115 relations: Adaptive immune system, Allergic rhinitis, Allergy, Anaphylaxis, Antibody, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Antigen processing, Antigen-presenting cell, Apoptosis, Asthma, Autocrine signalling, Autoimmune disease, Autoimmunity, B cell, Bacteria, Bactericide, Bone marrow, CD154, CD25, CD28, CD3 (immunology), CD4, CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity, CD40 (protein), CD8, CD80, CD86, Cell growth, Cell-mediated immunity, Clonal anergy, Co-receptor, Co-stimulation, Corticosteroid, Cytokine, Cytotoxic T cell, Dendritic cell, Dermatitis, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Disease, Endocytosis, Eosinophil granulocyte, Extracellular, Follicular dendritic cells, Graves' disease, Helminths, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Humoral immunity, Hypersensitivity, ..., IL-2 receptor, Immune system, Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin class switching, Immunoglobulin E, Immunoglobulin G, Immunoglobulin M, Immunology, Inflammation, Intercellular adhesion molecule, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 13, Interleukin 17, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 4, Interleukin 5, Interleukin 6, Interleukin 9, Intracellular, Kinase, Lupus erythematosus, Lymph node, Lymphocyte, Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, Lymphocytopenia, Lymphotoxin alpha, Macrophage, Major histocompatibility complex, Management of HIV/AIDS, Mast cell, Memory T cell, MHC class II, Montelukast, Myasthenia gravis, Natural killer cell, Opportunistic infection, Paracrine signalling, Pathogen, Peptide, Phagocyte, Phosphorylation, Plasma cell, Pleiotropy, Protein, PTPRC, Regulatory T cell, Rheumatoid arthritis, T cell, T cell receptor, T helper 17 cell, T helper 3 cell, T helper cell, Thymus, Transforming growth factor beta, Transplant rejection, Type I hypersensitivity, Type II hypersensitivity, Type III hypersensitivity, Type IV hypersensitivity, Urticaria, Vaccination, Virus, White blood cell. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate or prevent pathogen growth.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever or pollinosis, is when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to something in the environment that normally causes little problem.
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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shape protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
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The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.
In immunology, an antigen (Ag) is any structural substance that serves as a target for the receptors of an adaptive immune response, TCR or BCR or its secreted form antibody.
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Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes.
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An antigen-presenting cell (APC) or accessory cell is a cell that displays foreign antigens complexed with major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) on their surfaces; this process is known as antigen presentation.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.
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Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.
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Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine agent) that binds to autocrine receptors on that same cell, leading to changes in the cell.
Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity).
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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own cells and tissues.
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B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.
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A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
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Bone marrow is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones.
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CD154, also called CD40 ligand or CD40L, is a protein that is primarily expressed on activated T cells and is a member of the TNF superfamily of molecules.
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CD25 is the alpha chain of the IL-2 receptor.
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CD28 (Cluster of Differentiation 28) is one of the proteins expressed on T cells that provide co-stimulatory signals required for T cell activation and survival.
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In immunology, the CD3 (cluster of differentiation 3) T-cell co-receptor is a protein complex and is composed of four distinct chains.
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In molecular biology, CD4 (cluster of differentiation 4) is a glycoprotein found on the surface of immune cells such as T helper cells, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells.
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Understanding of the antitumor immunity role of CD4+ T cells has grown substantially since the late 1990s.
Cluster of differentiation 40, CD40 is a costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is required for their activation.
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CD8 (cluster of differentiation 8) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as a co-receptor for the T cell receptor (TCR).
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Cluster of Differentiation 80 (also CD80 and B7-1) is a protein found on activated B cells and monocytes that provides a costimulatory signal necessary for T cell activation and survival.
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Cluster of Differentiation 86 (also known as CD86 and B7-2) is a protein expressed on antigen-presenting cells that provides costimulatory signals necessary for T cell activation and survival.
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The term cell growth is used in the contexts of cell development and cell division (reproduction).
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Cell mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.
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A co-receptor is a cell surface receptor that binds a signalling molecule in addition to a primary receptor in order to facilitate ligand recognition and initiate biological processes, such as entry of a pathogen into a host cell.
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During the activation of lymphocytes, co-stimulation is often crucial to the development of an effective immune response.
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Corticosteroids are a class of chemicals that includes the steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
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Cytokines (Greek:Cyto from Greek "κύτταρο" kyttaro "cell" + Kines from Greek "κίνηση" kinisi "movement") are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
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A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cells or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
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Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
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Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is inflammation of the skin.
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Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes, or T1D; formerly insulin-dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
A disease is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism.
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Endocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
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Eosinophil granulocytes, usually called eosinophils or eosinophiles (or, less commonly, acidophils), are white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
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Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell areas of the lymphoid tissue.
Graves' disease, also known as toxic diffuse goiter and Flajani-Basedow-Graves disease, is an autoimmune disease that affects the thyroid.
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Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular organisms, which when mature can generally be seen with the naked eye.
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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
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Humoral immunity, also called the antibody-mediated beta cellularis immune system, is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules (as opposed to cell-mediated immunity) found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins and certain antimicrobial peptides.
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Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) is a set of undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
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The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.
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The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
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Immunoglobulin A (IgA, also referred to as sIgA) is an antibody that plays a critical role in mucosal immunity.
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Immunoglobulin class switching, also known as isotype switching, isotypic commutation or class-switch recombination (CSR), is a biological mechanism that changes a B cell's production of immunoglobulin (antibodies) from one type to another, such as from the isotype IgM to the isotype IgG.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a kind of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.
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Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody.
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Immunoglobulin M, or IgM for short, is a basic antibody that is produced by B cells.
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Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
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Inflammation (Latin, inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants.
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In molecular biology, intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) are part of the immunoglobulin superfamily.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
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Interleukin-10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
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Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.
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Interleukin 13 (IL-13) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL13 gene.
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Interleukin 17A (IL-17 or IL-17A), originally identified as a transcript from a rodent T-cell hybridoma by Rouvier et al. in 1993, is the founding member of a group of cytokines called the IL-17 family.
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Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.
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The interleukin 4 (IL4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells.
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Interleukin 5 or IL-5 is an interleukin produced by T helper-2 cells and mast cells.
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Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
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Interleukin 9, also known as IL-9, is a cytokine (cell signalling molecule) belonging to the group of interleukins.
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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
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In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.
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Lupus erythematosus is a name given to a collection of autoimmune diseases in which the human immune system becomes hyperactive and attacks normal, healthy tissues.
A lymph node is an oval-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, distributed widely throughout the body including the armpit and stomach and linked by lymphatic vessels.
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A lymphocyte is one of the three subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
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Lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, also known as LFA-1 is found on all T-cells and also on B-cells, macrophages and neutrophils and is involved in recruitment to the site of infection.
Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.
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Lymphotoxin-alpha (LT-alpha) or Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LTA gene.
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Macrophages (big eaters, from makros "large" + phagein "eat"; abbr. MΦ) are a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to the surface of healthy body cells on its surface in a process called phagocytosis.
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The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a set of cell surface molecules encoded by a large gene family which controls a major part of the immune system in all vertebrates.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is derived from the myeloid stem cell.
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Memory T cells are a subset of infection- as well as potentially cancer-fighting T cells (also known as a T lymphocyte) that have previously encountered and responded to their cognate antigen; thus, the term antigen-experienced T cell is often applied.
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MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules are a family of molecules normally found only on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, mononuclear phagocytes, some endothelial cells, thymic epithelial cells, and B cells.
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Montelukast (trade names Singulair, Montelo-10, and Monteflo and Lukotas in India, Arokast in Bangladesh) is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies.
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Myasthenia gravis (from Greek μύς "muscle", ἀσθένεια "weakness", and gravis "serious"; abbreviated MG) is a neuromuscular disease that leads to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatigue.
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Natural killer cells or NK cells are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.
An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoan pathogens that take advantage of a host with a weakened immune system or an altered microbiota (such as a disrupted gut flora).
Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-cell communication in which a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behavior or differentiation of those cells.
In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos “suffering, passion” and -γενής -genēs “producer of”) in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease, a term which came into use in the 1880s.
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Peptides (from Gr. πεπτός, "digested", derived from πέσσειν, "to digest") are biologically occurring short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.
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Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO43−) group to a protein or other organic molecule.
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Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.
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Pleiotropy occurs when one gene influences two or more seemingly unrelated phenotypic traits, an example being phenylketonuria, which is a human disease that affects multiple systems but is caused by one gene defect.
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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, C also known as PTPRC is an enzyme that, in humans, is encoded by the PTPRC gene.
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The regulatory T cells (Tregs), formerly known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T cells which modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and abrogate autoimmune disease.
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long lasting autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
T cells or T lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte (in turn, a type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
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The T cell receptor or TCR is a molecule found on the surface of T lymphocytes (or T cells) that is responsible for recognizing antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
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T helper 17 cells (Th17) Th17 helper cells are a subset of T helper cells developmentally distinct from Th1 and Th2 lineages producing interleukin 17 (IL-17).
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T helper 3 cells are a type of T helper cell, lymphocytes involved in regulating the immune response.
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The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
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The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
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Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a secreted protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells.
Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.
Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen.
In type II hypersensitivity (or cytotoxic hypersensitivity) the antibodies produced by the immune response bind to antigens on the patient's own cell surfaces.
Type III hypersensitivity occurs when antigen-antibody complexes that are not adequately cleared by innate immune cells accumulate, giving rise to an inflammatory response and attraction of leukocytes.
Type 4 hypersensitivity is often called delayed type hypersensitivity as the reaction takes two to three days to develop.
Urticaria (from the Latin urtica, "nettle" from urere, "to burn"), commonly referred to as hives, is a kind of skin rash notable for pale red, raised, itchy bumps.
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Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
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White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
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