Ciel (literally, 'Map of the Sky') and the Astrographic Catalogue (or Astrographic Chart) were two distinct but connected components of a massive international astronomical project, initiated in the late 19th century, to catalogue and map the positions of millions of stars as faint as 11th or 12th magnitude.
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The Catalogue of Fundamental Stars is a series of six astrometric catalogues of high precision positional data for a small selection of stars to define a celestial reference frame, which is a standard coordinate system for measuring positions of stars.
Córdoba is a city located in the geographical center of Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierras Chicas on the Suquía River, about northwest of Buenos Aires.
The celestial equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator.
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In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with Earth.
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The Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.
Astronomy in China has a very long history, with historians indicating that the Chinese were the most persistent and accurate observers of celestial phenomena anywhere in the world before the Arabs.
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The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar which arranges the year, month and day number upon the astronomical date.
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Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States eras, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
A Chinese temple is a worship place of the Chinese folk religion/Shenism, where people revere ethnic Chinese gods and ancestors.
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A circumpolar star is a star that, as viewed from a given latitude on Earth, never sets (that is, never disappears below the horizon), due to its proximity to one of the celestial poles.
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The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
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Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
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Color, or coloursee spelling differencesis the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, etc.
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In modern astronomy, a constellation is a specific area of the celestial sphere as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
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The decans (Egyptian bakiu) are 36 groups of stars (small constellations) which rise consecutively on the horizon throughout each earth rotation.
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In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
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Ellen Dorrit Hoffleit (March 12, 1907 – April 9, 2007) was an American senior research astronomer at Yale University.
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In observational astronomy, a double star is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.
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Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung (BD), is the comprehensive astrometric star catalogue of the whole sky, compiled by the Bonn Observatory (Germany) from 1859 to 1903.
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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, and is the basis for the ecliptic coordinate system.
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Eduard Schönfeld (December 22, 1828 – May 1, 1891) was a German astronomer.
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Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist as well as the older brother of William Henry Pickering.
The Roman province of Egypt (Aigyptos) was established in 30 BC after Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) defeated his rival Mark Antony, deposed his lover Queen Cleopatra VII and annexed the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt to the Roman Empire.
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
Eisenbrauns is an international academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.
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Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is a god in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Akkadian and Babylonian mythology.
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Enlil (nlin), 𒂗𒇸 (EN.
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Enuma Anu Enlil (EAE) (literal translation: When the gods Anu and Enlil) (meaningful translation: In the days of Anu and Enlil)Iroku, Osita; A Day in the Life of God; published by The Enlil Institute, Dover DE; 2008.
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In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
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Equinox Publishing Ltd is an independent academic publisher founded in 2003 by Janet Joyce and based in Sheffield.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios; 408–355 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar and student of Plato.
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The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, with 22 member states.
Frank Elmore Ross (April 2, 1874 – September 21, 1960) was an American astronomer and physicist.
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Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander (22 March 1799 – 17 February 1875) was a German astronomer.
Gaia is a space observatory of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed for astrometry.
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Gamma Cygni (γ Cyg, γ Cygni) is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation Cygnus, forming the intersection of an asterism of five stars called the Northern Cross.
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Gan De (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer/astrologer born in the State of Qi also known as the Lord Gan (Gan Gong).
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In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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Gliese 436 is a red dwarf approximately away in the zodiac constellation of Leo.
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The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
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Hartmut Jahreiß (born 1942) is a German astronomer associated with Astronomisches Rechen-Institut specializing in the study of nearby stars.
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The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.
HD 1237 is a binary star system approximately 57 light-years away in the constellation of Hydrus (the Water Snake).
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Henry Draper (March 7, 1837 – November 20, 1882) was an American doctor and amateur astronomer.
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Henry Lee Giclas (December 9, 1910 – April 2, 2007) was an American astronomer.
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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos), was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
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Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
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Histoire Céleste Française (French Celestial History) is an astrometric star catalogue published in 1801 by the French astronomer Jérôme Lalande and his staff at the Paris Observatory.
Written records of the history of China can be found from as early as 1200 BC under the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC).
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The history of Iran, commonly also known as '''Persia''' in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.
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The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.
From pre-historic to modern times, Indian astronomy continues to play an integral role.
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The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.
Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.
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Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer, freemason and writer.
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Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German lawyer and uranographer (celestial cartographer).
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John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.
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John Macon Thome (August 22, 1843 – September 27, 1908) was an American-Argentine astronomer.
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The Journal of the British Astronomical Association is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astronomy published by the British Astronomical Association since October 1890.
The Kassites were an ancient Near Eastern people who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire ca.
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Korea, called Hanguk (한국; Hanja: 韓國) or Daehan (대한; Hanja: 大韓) in South Korea and Chosŏn (조선; Hanja: 朝鮮) in North Korea and elsewhere, is an East Asian territory that is divided into two distinct sovereign states, North Korea (also known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or DPRK) and South Korea (also known as the Republic of Korea, or ROK).
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Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.
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The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a nearby galaxy, and a satellite of the Milky Way.
Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a politician of the Qin state in the Warring States Period of ancient China.
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The Lüshi Chunqiu (Lü-shih Ch'un-ch'iu) is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
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This is a list of traditional Arabic names for stars.
An astronomical catalog is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery.
This list contains all known stars and brown dwarfs at a distance of up to 5 parsecs (16.3 light-years) from the Solar System.
Longitude (or, British also), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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Maragheh observatory (رصدخانهٔ مراغه), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.
Maximilian Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf (June 21, 1863 – October 3, 1932) was a German astronomer and a pioneer in the field of astrophotography.
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The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, noted for the Maya hieroglyphic script, the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as for its art, architecture, and mathematical and astronomical systems.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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The Messier objects are a set of over 100 astronomical objects first listed by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771.
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MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.
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Naked eye (also called bare eye) is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical device, such as a telescope or microscope.
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Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
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The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Oracle bones are pieces of turtle shell or bone, normally from ox scapulae or turtle plastrons, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
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Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
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The Paris Codex (also known as the Codex Peresianus and Codex Pérez) is one of three surviving generally accepted pre-Columbian Maya books dating to the Postclassic Period of Mesoamerican chronology (c. 900–1521 AD).
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The Paris Observatory (French: Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon) is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centers in the world.
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Past & Present is a British historical academic journal, which was a leading force in the development of social history.
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Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.
The PPM Star Catalogue (Positions and Proper Motions Star Catalogue) is the successor of the SAO Catalogue.
Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in apparent positions of stars in the sky as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, as compared to the imaginary fixed background of the more distant stars.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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Qin (Old Chinese: *; Wade-Giles: Ch'in) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
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The Records of the Grand Historian (Chinese: Tàishǐgōng shū 太史公書), now known as the Shǐjì 史記 – (Scribe's records), is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 109 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
Sir Richard van der Riet Woolley OBE FRS (24 April 1906 – 24 December 1986) was an English astronomer who became Astronomer Royal.
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.
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Robert Grant Aitken (December 31, 1864 – October 29, 1951) was an American astronomer.
A Schmidt camera, also referred to as the Schmidt telescope, is a catadioptric astrophotographic telescope designed to provide wide fields of view with limited aberrations.
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The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
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Shi Shen (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer and contemporary of Gan De born in the State of Wei, also known as the Shi Shenfu.
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Sima Qian (pronounced; c. 145 or 13586 BC), formerly romanized Ssu-ma Chien, was a Chinese historian of the Han dynasty.
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The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) is a research institute of the Smithsonian Institution headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, where it is joined with the Harvard College Observatory (HCO) to form the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA).
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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A star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
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A star chart or star map is a map of the night sky.
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A star clock (or nocturnal) is a method of using the stars to determine the time.
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In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Stellar parallax is parallax on an interstellar scale: the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
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A telescope is an instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
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The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.
Timocharis of Alexandria (Τιμόχαρις; c. 320 – 260 BC) was a Greek astronomer and philosopher.
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The Toledan Tables, or Tables of Toledo, were astronomical tables which were used to predict the movements of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars.
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The Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng is an important archaeological site in Suizhou, Hubei, China, dated sometime after 433 BC.
The Twenty-Eight Mansions, hsiu, xiu or sieu are part of the Chinese constellations system.
Tycho Brahe, born Tyge Ottesen Brahe (14 December 154624 October 1601), was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
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Mīrzā Muhammad Tāraghay bin Shāhrukh (میرزا محمد طارق بن شاہ رخ, میرزا محمد تراغای بن شاہ رخ) better known as Ulugh Beg (March 22, 1394 in Sultaniyeh, Persia – October 27, 1449, Samarkand) was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan.
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The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
The United States Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS), is an astronomical observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, USA.
The University of Oklahoma Press (OU Press) is the publishing arm of the University of Oklahoma.
Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer.
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A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.
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Variable stars are designated using a variation on the Bayer designation format of an identifying label (as described below) combined with the Latin genitive of the name of the constellation in which the star lies.
The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.
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The Warring States period is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Qin dynasty.
The wars of Alexander the Great were fought by King Alexander III of Macedon ("The Great"), first against the Achaemenid Persian Empire under Darius III, and then against local chieftains and warlords as far east as Punjab, India.
Wilhelm Gliese (21 June 1915 – 12 June 1993) was a German astronomer who specialized in the study and cataloging of nearby stars.
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Willem Jacob Luyten (March 7, 1899 – November 21, 1994) was a Dutch-American astronomer.
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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Zhang Heng (Chinese: t 衡, s 衡, p Zhāng Héng; AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Hêng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.
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The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
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Zīj (زيج) is the generic name applied to Islamic astronomical books that tabulate parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
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Zīj-i Īlkhānī (زیجِ ایلخانی) or Ilkhanic Tables (literal translation: "The Ilkhan Stars", after ilkhan Hulagu, who was the patron of the author at that time) is a Zij book with astronomical tables of planetary movements.
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Zīj-i Sultānī (زیجِ سلطانی) is a Zij astronomical table and star catalogue that was published by Ulugh Beg in 1437.
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The Zuo zhuan (pronounced), generally translated as Zuo Tradition or Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).
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47 Ursae Majoris (often abbreviated 47 UMa) is a solar analog, yellow dwarf star approximately 46 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Ursa Major.
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61 Cygni Not to be confused with 16 Cygni, a more distant system containing two G-type stars harboring the gas giant planet 16 Cygni Bb.
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Aitken's Double Star catalogue, Astronomical catalogs, Catalogue Astrographique, Catalogue astrographique, GCTP, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes and Supplement, Gliese-Jahreiss Catalogue, Henry L. Giclas catalogue, Luyten Five-Tenths catalogue, Luyten Four-Tenths catalogue, Luyten Half-Second Catalogue, Luyten Half-Second catalogue, Luyten Proper Motion catalogue, Luyten Proper-Motion Catalogue, Luyten Proper-Motion catalogue, Luyten Two-Tenths catalogue, Luyten-Palomar proper motion catalogue, NLTT, New Luyten Two-Tenths Catalogue, New Luyten Two-Tenths catalogue, Ross catalogue, Star catalog, Star catalogues, The General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes, Uvby98, Woolley Nearby Star Catalogue.