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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics. [1]

200 relations: Absolute magnitude, Achernar, Alkali metal, Alnilam, Alpha Centauri, Alpha Leporis, Altair, Ammonia, Angelo Secchi, Annie Jump Cannon, Annual Reviews (publisher), Antares, Antonia Maury, Ap and Bp stars, Arabic numerals, Arcturus, Astrograph, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Astronomy, Asymptotic giant branch, Atmosphere, Balmer series, Beta Andromedae, Beta Aquarii, Beta Aquilae, Beta Canum Venaticorum, Beta Leporis, Betelgeuse, Brady Haran, Bright giant, Brown dwarf, Calcium, Cambridge University Press, Capella, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Carbon star, Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Chemical element, Chi Pegasi, Chi2 Orionis, Chromium, Cygnus OB2-12, Degenerate matter, Deneb, Deuterium, Diatomic carbon, Diffraction grating, Dwarf star, ..., Edith Kellman, Edward Charles Pickering, Effective temperature, Epsilon Cygni, Epsilon Eridani, Epsilon Geminorum, Epsilon Virginis, Eta Aurigae, Eta Boötis, Eta Canis Majoris, Eta Leonis, Eta Ursae Majoris, European Southern Observatory, Fomalhaut, Forbidden mechanism, Galaxy, Gamma Cassiopeiae, Gamma Cygni, Gamma Draconis, Gamma Ursae Majoris, Giant star, Gravity, Guest star (astronomy), Habitability of red dwarf systems, Harvard College Observatory, HD 149382, HD 21389, Helium, Henry Norris Russell, Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, Hubble Space Telescope, Hydride, Hydrogen, Hydrogen line, Hypergiant, Infrared, Ion, Ionization, Iron, Jupiter, K-type main-sequence star, Kappa Ceti, Kappa Geminorum, Kappa Ophiuchi, Kelvin, Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism, Lacaille 8760, Light, List of most massive stars known, Luminosity, Luminous red nova, Magnesium, Main sequence, Manganese, Meghnad Saha, Metallicity, Methane, Micrometre, Milky Way, Molecular cloud, Molecule, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Mu Cephei, Mu Herculis, Mu Normae, Nebula, Nitrogen, Nuclear fusion, OB star, Omicron2 Canis Majoris, Order of magnitude, Orion (constellation), Oxide, Oxygen, P Cygni, Parallax, Peculiar star, Philip Childs Keenan, Photosphere, Pollux (star), Prism, Protoplanetary disk, Protostar, Red dwarf, RGB color model, Rho Boötis, Rigel, Roman numerals, RW Cephei, S Monocerotis, S-process, Shell star, Sigma Draconis, Silicon, Solar mass, Solar radius, Spectral line, Spectral signature, Spectroscopic notation, Spectrum, Spiral galaxy, Star, Star count, Stellar classification, Stellar evolution, Stellar kinematics, Stellar wind, Subdwarf, Subgiant, Substellar object, Sun, Supergiant, Surface gravity, Temperature, The Astronomical Journal, The Astrophysical Journal, Titanium(II) oxide, Triple-alpha process, UBV photometric system, Ultraviolet, University College London, University of Chicago Press, University of Nottingham, Upsilon Orionis, V838 Monocerotis, Van Maanen 2, Vanadium(II) oxide, Vega, Visible spectrum, VY Canis Majoris, Water, Web colors, White dwarf, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, William Wilson Morgan, Williamina Fleming, WISE 1828+2650, Wolf–Rayet star, Yellow supergiant, Yerkes Observatory, Zeta Leonis, Zeta Persei, Zirconium, 10 Lacertae, 59 Cygni, 61 Cygni, 61 Ursae Majoris, 78 Ursae Majoris, 9 Cephei, 9 Pegasi. Expand index (150 more) »

Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object.

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Achernar

Achernar (α Eri, α Eridani, Alpha Eridani), sometimes spelled Achenar, is the brightest star in the constellation Eridanus and the tenth-brightest star in the night sky.

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Alkali metal

The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.

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Alnilam

Alnilam is a large blue supergiant star some 1,340 light years distant in the constellation of Orion.

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Alpha Centauri

Alpha Centauri (α Cen), also known as Rigil Kent or Toliman, is the closest star system to the Solar System at.

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Alpha Leporis

Alpha Leporis (α Lep, α Leporis) is the brightest star in the constellation Lepus.

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Altair

Altair (α Aquilae, α Aql) is the brightest star in the constellation Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the night sky.

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Ammonia

Ammonia or azane is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Angelo Secchi

Pietro Angelo Secchi SJ (29 June 1818 – 26 February 1878) was an Italian astronomer.

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Annie Jump Cannon

Annie Jump Cannon (December 11, 1863 – April 13, 1941) was an American astronomer whose cataloging work was instrumental in the development of contemporary stellar classification.

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Annual Reviews (publisher)

Annual Reviews, located in Palo Alto California, is the non-profit publisher of a collection of 46 review series in specific disciplines in science and social science.

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Antares

Antares, also known by its Bayer designation Alpha Scorpii (abbreviated to α Scorpii or α Sco), is the fifteenth brightest star in the nighttime sky and the brightest star in the constellation Scorpius, and is often referred to as "the heart of the scorpion".

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Antonia Maury

Antonia Maury (March 21, 1866–January 8, 1952) was an American astronomer who published an important early catalog of stellar spectra.

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Ap and Bp stars

Ap and Bp stars are peculiar stars (hence the "p") of types A and B which show overabundances of some metals, such as strontium, chromium and europium; in addition, larger overabundances are often seen in praseodymium and neodymium.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals or Hindu-Arabic or Indo-Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system.

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Arcturus

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Astrograph

An astrograph (astrographic camera) is a telescope designed for the sole purpose of astrophotography.

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Astronomical Society of the Pacific

The Astronomical Society of the Pacific (ASP) is a scientific and educational organization, founded in San Francisco on February 7, 1889.

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Astronomy

Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.

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Asymptotic giant branch

The asymptotic giant branch is the region of the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram populated by evolving low- to medium-mass stars.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, 17th century, from Greek ἀτμός "vapor" and σφαῖρα "sphere") is a layer of gases surrounding a planet or other material body of sufficient mass that is held in place by the gravity of the body.

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Balmer series

The Balmer series or Balmer lines in atomic physics, is the designation of one of a set of six named series describing the spectral line emissions of the hydrogen atom.

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Beta Andromedae

Beta Andromedae (Beta And, β And, β Andromedae) is the Bayer designation for a prominent star in the northern constellation of Andromeda.

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Beta Aquarii

Beta Aquarii (β Aqr, β Aquarii) is a double star in the constellation Aquarius.

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Beta Aquilae

Beta Aquilae (β Aql, β Aquilae) is a star in the constellation Aquila.

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Beta Canum Venaticorum

Beta Canum Venaticorum (β CVn, β Canum Venaticorum) is a G-type main-sequence star in the northern constellation Canes Venatici.

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Beta Leporis

Beta Leporis (Beta Lep, β Leporis, β Lep) is the second brightest star in the constellation of Lepus.

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Betelgeuse

Betelgeuse, also known by its Bayer designation Alpha Orionis (shortened to α Orionis or α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.

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Brady Haran

Brady John Haran (born 18 June 1976) is an Australian independent film-maker and video journalist who is known for his educational videos and documentary films produced for BBC News and for his YouTube channels, such as Numberphile and Periodic Videos.

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Bright giant

The luminosity class II in the Yerkes spectral classification is given to bright giants.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen-1 fusion reactions in their cores, unlike main-sequence stars.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capella

Capella is the brightest star in the constellation Auriga, the sixth brightest in the night sky and the third brightest in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus and Vega.

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Carbon

Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon star

A carbon star is a late-type star similar to a red giant (or occasionally to a red dwarf) whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.

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Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin

Cecilia Helena Payne-Gaposchkin (May 10, 1900 – December 7, 1979) was a British–American astronomer and astrophysicist who, in 1925, proposed in her Ph.D. thesis an explanation for the composition of stars in terms of the relative abundances of hydrogen and helium.

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Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg

The Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Chi Pegasi

Chi Pegasi (Chi Peg) is a star in the constellation Pegasus.

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Chi2 Orionis

Chi2 Orionis (Chi2 Ori / χ2 Orionis / χ2 Ori) is a B-type supergiant star in the constellation of Orion.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Cygnus OB2-12

Cygnus OB2 #12 is an extremely bright blue hypergiant with an absolute bolometric magnitude (all electromagnetic radiation) of −10.9, among the most luminous stars known in the galaxy.

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Degenerate matter

Degenerate matter in physics is a collection of free, non-interacting particles with a pressure and other physical characteristics determined by quantum mechanical effects.

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Deneb

Deneb (α Cyg, α Cygni, Alpha Cygni) is the brightest star in the constellation Cygnus and one of the vertices of the Summer Triangle.

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Deuterium

Deuterium (symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen.

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Diatomic carbon

Diatomic carbon (systematically named ethenediylidene and dicarbon(C—C)), also called dicarbon, is an inorganic chemical with the chemical formula C.

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Diffraction grating

In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure, which splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.

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Dwarf star

The term dwarf star refers to a variety of distinct classes of stars.

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Edith Kellman

Edith Kellman (1911-2007) was a noted American astronomer who is known for her work on the Yerkes system of stellar classification, also called the MKK system.

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Edward Charles Pickering

Edward Charles Pickering (July 19, 1846 – February 3, 1919) was an American astronomer and physicist as well as the older brother of William Henry Pickering.

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Effective temperature

The effective temperature of a body such as a star or planet is the temperature of a black body that would emit the same total amount of electromagnetic radiation.

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Epsilon Cygni

Epsilon Cygni (ε Cyg, ε Cygni) is a star in the constellation Cygnus.

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Epsilon Eridani

Epsilon Eridani (ε Eri, ε Eridani) is a star in the southern constellation Eridanus, along a declination 9.46° south of the celestial equator.

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Epsilon Geminorum

Epsilon Geminorum (ε Gem, ε Geminorum) is a star in the constellation of Gemini.

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Epsilon Virginis

Epsilon Virginis (ε Vir, ε Virginis) is the Bayer designation for a star in the zodiac constellation of Virgo.

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Eta Aurigae

Eta Aurigae (η Aur, η Aurigae) is a star in the constellation Auriga.

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Eta Boötis

Eta Boötis (η Boo, η Boötis) is a star in the constellation Boötes.

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Eta Canis Majoris

Eta Canis Majoris (η CMa, η Canis Majoris) is a star in the constellation Canis Major.

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Eta Leonis

Eta Leonis (η Leo, η Leonis) is a fourth-magnitude star in the constellation Leo.

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Eta Ursae Majoris

Eta Ursae Majoris (Eta UMa, η Ursae Majoris, η UMa) is a star in the constellation Ursa Major.

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European Southern Observatory

The European Southern Observatory (ESO, formally: European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere; Observatoire européen austral) is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for astronomy.

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Fomalhaut

Fomalhaut (Alpha Piscis Austrini, Alpha PsA, α Piscis Austrini, α PsA) is the brightest star in the constellation Piscis Austrinus and one of the brightest stars in the sky.

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Forbidden mechanism

In physics, a forbidden mechanism or forbidden line is a spectral line emitted by atomic nuclei, atoms, or molecules undergoing nominally "forbidden" energy transitions not normally "allowed" by the selection rules of quantum mechanics.

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Galaxy

A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.

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Gamma Cassiopeiae

Gamma Cassiopeiae (γ Cas, γ Cassiopeiae) is the star at the center of the distinctive "W" asterism in the northern circumpolar constellation of Cassiopeia.

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Gamma Cygni

Gamma Cygni (γ Cyg, γ Cygni) is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation Cygnus, forming the intersection of an asterism of five stars called the Northern Cross.

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Gamma Draconis

Gamma Draconis (γ Dra, γ Draconis) is the Bayer designation for a star in the northern constellation of Draco.

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Gamma Ursae Majoris

Gamma Ursae Majoris (Gamma UMa, γ Ursae Majoris, γ UMa) is a star in the constellation Ursa Major.

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Giant star

A giant star is a star with substantially larger radius and luminosity than a main-sequence (or dwarf) star of the same surface temperature.

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Gravity

Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.

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Guest star (astronomy)

In Chinese astronomy, the guest star (ke xing 客星) is a star which has suddenly appeared in a place where no star had previously been observed and becomes invisible again after some time.

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Habitability of red dwarf systems

The habitability of red dwarf systems is determined by a large number of factors from a variety of sources.

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Harvard College Observatory

The Harvard College Observatory (HCO) is an institution managing a complex of buildings and multiple instruments used for astronomical research by the Harvard University Department of Astronomy.

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HD 149382

HD 149382 is a star in the constellation of Ophiuchus with an apparent visual magnitude of 8.943.

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HD 21389

HD 21389 is a variable star in reflection nebula VDB 15, in the constellation Camelopardalis.

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Helium

Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Henry Norris Russell

Henry Norris Russell (October 25, 1877 – February 18, 1957) was an American astronomer who, along with Ejnar Hertzsprung, developed the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (1910).

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Hertzsprung–Russell diagram

The Hertzsprung–Russell diagram, abbreviated H–R diagram or HRD, is a scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes or luminosities versus their spectral classifications or effective temperatures.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.

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Hydride

In chemistry, a Hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen line

The hydrogen line, 21 centimetre line or HI line refers to the electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is created by a change in the energy state of neutral hydrogen atoms.

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Hypergiant

A hypergiant (luminosity class 0 or Ia+) is a star with an enormous luminosity showing signs of a very high rate of mass loss.

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Infrared

Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).

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Ion

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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Ionization

Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.

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K-type main-sequence star

A K-type main-sequence star (K V), also referred to as an orange dwarf or K dwarf, is a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type K and luminosity class V. These stars are intermediate in size between red M-type main-sequence stars and yellow G-type main-sequence stars.

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Kappa Ceti

Kappa Ceti (κ Cet / κ Cet) is the Bayer designation shared by two stars in the constellation of Cetus.

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Kappa Geminorum

Kappa Geminorum (κ Gem, κ Geminorum) is a Class G8, fourth-magnitude star in the constellation Gemini.

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Kappa Ophiuchi

Kappa Ophiuchi (κ Oph, κ Ophiuchi) is a star in the equatorial constellation Ophiuchus.

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Kelvin

The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.

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Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism

The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools.

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Lacaille 8760

Lacaille 8760 (AX Microscopii) is a red dwarf in the constellation Microscopium, the microscope.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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List of most massive stars known

This is a list of the most-massive stars so far discovered, in solar masses.

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Luminosity

In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time.

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Luminous red nova

A luminous red nova (abbr. LRN, pl. luminous red novae, pl.abbr. LRNe) is a stellar explosion thought to be caused by the merging of two stars.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Main sequence

In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appears on plots of stellar color versus brightness.

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Meghnad Saha

Meghnad Saha FRS (6 October 1893 – 16 February 1956) was an Indian astrophysicist best known for his development of the Saha equation, used to describe chemical and physical conditions in stars.

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Metallicity

In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Micrometre

The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: µm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling 1×10−6 of a metre (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Molecular cloud

A molecular cloud, sometimes called a stellar nursery (if star formation is occurring within), is a type of interstellar cloud, the density and size of which permit the formation of molecules, most commonly molecular hydrogen (H2).

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Molecule

A molecule (from Latin moles "mass") is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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Mu Cephei

Mu Cephei (μ Cep, μ Cephei), also known as Herschel's Garnet Star, is a red supergiant star in the constellation Cepheus.

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Mu Herculis

Mu Herculis (μ Herculis) is a nearby star system about 27.1 light years from Earth in the constellation Hercules.

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Mu Normae

Mu Normae is a blue supergiant star of spectral type O9.71ab in the constellation Norma.

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Nebula

A nebula (Latin for "cloud"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.

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OB star

OB stars are hot, massive stars of spectral types O or early-type B that form in loosely organized groups called OB associations.

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Omicron2 Canis Majoris

Omicron2 Canis Majoris (ο² CMa, ο² Canis Majoris) is a star in the constellation Canis Major.

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Order of magnitude

Orders of magnitude are written in powers of 10.

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Orion (constellation)

Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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P Cygni

P Cygni (34 Cyg) is a variable star in the constellation Cygnus.

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Parallax

Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.

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Peculiar star

In astrophysics, peculiar stars have distinctly unusual metal abundances, at least in their surface layers.

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Philip Childs Keenan

Philip Childs Keenan (March 31, 1908 – April 20, 2000) was an American astronomer.

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Photosphere

The photosphere is a star's outer shell from which light is radiated.

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Pollux (star)

Pollux (β Gem, β Geminorum, Beta Geminorum) is a star in the northern constellation of Gemini.

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Prism

In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.

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Protoplanetary disk

A protoplanetary disk is a rotating circumstellar disk of dense gas surrounding a young newly formed star, a T Tauri star, or Herbig Ae/Be star.

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Protostar

A protostar is a large mass that forms by contraction out of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, either late K or M spectral type.

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RGB color model

The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors.

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Rho Boötis

Rho Boötis (ρ Boo, ρ Boötis) is a star in the northern constellation Boötes.

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Rigel

Rigel, also known by its Bayer designation Beta Orionis (β Ori, β Orionis), is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the seventh brightest star in the night sky, with visual magnitude 0.13.

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Roman numerals

Roman numerals, the numeric system used in ancient Rome, employs combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet to signify values.

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RW Cephei

RW Cephei is an orange hypergiant star in the constellation Cepheus.

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S Monocerotis

S Monocerotis, also known as 15 Monocerotis, is a massive variable star system located in the constellation Monoceros.

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S-process

The s-process or slow-neutron-capture-process is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs at relatively low neutron density and intermediate temperature conditions in stars.

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Shell star

A shell star, also termed Gamma Cassiopeiae variable (GCAS), is a star having a spectrum that exhibits features indicating a circumstellar disc of gas surrounding the star at the equator.

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Sigma Draconis

Sigma Draconis (σ Dra, σ Draconis) is a 4.7-magnitude star located at a distance of 18.8 light-years in the constellation Draco.

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy that is used to indicate the masses of other stars, as well as clusters, nebulae and galaxies.

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Solar radius

Solar radius is a unit of distance used to express the size of stars in astronomy equal to the current radius of the Sun: The solar radius is approximately 695,500 kilometres (432,450 miles), which is about 10 times the average radius of Jupiter, 110 times the radius of the Earth, and 1/215th of an astronomical unit, the distance of Earth from the Sun.

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Spectral line

A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.

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Spectral signature

Spectral signatures the difference in the reflectance/emittance characteristics with respect to wavelengths (i.e.,reflectance/emittance as a function of wavelength) is called as spectral signature.

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Spectroscopic notation

Spectroscopic notation provides various ways to specify atomic ionization states, as well as atomic and molecular orbitals.

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Spectrum

A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum.

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Spiral galaxy

A spiral galaxy is a certain kind of galaxy originally described by Edwin Hubble in his 1936 work The Realm of the Nebulae(pp. 124–151) and, as such, forms part of the Hubble sequence.

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Star

A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Star count

Star counts are bookkeeping surveys of stars and the statistical and geometrical methods used to correct the survey data for bias.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stellar evolution

Stellar evolution is the process by which a star changes during its lifetime.

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Stellar kinematics

Stellar kinematics is the study of the movement of stars without needing to understand how they acquired their motion.

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Stellar wind

A stellar wind is a flow of gas ejected from the upper atmosphere of a star.

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Subdwarf

A subdwarf, sometimes denoted by "sd", is a star with luminosity class VI under the Yerkes spectral classification system.

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Subgiant

A subgiant is a star that is slightly brighter than a normal main-sequence (dwarf) star of the same spectral class, but not as bright as true giant stars.

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Substellar object

A substellar object, sometimes called a substar, is an astronomical object whose mass is smaller than the smallest mass at which hydrogen fusion can be sustained (approximately 0.08 solar masses).

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Sun

The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.

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Supergiant

Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.

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Surface gravity

The surface gravity, g, of an astronomical or other object is the gravitational acceleration experienced at its surface.

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Temperature

A temperature is an objective comparative measure of hot or cold.

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The Astronomical Journal

The Astronomical Journal (often abbreviated AJ in scientific papers and references) is a peer-reviewed monthly scientific journal owned by the American Astronomical Society and currently published by IOP Publishing.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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Titanium(II) oxide

Titanium(II) oxide (TiO) is an inorganic chemical compound of titanium and oxygen.

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Triple-alpha process

The triple-alpha process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions by which three helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) are transformed into carbon.

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UBV photometric system

UBV photometric system, also called the Johnson system (or Johnson-Morgan system), is a wide band photometric system for classifying stars according to their colors.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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University College London

University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Nottingham

The University of Nottingham is a public research university based in Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, England, United Kingdom.

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Upsilon Orionis

Upsilon Orionis (υ Ori, υ Orionis) is a star in the constellation Orion.

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V838 Monocerotis

V838 Monocerotis (V838 Mon) is a red variable star in the constellation Monoceros about 20,000 light years (6 kpc) from the Sun.

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Van Maanen 2

Van Maanen 2 (van Maanen's Star) is a white dwarf.

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Vanadium(II) oxide

Vanadium(II) oxide, VO, is one of the many oxides of vanadium.

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Vega

Vega (α Lyr, α Lyrae, Alpha Lyrae) is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, the fifth brightest star in the night sky and the second brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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VY Canis Majoris

VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) is a red hypergiant star located in the constellation Canis Major.

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Water

Water (chemical formula: H2O) is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of organisms.

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Web colors

Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer

Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is a NASA infrared-wavelength astronomical space telescope launched in December 2009, and placed in hibernation in February 2011 when its transmitter turned off.

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William Wilson Morgan

William Wilson Morgan (January 3, 1906 – June 21, 1994) was an American astronomer and astrophysicist.

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Williamina Fleming

Williamina Paton Stevens Fleming (May 15, 1857 – May 21, 1911) was a Scottish astronomer.

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WISE 1828+2650

WISE 1828+2650 (full designation WISEPA J182831.08+265037.8) is a brown dwarf or rogue planet of spectral class >Y2, located in constellation Lyra at approximately 47 light-years from Earth.

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Wolf–Rayet star

Wolf–Rayet stars (often referred to as WR stars) are a heterogeneous set of stars with unusual spectra showing prominent broad emission lines of highly ionised helium and nitrogen or carbon.

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Yellow supergiant

A yellow supergiant (YSG) is a supergiant star of spectral type F or G. These stars have initial masses between about 10 and 40 solar masses, although some yellow supergiants will have lost over half of that.

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Yerkes Observatory

Yerkes Observatory is an astronomical observatory operated by the University of Chicago in Williams Bay, Wisconsin.

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Zeta Leonis

Zeta Leonis (ζ Leo, ζ Leonis) is a third-magnitude star in the constellation Leo, the lion.

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Zeta Persei

Zeta Persei (ζ Per, ζ Persei) is a star in the northern constellation of Perseus.

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Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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10 Lacertae

10 Lacertae (10 Lac) is a star in the constellation Lacerta.

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59 Cygni

59 Cygni (59 Cyg) is a star in the constellation Cygnus.

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61 Cygni

61 Cygni Not to be confused with 16 Cygni, a more distant system containing two G-type stars harboring the gas giant planet 16 Cygni Bb.

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61 Ursae Majoris

61 Ursae Majoris (61 UMa) is an orange-yellow G8 main-sequence star in the constellation Ursa Major.

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78 Ursae Majoris

78 Ursae Majoris (78 UMa) is a binary star in the constellation Ursa Major.

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9 Cephei

9 Cephei (9 Cep), also known as V337 Cephei, is a star in the constellation Cepheus.

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9 Pegasi

9 Pegasi (9 Peg) is a star in the constellation Pegasus.

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Redirects here:

A and B type stars, A type and B type stars, A type stars, A-type star, A1 (star), B star, B type stars, B-type star, Blue-white main sequence star, Blue-white star, Class M star, Drapes classification, Early star, Early type star, Early-type star, Early-type stars, F star, F-type star, G star, G-type star, G8 star, Harvard Classification Scheme, Harvard Spectral Classification System, Harvard Spectral Sequence, Harvard classification, Henry-Draper system, K star, K-type star, Kiss My Lips, Tootsie, List of stellar classes, Luminosity class, M star, M-type star, M3V, MK spectral classification, Morgan-Keenan spectral classification, O B A F G K M, OBAFGKM, OBAFGKML, OBAFGKMLT, OF star, Obafgkm, Oh Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me, Oh, Be A Fine Girl, Kiss Me, Oh, be a fine girl and kiss me, Secchi class, Secchi classes, Secchi classification, Spectal type, Spectral Class, Spectral class, Spectral class A, Spectral class T, Spectral classes, Spectral classification, Spectral type, Star categorization, Star classification, Star color, Star colors, Star colour, Star spectrum, Star temperature, Star type, Star types, Stellar Classification, Stellar class, Stellar classes, Type a star, Type-A star, Type-B star, Type-G star, Types of Stars, Types of star, Types of stars, Y Dwarf, Yerkes classification system, Yerkes luminosity classification, Yerkes spectral classification scheme.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_classification

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