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Stroke

Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death. [1]

333 relations: Activities of daily living, Acute coronary syndrome, Agraphia, Air pollution, American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American Academy of Neurology, American Heart Association, Anemia, Aneurysm, Angiography, Angioplasty, Anosognosia, Anticoagulant, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Aortic dissection, Aortic valve, Apathy, Aphasia, Apoplexy, Apoptosis, Apraxia, Apraxia of speech, Arachnoid mater, Arterial embolism, Arteriovenous fistula, Arteriovenous malformation, Artery, Artificial heart valve, Ascending aorta, Aspiration pneumonia, Aspirin, Assistive technology, Atherosclerosis, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Atrial myxoma, Atrial septal defect, Autopsy, Bacteria, Balance disorder, Barthel scale, Basilar artery, Beta blocker, Bleeding, Bleeding diathesis, Blood cell, Blood test, Blood type, Blood vessel, ..., Blood–brain barrier, Blunted affect, Bone fracture, Bone marrow, Brain, Brainstem, Broca's area, Cancer, Cardiac arrest, Cardiac arrhythmia, Cardiac output, Carotid artery, Carotid artery dissection, Carotid artery stenosis, Carotid endarterectomy, Cavernous hemangioma, Cell death, Cellular respiration, Central facial palsy, Cerebellum, Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral edema, Cerebral hemisphere, Cerebral hemorrhage, Cerebral infarction, Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Cerebrospinal fluid, CHA2DS2–VASc score, Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale, Circle of Willis, Circulatory system, Clinical pharmacy, Clinical trial, Clopidogrel, Coagulation, Cocaine, Coma, Common carotid artery, Comorbidity, Connective tissue, Constraint-induced movement therapy, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary artery disease, Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis, Cranial nerves, Cranial vault, Craniotomy, CT scan, Dabigatran, Danaparoid, Death, Deep vein thrombosis, Dejerine–Roussy syndrome, Dementia, Department of Health (United Kingdom), Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Diarrhea, Dilated cardiomyopathy, Dipyridamole, Disufenton sodium, Dura mater, Dysarthria, Dyslexia, Dysphagia, Echocardiography, Ejection fraction, Electrocardiography, Embolectomy, Embolism, Embolus, Emergency department, Endocarditis, Epidural hematoma, Epileptic seizure, Etiology, Exponential growth, Expressive aphasia, Extraocular muscles, FAST (stroke), Fat embolism, Fermentation, Fibromuscular dysplasia, Flaccid paralysis, Folic acid, Gait (human), Gastrointestinal bleeding, Giant-cell arteritis, Glial scar, Greek language, Haemophilia, Head injury, Headache, Heart, Heart failure, Hemiparesis, Hemispatial neglect, High-energy phosphate, Hippocrates, Holter monitor, Homocysteine, Homocystinuria, Homonymous hemianopsia, Hormone replacement therapy (menopause), Hyaluronic acid, Hyperbaric medicine, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperreflexia, Hypersexuality, Hypertension, Hypoglycemia, Hypolipidemic agent, Hypoxia (medical), Incidence (epidemiology), Induced coma, Infarction, Infective endocarditis, Internal carotid artery, Intracranial aneurysm, Intracranial hemorrhage, Intracranial pressure, Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, Intraventricular hemorrhage, Ischemia, Ischemic cascade, Johann Jakob Wepfer, Lactic acid, Lacunar stroke, Lesion, Libman–Sacks endocarditis, Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing, Lipohyalinosis, Long-term effects of alcohol consumption, Luxol fast blue stain, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Mania, Medial lemniscus, Medical history, Medical imaging, Medical ultrasound, Mediterranean diet, Menopause, Methamphetamine, Micrograph, Mitochondrion, Mitral valve, Mitral valve stenosis, Mortality rate, Motor learning, Motor speech disorders, Moyamoya disease, Myocardial infarction, Nasogastric intubation, National Health Service, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, Neural pathway, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Neutropenia, Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, Number needed to treat, Nursing, Nystagmus, Obesity, Occupational therapist, Occupational therapy, Orthotics, Pain, Panic attack, Papillary fibroelastoma, Paradoxical embolism, Paralysis, Parietal lobe, Partial anterior circulation infarct, Penumbra (medicine), Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Pericardial effusion, Pharmacology, Physical examination, Physical exercise, Physical therapy, Pia mater, Platelet, Pneumonia, Post stroke depression, Posterior circulation infarct, Posterior column, Pre-eclampsia, Pressure ulcer, Preventive healthcare, Prothrombin time, Pseudobulbar affect, Psychologist, Psychosis, Ptosis (eyelid), Public health, Pulmonary embolism, Pyramidal tracts, Radical (chemistry), Randomized controlled trial, Rash, Reactive oxygen species, Receptive aphasia, Recreational drug use, Red meat, Rehabilitation robotics, Rheumatic fever, Risk factor, Rudolf Virchow, Screening (medicine), Self-esteem, Sensitivity and specificity, Shock (circulatory), Sick sinus syndrome, Sickle-cell disease, Silent stroke, Skin, Sleep disorder, Smoking cessation, Social work, Southeastern United States, Spasticity, Speech-language pathology, Spinal cord, Spinothalamic tract, Standard of care, Statin, Stent, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Stroke, Stroke Association, Stroke Belt, Stroke recovery, Subarachnoid hemorrhage, Subarachnoid space, Subdural hematoma, Subdural space, Systolic hypertension, Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal lobe, Thienopyridine, Thrombocytosis, Thrombolysis, Thrombosis, Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, Thrombus, Ticlopidine, Tissue plasminogen activator, Tobacco smoking, Total anterior circulation infarct, Transcranial direct-current stimulation, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Transient ischemic attack, U.S. state, Unconsciousness, Unilateralism, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Uric acid, Urinary incontinence, Vasculitis, Vasoconstriction, Ventricular septal defect, Ventricular system, Vertebral artery, Vertebral artery dissection, Vertebral column, Vertigo, Virtual reality, Visual field, Visual impairment, Vital signs, Von Willebrand factor, Warfarin, Watershed stroke, Weber's syndrome, Wernicke's area, Wheelchair, World Health Organization. Expand index (283 more) »

Activities of daily living

Activities of daily living (ADLs) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.

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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to a group of conditions due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

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Agraphia

Agraphia is an acquired neurological disorder causing a loss in the ability to communicate through writing, either due to some form of motor dysfunction or an inability to spell.

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Air pollution

Air pollution is the introduction of particulates, biological molecules, or other harmful materials into Earth's atmosphere, causing disease, death to humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.

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American Academy of Emergency Medicine

The American Academy of Emergency Medicine (AAEM) is a professional medical association of emergency medicine physicians concerned with the "corporate practice of medicine" and the negative consequences related to patient care.

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American Academy of Neurology

The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is a professional society representing more than 28,000 neurologists and neuroscientists.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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Anemia

Anemia or anaemia (also spelled anæmia) is usually defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood.

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Aneurysm

An aneurysm or aneurism (from, aneurysma, "dilation", from ἀνευρύνειν, aneurynein, "to dilate") is a localized, blood-filled balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel.

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Angiography

Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.

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Angioplasty

Angioplasty (or Balloon angioplasty) is an endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

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Anosognosia

Anosognosia (from Ancient Greek ἀ- a-, "without", νόσος nosos, "disease" and γνῶσις gnōsis, "knowledge") is a deficit of self-awareness, a condition in which a person who suffers a certain disability seems unaware of the existence of his or her disability.

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Anticoagulant

Anticoagulants are a class of drugs that work to prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood.

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Antidepressant

Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Anxiety

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints and rumination.

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Aortic dissection

Aortic dissection occurs when a tear in the outer wall of the aorta causes blood to flow between the layers of the wall of the aorta, forcing the layers apart.

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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is one of the two semilunar valves of the heart, the other being the pulmonary valve.

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Apathy

Apathy (also called perfunctoriness) is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.

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Aphasia

Aphasia is the name given to a collection of language disorders caused by damage to the brain.

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Apoplexy

Apoplexy is bleeding within internal organs and the accompanying symptoms.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

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Apraxia

Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain (specifically the posterior parietal cortex), in which someone has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked, provided that the request or command is understood and he/she is willing to perform the task.

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Apraxia of speech

Apraxia of speech (AOS) is an acquired oral motor speech disorder affecting an individual's ability to translate conscious speech plans into motor plans, which results in limited and difficult speech ability.

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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater is one of the three meninges, the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Arterial embolism

Arterial embolism is a sudden interruption of blood flow to an organ or body part due to an embolus adhering to the wall of an artery blocking the flow of blood, the major type of embolus being a blood clot (thromboembolism).

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Arteriovenous fistula

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.

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Arteriovenous malformation

Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal connection between arteries and veins, bypassing the capillary system.

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Artery

The anatomy of arteries can be separated into gross anatomy, at the macroscopic level, and microscopic anatomy, which must be studied with the aid of a microscope.

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Artificial heart valve

An artificial heart valve is a device implanted in the heart of a patient with valvular heart disease.

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Ascending aorta

The ascending aorta (AAo) is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum; it passes obliquely upward, forward, and to the right, in the direction of the heart’s axis, as high as the upper border of the second right costal cartilage, describing a slight curve in its course, and being situated, about behind the posterior surface of the sternum.

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Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia is bronchopneumonia that develops due to the entrance of foreign materials into the bronchial tree, usually oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions).

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Aspirin

Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a salicylate medication, often used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation.

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Assistive technology

Assistive technology is an umbrella term that includes assistive, adaptive, and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities and also includes the process used in selecting, locating, and using them.

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Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis (also known as arteriosclerotic vascular disease or ASVD) is a specific form of arteriosclerosis in which an artery wall thickens as a result of invasion and accumulation of white blood cells (WBCs) (foam cell) and proliferation of intimal smooth muscle cell creating a fibrofatty plaque.

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Atrial fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating.

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Atrial flutter

Atrial flutter (AFL) is an abnormal heart rhythm that occurs in the atria of the heart.

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Atrial myxoma

An atrial myxoma is a benign tumor of the heart, commonly found within the left and right atria on the interatrial septum.

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Atrial septal defect

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.

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Autopsy

An autopsy—also known as a post-mortem examination, necropsy, autopsia cadaverum, or obduction—is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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Balance disorder

A balance disorder is a disturbance that causes an individual to feel unsteady, for example when standing or walking.

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Barthel scale

The Barthel scale or Barthel ADL index is an ordinal scale used to measure performance in activities of daily living (ADL).

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Basilar artery

In human anatomy, the basilar artery is one of the arteries that supplies the brain with oxygen-rich blood.

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Beta blocker

Beta blockers (β-blockers, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, beta antagonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists, or beta adrenergic receptor antagonists) are a class of drugs that are particularly used for the management of cardiac arrhythmias, protecting the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention), and, in certain cases, hypertension.

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Bleeding

Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences), is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Bleeding diathesis

In medicine (hematology), bleeding diathesis (or bleeding tendency or predisposition or h(a)emorrhagic diathesis) is an unusual susceptibility to bleed (hemorrhage) mostly due to hypocoagulability, in turn caused by a coagulopathy (a defect in the system of coagulation).

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a hematocyte, is a cell produced by hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood.

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Blood test

A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a needle, or via fingerprick.

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Blood type

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective permeability barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain extracellular fluid (BECF) in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Blunted affect

Blunted affect is a clinical term to define a lack of emotional reactivity (affect display) in an individual.

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Bone fracture

A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a damage in the continuity of the bone.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones.

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Brain

The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brainstem

In the anatomy of humans and of many other vertebrates, the brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Cancer

Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiac arrest

Cardiac arrest, also known as cardiopulmonary arrest or circulatory arrest, is a sudden stop in effective blood circulation due to the failure of the heart to contract effectively or at all.

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Cardiac arrhythmia

Cardiac arrhythmia, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia or irregular heartbeat, is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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Cardiac output

Cardiac output (CO, also denoted by the symbols Q and \dot Q_), is a term used in cardiac physiology that describes the volume of blood being pumped by the heart, in particular by a left or right ventricle, per unit time.

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Carotid artery

Carotid artery can refer to.

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Carotid artery dissection

Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain and is the most common cause of stroke in young adults.

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Carotid artery stenosis

Carotid stenosis is a narrowing or constriction of the inner surface (lumen) of the carotid artery, usually caused by atherosclerosis.

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Carotid endarterectomy

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a surgical procedure used to reduce the risk of stroke, by correcting stenosis (narrowing) in the common carotid artery or internal carotid artery.

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Cavernous hemangioma

Cavernous hemangioma, also called cavernous angioma, or cavernoma (often when referring to presence in the brain), is a type of blood vessel malformation or hemangioma, where a collection of dilated blood vessels form a tumor.

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Cell death

Cell death is the event of a biological cell ceasing to carry out its functions.

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Cellular respiration

Cellular respiration is the set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.

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Central facial palsy

Central facial palsy (colloquially referred to as central seven) is a symptom or finding characterized by paralysis or paresis of the lower half of one side of the face.

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Cerebellum

The cerebellum (Latin for "little brain") is a region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control.

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Cerebral amyloid angiopathy

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), also known as congophilic angiopathy, is a form of angiopathy in which amyloid deposits form in the walls of the blood vessels of the central nervous system.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the cerebrum's (brain) outer layer of neural tissue in humans and other mammals.

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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema or cerebral oedema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

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Cerebral hemisphere

The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure.

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Cerebral hemorrhage

A cerebral hemorrhage (also spelled haemorrhage; also known as a cerebral hematoma) is a type of intracranial hemorrhage (intracranial hematoma) that occurs within the brain tissue.

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Cerebral infarction

A cerebral infarction is a type of ischemic stroke resulting from a blockage in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain.

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Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is the presence of acute thrombosis (a blood clot) in the dural venous sinuses, which drain blood from the brain.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spine.

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CHA2DS2–VASc score

The CHADS2 score is a clinical prediction rule for estimating the risk of stroke in patients with non-rheumatic atrial fibrillation (AF), a common and serious heart arrhythmia associated with thromboembolic stroke.

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Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale

The Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale is a system used to diagnose a potential stroke in a pre-hospital setting.

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Circle of Willis

The circle of Willis (also called Willis' circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Clinical pharmacy

Clinical pharmacy is the branch of Pharmacy where pharmacists provide patient care that optimizes the use of medication and promotes health, wellness, and disease prevention.

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Clinical trial

Clinical trials are experiments done in clinical research.

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Clopidogrel

Clopidogrel (INN) is an oral, thienopyridine-class antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and to prevent myocardial infarction (heart attack).

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Coagulation

Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a clot.

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Cocaine

Cocaine, also known as benzoylmethylecgonine or coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.

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Coma

In medicine, coma (from the Greek κῶμα koma, meaning "deep sleep") is a state of unconsciousness in which a person: cannot be awakened; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.

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Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

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Comorbidity

In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases.

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four types of biological tissue that support, connect, or separate different types of tissues and organs in the body.

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Constraint-induced movement therapy

Constraint-induced movement therapy (CI or CIMT) is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure consisting of either diverting the left internal thoracic artery (left internal mammary artery or "LIMA") to the left anterior descending (LAD) branch of the left main coronary artery; or a harvested great saphenous vein of the leg, attaching the proximal end to the aorta or one of its major branches, and the distal end to immediately beyond a partially obstructed coronary artery (the "target vessel") - usually a 50% to 99% obstruction.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), atherosclerotic heart disease, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and coronary heart disease, is a group of diseases that includes: stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden coronary death.

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Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis

Cortical pseudolaminar necrosis, also known as cortical laminar necrosis and simply laminar necrosis, is the (uncontrolled) death of cells in the (cerebral) cortex of the brain in a band-like pattern, with a relative preservation of cells immediately adjacent to the meninges.

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Cranial nerves

Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain (including the brainstem), in contrast to spinal nerves (which emerge from segments of the spinal cord).

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Cranial vault

The cranial vault is the space in the skull within the neurocranium, occupied by the brain.

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Craniotomy

A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) or computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual 'slices') of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Dabigatran

Dabigatran (Pradaxa in Australia, Canada, Europe and USA, Prazaxa in Japan) is an oral anticoagulant from the class of the direct thrombin inhibitors.

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Danaparoid

Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran) is an anticoagulant that works by inhibiting activated factor X (factor Xa).

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Death

Death is the termination of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis, or deep venous thrombosis, (DVT) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within a deep vein, predominantly in the legs.

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Dejerine–Roussy syndrome

Dejerine–Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome is a condition developed after a thalamic stroke, a stroke causing damage to the thalamus.

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Dementia

Dementia, also known as senility, is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.

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Department of Health (United Kingdom)

The Department of Health (DH) is the Ministerial Department of the United Kingdom Government responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.

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Developed country

A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy (or diabetic kidney disease) is a progressive kidney disease caused by damage to the capillaries in the kidneys' glomeruli.

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Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is when damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes.

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Diarrhea

Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dilated cardiomyopathy

Not to be confused with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or any other cardiomyopathy.

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Dipyridamole

Dipyridamole (trademarked as Persantine) is a medication that inhibits blood clot formation when given chronically and causes blood vessel dilation when given at high doses over a short time.

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Disufenton sodium

Disufenton sodium (NXY-059, Cerovive) is the disulfonyl derivative of the neuroprotective spin trap phenylbutylnitrone or "PBN".

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Dura mater

Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane that is the outermost of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.

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Dysarthria

Dysarthria (from Ancient Greek δυσ- dys, "hard, difficult, bad" and ἄρθρωσις arthrosis, "articulation") is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes (cf. aphasia: a disorder of the content of language).

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Dyslexia

Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is a learning disability characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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Dysphagia

Dysphagia is the medical term for the symptom of difficulty in swallowing.

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Echocardiography

Echocardiogram, often referred to as a cardiac echo or simply an echo, is a sonogram of the heart.

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Ejection fraction

Ejection fraction (EF) is the fraction of outbound blood pumped from the heart with each heartbeat.

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Electrocardiography

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG*) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on a patient's body.

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Embolectomy

Embolectomy is the emergency surgical removal of emboli which are blocking blood circulation.

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Embolism

An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, which may be a blood clot, fat globule, gas bubble or foreign material in the bloodstream.

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Embolus

An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "clot, lit. ram") is any detached, traveling intravascular mass (solid, liquid, or gaseous) carried by circulation, which is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.

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Emergency department

An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.

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Endocarditis

Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.

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Epidural hematoma

Epidural or extradural hematoma (haematoma), also known as an epidural hemorrhage, is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in which a buildup of blood occurs between the dura mater (the tough outer membrane of the central nervous system) and the skull.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure (colloquially a fit) is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Etiology

Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.

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Exponential growth

Exponential growth occurs when the growth rate of the value of a mathematical function is proportional to the function's current value.

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Expressive aphasia

Expressive aphasia (non-fluent aphasia) is characterized by the loss of the ability to produce language (spoken or written).

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Extraocular muscles

The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that control movement of the eye (there are four in bovines) and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae).

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FAST (stroke)

FAST is an acronym used as a mnemonic to help detect and enhance responsiveness to stroke victim needs.

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Fat embolism

A fat embolism is a type of embolism that is often caused by physical trauma such as fracture of long bones, soft tissue trauma, and burns.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that converts sugar to acids, gases or alcohol.

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Fibromuscular dysplasia

Fibromuscular dysplasia, often abbreviated as FMD, is a non-atherosclerotic, non-inflammatory disease of the blood vessels that causes abnormal growth within the wall of an artery.

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Flaccid paralysis

Flaccid paralysis is a clinical manifestation characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).

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Folic acid

Folic acid or folate is a B vitamin.

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Gait (human)

Human gait refers to locomotion achieved through the movement of human limbs.

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Gastrointestinal bleeding

Gastrointestinal bleed (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of blood loss from the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.

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Giant-cell arteritis

Giant-cell arteritis (GCA or temporal arteritis or cranial arteritis) or Horton disease is an inflammatory disease of blood vessels most commonly involving large and medium arteries of the head, predominantly the branches of the external carotid artery.

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Glial scar

Glial scar formation (gliosis) is a reactive cellular process involving astrogliosis that occurs after injury to the Central Nervous System.

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Greek language

Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Haemophilia

Haemophilia, also spelled hemophilia, is a group of hereditary genetic disorders that impair the body's ability to control blood clotting, which is used to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is broken.

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Head injury

Any injury that results in trauma to the skull or brain can be classified as a head injury.

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Headache

A headache or cephalalgia is pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Heart

The heart is a muscular organ in humans and other animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart failure

Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), occurs when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.

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Hemiparesis

Hemiparesis is weakness of the entire left or right side of the body.

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Hemispatial neglect

Hemispatial neglect, also called hemiagnosia, hemineglect, unilateral neglect, spatial neglect, contralateral neglect, unilateral visual inattention,Unsworth, C. A. (2007).

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High-energy phosphate

High-energy phosphate can mean one of two things.

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Hippocrates

Hippocrates of Kos (Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs; 460 – 370 BC) was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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Holter monitor

In medicine, a Holter monitor (often simply "Holter" or occasionally ambulatory electrocardiography device) is a portable device for continuously monitoring various electrical activity of the cardiovascular system for at least 24 hours (often for two weeks at a time).

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Homocysteine

Homocysteine is a non-protein α-amino acid.

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Homocystinuria

Classical homocystinuria, also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency or CBS deficiency, is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine, often involving cystathionine beta synthase.

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Homonymous hemianopsia

Hemianopsia or hemianopia is visual field loss on the left or right side of the vertical midline.

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Hormone replacement therapy (menopause)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in menopause is medical treatment in surgically menopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid (HA) (also called hyaluronan, hyaluronate or) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues.

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Hyperbaric medicine

Hyperbaric medicine, also known as hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), is the medical use of oxygen at a level higher than atmospheric pressure.

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Hypercholesterolemia

Hypercholesterolemia (also spelled hypercholesterolaemia also called dyslipidemia) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperreflexia

Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.

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Hypersexuality

Hypersexuality is a clinical diagnosis used by mental healthcare researchers and providers to describe extremely frequent or suddenly increased sexual urges or sexual activity.

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Hypertension

Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar or low blood glucose, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal.

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Hypolipidemic agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias.

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Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia (also known as hypoxiation or anoxemia) is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply.

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Incidence (epidemiology)

Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.

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Induced coma

A barbiturate-induced coma, or barb coma, is a temporary coma (a deep state of unconsciousness) brought on by a controlled dose of a barbiturate drug, usually pentobarbital or thiopental.

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Infarction

Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) caused by a local lack of oxygen, due to an obstruction of the tissue's blood supply.

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Infective endocarditis

Infective endocarditis is a form of endocarditis.

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Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery is major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy.

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Intracranial aneurysm

An intracranial aneurysm (also called cerebral or brain aneurysm) is a cerebrovascular disorder in which weakness in the wall of a cerebral artery or vein causes a localized dilation or ballooning of the blood vessel.

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Intracranial hemorrhage

An intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a hemorrhage, or bleeding, within the skull.

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Intracranial pressure

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

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Intraparenchymal hemorrhage

Intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is one extension of intracerebral hemorrhage (the other is intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH)) with bleeding within brain parenchyma.

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Intraventricular hemorrhage

An intraventricular hemorrhage (or haemorrhage in British English; both abbreviated as IVH) is a bleeding into the brain's ventricular system, where the cerebrospinal fluid is produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space.

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Ischemia

Ischemia, also spelled as ischaemia or ischæmia, is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).

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Ischemic cascade

The ischemic (ischaemic) cascade is a series of biochemical reactions that are initiated in the brain and other aerobic tissues after seconds to minutes of ischemia (inadequate blood supply).

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Johann Jakob Wepfer

Johann Jakob Wepfer (December 23, 1620 – January 26, 1695) was a Swiss pathologist and pharmacologist who was a native of Schaffhausen.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)CO2H.

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Lacunar stroke

Lacunar stroke or lacunar infarct (LACI) is a type of stroke that results from occlusion of one of the penetrating arteries that provides blood to the brain's deep structures.

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Lesion

A lesion is any abnormality in the tissue of an organism (in layman's terms, "damage"), usually caused by disease or trauma.

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Libman–Sacks endocarditis

Libman–Sacks endocarditis (often misspelled Libmann-Sachs) is a form of nonbacterial endocarditis that is seen in association with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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Likelihood ratios in diagnostic testing

In evidence-based medicine, likelihood ratios are used for assessing the value of performing a diagnostic test.

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Lipohyalinosis

Lipohyalinosis is a small-vessel disease in the brain.

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Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

The long-term effects of alcohol (ethanol) consumption range from cardioprotective health benefits for low to moderate alcohol consumption in industrialized societies with higher rates of cardiovascular diseaseAssociation of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Luxol fast blue stain

Luxol fast blue stain, abbreviated LFB stain or simply LFB, is a commonly used stain to observe myelin under light microscopy, created by Heinrich Klüver and Barrera in 1953.

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Magnetic resonance imaging

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), or magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to investigate the anatomy and physiology of the body in both health and disease.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD) (also known as clinical depression, major depression, unipolar depression, or unipolar disorder; or as recurrent depression in the case of repeated episodes) is a mental disorder characterized by a pervasive and persistent low mood that is accompanied by low self-esteem and by a loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

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Mania

Mania is the mood of an abnormally elevated arousal energy level, or "a state of heightened overall activation with enhanced affective expression together with lability of affect." Although it is often thought of as a "mirror image" to depression, the heightened mood can be either euphoric or irritable and, indeed, as the mania progresses, irritability becomes more prominent and can eventuate in violence.

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Medial lemniscus

The medial lemniscus, also known as Reil's band or Reil's ribbon, is a large ascending bundle of heavily myelinated axons that decussate in the brain stem, specifically in the medulla.

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Medical history

The medical history or (medical) case history (also called anamnesis, especially historically) (often abbreviated hx or Hx) of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information (in this case, it is sometimes called heteroanamnesis), with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention.

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Medical ultrasound

Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.

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Mediterranean diet

The Mediterranean diet is a modern nutritional recommendation originally inspired by the traditional dietary patterns of Greece, Southern Italy, and Spain.

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Menopause

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and the woman is no longer able to have children.

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Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (contracted from) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug.

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Micrograph

A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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Mitochondrion

The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Mitral valve

The mitral valve (also known as the bicuspid valve or left atrioventricular valve) is a dual-flap (bi- from the Latin, meaning double, and mitral- from the Latin, meaning shaped like a mitre) valve in the heart that lies between the left atrium (LA) and the left ventricle (LV).

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Mitral valve stenosis

Mitral stenosis is a valvular heart disease characterized by the narrowing of the orifice of the mitral valve of the heart.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Motor learning

Motor learning is a change, resulting from practice or a novel experience, in the capability for responding.

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Motor speech disorders

Motor speech disorders are a class of speech disorder that disturb the body's natural ability to speak.

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Moyamoya disease

Moyamoya syndrome is a disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to a part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle.

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Nasogastric intubation

Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.

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National Health Service

The four publicly funded health care systems in the countries of the United Kingdom are referred to as the National Health Service (NHS).

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National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, or NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) is a tool used by healthcare providers to objectively quantify the impairment caused by a stroke.

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Neural pathway

A neural pathway, neural tract, or neural face, connects one part of the nervous system with another via a bundle of neurons.

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Neurology

Neurology (from νεῦρον, neuron, and the suffix -λογία -logia "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery (or neurological surgery) is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.

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Neutropenia

Neutropenia or neutropaenia, from Latin prefix neutro- ("neither", for neutral staining) and Greek suffix -πενία (-penía, "deficiency"), is a granulocyte disorder characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophils.

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Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis

Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a form of endocarditis in which small sterile vegetations are deposited on the valve leaflets.

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Number needed to treat

The number needed to treat (NNT) is an epidemiological measure used in communicating the effectiveness of a health-care intervention, typically a treatment with medication.

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Nursing

Nursing is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

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Nystagmus

Nystagmus is a condition of involuntary (or voluntary, in rare cases) eye movement, acquired in infancy or later in life, that may result in reduced or limited vision.

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Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

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Occupational therapist

The role of an occupational therapist is to work with a client to help them achieve a fulfilled and satisfied state in life through the use of "purposeful activity or interventions designed to achieve functional outcomes which promote health, prevent injury or disability and which develop, improve, sustain or restore the highest possible level of independence." A practical definition for OT can also be illustrated with the use of models such as the Occupational Performance Model (Australia), known as the OPM(A).

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Occupational therapy

Occupational therapy (OT) is the use of assessment and treatment to develop, recover, or maintain the daily living and work skills of people with a physical, mental, or cognitive disorder.

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Orthotics

Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses.

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Pain

Pain can be described as a distressing sensation in a particular part of the body.

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Panic attack

Panic attacks are periods of intense fear or apprehension of sudden onset accompanied by at least four or more bodily or cognitive symptoms (such as heart palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, or feelings of unreality) and of variable duration from minutes to hours.

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Papillary fibroelastoma

A papillary fibroelastoma is a primary tumor of the heart that typically involves one of the valves of the heart.

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Paradoxical embolism

A paradoxical embolism, also called a crossed embolism, is a kind of stroke or other form of arterial thrombosis caused by embolism of a thrombus (blood clot) of venous origin through a lateral opening in the heart, such as a patent foramen ovale.

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Paralysis

Paralysis is loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Partial anterior circulation infarct

Partial Anterior Circulation Infarct (PACI) is a type of cerebral infarction affecting part of the anterior circulation supplying one side of the brain.

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Penumbra (medicine)

In pathology and anatomy the penumbra is the area surrounding an ischemic event such as an ischemic, thrombotic or embolic stroke.

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Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an endoscopic medical procedure in which a tube (PEG tube) is passed into a patient's stomach through the abdominal wall, most commonly to provide a means of feeding when oral intake is not adequate (for example, because of dysphagia or sedation).

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Pericardial effusion

| Name.

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Pharmacology

Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).

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Physical examination

A physical examination, medical examination, or clinical examination (more popularly known as a check-up) is the process by which a medical professional investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease.

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Physical exercise

Physical exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Physical therapy

Physical therapy or physiotherapy (often abbreviated to PT) is a physical medicine and rehabilitation specialty that remediates impairments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis, and physical intervention (therapy using mechanical force and movements).

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Pia mater

Pia mater often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Platelet

Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clogging blood vessel injuries.

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Pneumonia

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.

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Post stroke depression

Post-stroke depression (PSD) is considered the most frequent and important neuropsychiatric consequence of stroke.

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Posterior circulation infarct

A Posterior Circulation Infarct (POCI) is a type of cerebral infarction affecting the posterior circulation supplying one side of the brain.

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Posterior column

The posterior column (dorsal column) refers to the area of white matter in the middle to posterior side of the spinal cord.

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Pre-eclampsia

Pre-eclampsia or preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by high blood pressure and a large amount of protein in the urine.

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Pressure ulcer

Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, bedsores and decubitus ulcers, are localized injuries to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure, or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.

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Preventive healthcare

Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.

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Prothrombin time

The prothrombin time (PT) — along with its derived measures of prothrombin ratio (PR) and international normalized ratio (INR) — are assays evaluating the extrinsic pathway of coagulation.

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Pseudobulbar affect

Pseudobulbar affect (PBA), emotional lability, labile affect, or emotional incontinence refers to a neurologic disorder characterized by involuntary crying or uncontrollable episodes of crying and/or laughing, or other emotional displays.

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Psychologist

A psychologist is a professional who evaluates and studies behavior and mental processesU.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook: (see also psychology).

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Psychosis

Psychosis refers to an abnormal condition of the mind described as involving a "loss of contact with reality".

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Ptosis (eyelid)

Ptosis (from Greek Ptosis "Blepharoptosis" or πτῶσις, to "fall") is a drooping or falling of the upper eyelid.

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Public health

Public health refers to "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." It is concerned with threats to health based on population health analysis.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of the lung's main artery or one of its branches by a substance that has traveled from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pyramidal tracts

The pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has unpaired valency electrons.

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Randomized controlled trial

A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment, where the people being studied are randomly allocated one or other of the different treatments under study.

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Rash

A rash is a change of the skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Reactive oxygen species

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive molecules containing oxygen.

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Receptive aphasia

Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which people with the condition are unable to understand language in its written or spoken form, and even though they can speak with normal grammar, syntax, rate, and intonation, they cannot express themselves meaningfully using language.

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Recreational drug use

Recreational drug use is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention to alter the state of consciousness (through alteration of the central nervous system) in order to create positive emotions and feelings.

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Red meat

In gastronomy, red meat is mammal meat which is red when raw and not white when cooked; it includes the meat of most adult mammals.

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Rehabilitation robotics

Rehabilitation robotics is a field of research dedicated to understanding and augmenting rehabilitation through the application of robotic devices.

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Rheumatic fever

Rheumatic fever, also known as acute rheumatic fever (ARF), is an inflammatory disease that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain.

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Risk factor

In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.

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Rudolf Virchow

Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.

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Screening (medicine)

Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.

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Self-esteem

In sociology and psychology, self-esteem reflects a person's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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Sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as classification function.

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Shock (circulatory)

Circulatory shock, commonly known as shock, is a life-threatening medical condition of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.

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Sick sinus syndrome

Sick sinus syndrome (SSS), also called sinus node dysfunction (SND), or sinoatrial node disease, is a group of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) presumably caused by a malfunction of the sinus node, the heart's primary pacemaker.

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Sickle-cell disease

Sickle-cell disease (SCD), also known as sickle-cell anaemia (SCA) and drepanocytosis, is a hereditary blood disorder, characterized by an abnormality in the oxygen-carrying haemoglobin molecule in red blood cells.

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Silent stroke

A silent stroke is a stroke that does not have any outward symptoms associated with stroke, and the patient is typically unaware they have suffered a stroke.

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Skin

Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates.

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Sleep disorder

A sleep disorder, or somnipathy, is a medical disorder of the sleep patterns of a person or animal.

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Smoking cessation

Smoking cessation (colloquially quitting smoking) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.

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Social work

Social work is a professional and academic discipline that will to improve the quality of life and enhance wellbeing of individuals, families, couples, groups, and communities through research, policy planning, community development, direct practice, crisis intervention, ensuring social welfare and security for those affected by social disadvantages such as poverty, psychosocial care to mentally and physically disabled, and raising voices against social injustice for social reforms, including social actions against violations of civil liberties and human rights.

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Southeastern United States

The Southeastern United States is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.

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Spasticity

Spasticity is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity and hypertonia.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a Speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders and swallowing disorders.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Spinothalamic tract

The spinothalamic tract (also known as anterolateral system or the ventrolateral system) is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus.

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Standard of care

In tort law, the standard of care is the only degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care.

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Statin

Statins (or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) are a class of cholesterol lowering drugs that inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol.

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Stent

In medicine, a stent is a tube or other device placed in the body to create a passage between two hollow spaces, and stenting is the placement of a stent.

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Sternocleidomastoid muscle

In human anatomy, the sternocleidomastoid muscle, also known as sternomastoid and commonly abbreviated as SCM, is a paired muscle in the superficial layers of the side of the neck.

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Stroke

Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), cerebrovascular insult (CVI), or brain attack, is when poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Stroke Association

The Stroke Association is a charity in the United Kingdom.

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Stroke Belt

Stroke Belt or Stroke Alley is a name given to a region in the southeastern United States that has been recognized by public health authorities for having an unusually high incidence of stroke and other forms of cardiovascular disease.

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Stroke recovery

The primary goals of stroke management are to reduce brain injury and promote maximum patient recovery.

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Subarachnoid hemorrhage

A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), or subarachnoid haemorrhage in British English, is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain.

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Subarachnoid space

In the central nervous system, the subarachnoid space (subarachnoid cavity) is the anatomic space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater.

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Subdural hematoma

A subdural hematoma (American spelling) or subdural haematoma (British spelling), also known as a subdural haemorrhage (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.

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Subdural space

The subdural space (or subdural cavity) is a potential space that can be opened by the separation of the arachnoid mater from the dura mater as the result of trauma, pathologic process, or the absence of cerebrospinal fluid as seen in a cadaver.

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Systolic hypertension

In medicine, systolic hypertension is defined as an elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP).

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Takayasu's arteritis

Takayasu's disease (also known as "aortic arch syndrome", "nonspecific aortoarteritis" and the "pulseless disease") is a form of large vessel granulomatous vasculitisAmerican College of Physicians (ACP).

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Temporal lobe

The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.

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Thienopyridine

Thienopyridines are a class of selective, irreversible ADP receptor/P2Y12 inhibitors used for their anti-platelet activity.

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Thrombocytosis

Thrombocytosis (or thrombocythemia) is the presence of high platelet counts in the blood, and can be either primary (also termed essential and caused by a myeloproliferative disease) or reactive (also termed secondary).

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Thrombolysis

Thrombolysis is the breakdown (lysis) of blood clots by pharmacological means, and commonly called clot busting.

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Thrombosis

Thrombosis (Greek: θρόμβωσις) is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus; Greek: θρόμβος) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system.

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Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP or Moschcowitz syndrome) is a rare disorder of the blood-coagulation system, causing extensive microscopic clots to form in the small blood vessels throughout the body.

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Thrombus

A thrombus, or colloquially a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.

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Ticlopidine

Ticlopidine (trade name Ticlid) is an antiplatelet drug in the thienopyridine family which is an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor inhibitor.

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Tissue plasminogen activator

Tissue plasminogen activator (abbreviated tPA or PLAT) is a protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Total anterior circulation infarct

A Total Anterior Circulation Infarct (TACI) is a type of cerebral infarction affecting the entire anterior circulation supplying one side of the brain.

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Transcranial direct-current stimulation

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of neurostimulation which uses constant, low current delivered to the brain area of interest via electrodes on the scalp.

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method used to stimulate small regions of the brain.

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Transient ischemic attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by ischemia (loss of blood flow) – either focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal – without acute infarction (tissue death).

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U.S. state

A state of the United States of America is one of the 50 constituent political entities that shares its sovereignty with the United States federal government.

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Unconsciousness

Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.

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Unilateralism

Unilateralism is any doctrine or agenda that supports one-sided action.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services." The task force, a panel of primary care physicians and epidemiologists, is funded, staffed, and appointed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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Uric acid

Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.

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Urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence (UI), also known as involuntary urination, is any leakage of urine.

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Vasculitis

Vasculitis (plural: vasculitides) is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.

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Vasoconstriction

Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.

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Ventricular septal defect

A ventricular septal defect (VSD) is a defect in the ventricular septum, the wall dividing the left and right ventricles of the heart.

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Ventricular system

The ventricular system is a set of four interconnected cavities (ventricles) in the brain, where the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced.

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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries are major arteries of the neck.

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Vertebral artery dissection

Vertebral artery dissection (abbreviated VAD, often vertebral dissection) is a dissection (a flap-like tear) of the inner lining of the vertebral artery, which is located in the neck and supplies blood to the brain.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is a bony skeletal structure found in vertebrates.

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Vertigo

Vertigo is when a person feels like they are moving when they are not.

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Virtual reality

Virtual Reality (VR), which can be referred to as immersive multimedia or computer-simulated life, replicates an environment that simulates physical presence in places in the real world or imagined worlds and lets the user interact in that world.

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Visual field

The visual field is the "spatial array of visual sensations available to observation in introspectionist psychological experiments".

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Vital signs

Vital signs (often shortened to just vitals) are used to measure the body’s basic functions.

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Von Willebrand factor

Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a blood glycoprotein involved in hemostasis.

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Warfarin

Warfarin, also known by the brand names Coumadin among others, is an anticoagulant normally used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body, respectively.

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Watershed stroke

A watershed stroke or watershed infarct is defined as an ischemia, or blood flow blockage, that is localized to the border zones between the territories of two major arteries in the brain.

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Weber's syndrome

Weber's syndrome (superior alternating hemiplegia) is a form of stroke characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy and contralateral hemiparesis or hemiplegia.

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Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked, since the late nineteenth century, to speech (the other is Broca's area).

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Wheelchair

A wheelchair is a chair fitted with wheels.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

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Acute stroke, Arterial ischemic stroke, Bamford classification, Brain Attack, Brain Hemmorage, Brain Stroke, Brain attack, Brain hemmorage, Brain stroke, Brain vascular accident, Cardio Vascular Accident, Cerebral Haemorrhage, Cerebral Vascular Accident, Cerebral accident, Cerebral hæmorrhage, Cerebral stroke, Cerebral vascular accident, Cerebral vascular accidents, Cerebrovascular Accident, Cerebrovascular Event, Cerebrovascular accident, Cerebrovascular accidents, Cerebrovascular incident, Cerebrovascular lesion, Chronic stroke, Embolic stroke, Hemorragic stroke, Hemorrhagic stroke, Ischaemic hemorragic stroke, Ischaemic hemorrhagic stroke, Ischaemic stroke, Ischemic hemorragic stroke, Ischemic hemorrhagic stroke, Ischemic stroke, Stroke associated symptoms, Stroke symptom, Stroke symptoms, Stroke thrombolysis, Stroke unit, Strokes, Symptoms of stroke, Thrombotic stroke.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stroke

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