199 relations: Abdul Qadeer Khan, Ablation, Acetonitrile, Aerogel, Aft, Alpha particle, Andrei Sakharov, Anthony Eden, Arms race, Atmospheric entry, Atomic Energy Act of 1946, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, Atomic Weapons Establishment, B28 nuclear bomb, B41 nuclear bomb, Ballistic missile submarine, Balochistan, Pakistan, Bar (unit), Beryllium, Black body, Black-body radiation, Boosted fission weapon, Born secret, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Bunker buster, Canopus (nuclear test), Carl E. Duckett, Castle Bravo, Castle Koon, Castle Romeo, Center of mass, Central Intelligence Agency, Chagai Hills, Chagai-I, Chagai-II, Chain reaction, Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Chuck Hansen, Classified information, Column, Critical mass, Cryogenics, Data, Depleted uranium, Deuterium, Devil's advocate, Doomsday device, Double agent, Edward Teller, Electromagnetic radiation, ..., Encyclopedia Americana, Enewetak Atoll, Enriched uranium, Enrico Fermi, Explosive lens, Explosive material, Fat Man, Federal government of the United States, Fissile material, Foam, FOGBANK, Gamma ray, Greenpeace, Heat engine, History of the Teller–Ulam design, Hohlraum, Howard Morland, Hydrogen, Inertial confinement fusion, Insensitive munition, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Isotope, Israel, Ivy Mike, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Joe 4, John von Neumann, Khan Research Laboratories, Kharan Desert, Kiritimati, Layer cake, Lead, List of states with nuclear weapons, Lithium, Lithium hydride, Little Boy, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Manhattan Project, Ministry of National Defense (South Korea), Mirror, Momentum, Multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, Munir Ahmad Khan, Mushroom cloud, Natural uranium, Neutron, Neutron bomb, Neutron flux, Neutron reflector, Neutron temperature, North Korea, Nose cone, NPR, Nuclear bunker buster, Nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear proliferation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Nuclear weapon yield, Nuclear weapons testing, Operation Castle, Operation Grapple, Operation Greenhouse, Operation Redwing, Optical depth, Orange Herald, Oval, Pakistan, Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Pascal (unit), PBS, Peta-, Peter Galison, Photon, Physics, Pit (nuclear weapon), Plasma (physics), Plutonium-239, Pokhran-II, Polystyrene, Prior restraint, Pure fusion weapon, Radiation implosion, Radiation pressure, Radioactive decay, RDS-37, Rediff.com, Reliable Replacement Warhead, Restricted Data, Reverse engineering, Richard Rhodes, Samar Mubarakmand, San Jose Mercury News, Sandia National Laboratories, Scientific American, Secrets of the Dead, Seismology, Short ton, Simon & Schuster, Smyth Report, Social engineering (security), Solvent, South Asia, Soviet Union, Spheroid, Stanislaw Ulam, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Talk of the Nation, Tel Aviv University, Tera-, The New York Times, The Progressive, Thermal equilibrium, TNT equivalent, Tonne, Toxic heavy metal, Trident (missile), Tritium, Tsar Bomba, UGM-27 Polaris, Underground nuclear weapons testing, United States Congress, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Energy, United States Geological Survey, United States v. Progressive, Inc., Uranium-235, Uranium-238, Vela Incident, Vitaly Ginzburg, W47, W80 (nuclear warhead), W87, W88, Watermelon, Wen Ho Lee, William Penney, Baron Penney, World War II, X-ray, Y-12 National Security Complex, Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich, Yale University Press, Yulii Borisovich Khariton, 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
Abdul Qadeer Khan, NI, HI, FPAS (ڈاکٹر عبد القدیر خان; b. 1 April 1936), also known as Mohsin-e-Pakistan (محسن پاکِستان|, lit. "Benefactor of Pakistan") by some people, more popularly known as A. Q. Khan, is a Pakistani nuclear physicist and a metallurgical engineer, colloquially regarded as the founder of high-enriched uranium (HEU) based Gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project.
Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
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Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas.
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Aft, in naval terminology, is an adjective or adverb meaning, towards the stern (rear) of the ship, when the frame of reference is within the ship.
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Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium nucleus.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; May 21, 1921December 14, 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, Soviet dissident and human rights activist.
Robert Anthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon, (12 June 1897 – 14 January 1977) was a British Conservative politician who served three periods as Foreign Secretary and then a relatively brief term as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1955 to 1957.
An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more parties to have the best armed forces.
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Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object into and through the gases of a planet's atmosphere from outer space.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1946 (McMahon Act) determined how the United States federal government would control and manage the nuclear technology it had jointly developed with its wartime allies, the United Kingdom and Canada.
The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, 42 U.S.C. § 2011 et seq., is a United States federal law that is, according to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, "the fundamental U.S. law on both the civilian and the military uses of nuclear materials." It covers the laws for the development, regulation, and disposal of nuclear materials and facilities in the United States.
The Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) is responsible for the design, manufacture and support of warheads for the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent.
The B28, originally Mark 28, was a thermonuclear bomb carried by U.S. tactical fighter bombers and bomber aircraft.
The B-41 (also known as Mk-41) was a thermonuclear weapon deployed by the United States Strategic Air Command in the early 1960s.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
Balochistan (Balochi, Pashto, بلوچِستان), is one of the four provinces of Pakistan, located in the southwestern region of the country.
The bar is a metric (but not SI) unit of pressure exactly equal to Pa.
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Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
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A black body (also blackbody) is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
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Black-body radiation is the type of electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body) held at constant, uniform temperature.
A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction.
"Born secret" and "born classified" are both terms which refer to a policy of information being classified from the moment of its inception, usually regardless of where it was being created, usually in reference to specific laws in the United States that are related to information that describes the operation of nuclear weapons.
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The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is a nontechnical online magazine that covers global security and public policy issues related to the dangers posed by nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, climate change, and emerging technologies and diseases.
A bunker buster is a bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground.
Canopus (also Opération Canopus in French) was the code name for France's first two-stage thermonuclear test, conducted on August 24, 1968 at Fangataufa atoll.
Carl Ernest Duckett (22 March 1923 – 1 April 1992) was the founding father and visionary leader of the Central Intelligence Agency's science and technology operations.
Castle Bravo was the code name given to the first United States test of a dry fuel hydrogen bomb, detonated on March 1, 1954, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as the first test of Operation Castle.
The Koon shot of Operation Castle was a test of a University of California Radiation Laboratory designed thermonuclear device.
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Castle Romeo was the code name given to one of the tests in the Operation Castle series of American nuclear tests.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero or the point where if a force is applied causes it to move in direction of force without rotation.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chagai Hills is a range of granite hills in the Chagai District in Pakistan's Balochistan province.
Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998.
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Chagai-II is the codename assigned to the second atomic test conducted by Pakistan, carried out on 30 May 1998 in the Kharan Desert in Balochistan Province of Pakistan.
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A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and nuclear bunker located in Colorado Springs, Colorado at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units.
Chuck Hansen (May 13, 1947 - March 26, 2003) compiled, over a period of 30 years, the world's largest private collection of unclassified documents on how America developed the atomic bomb.
Classified information is material that a government body claims is sensitive information that requires protection of confidentiality, integrity, or availability.
A Column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.
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A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In physics, cryogenics is the study of the production and behaviour of materials at very low temperatures.
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Data is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables; restated, pieces of data are individual pieces of information.
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Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
Deuterium (symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen.
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In common parlance, a devil's advocate is someone who, given a certain argument, takes a position they do not necessarily agree with (or simply an alternative position from the accepted norm), for the sake of debate or to explore the thought further.
A doomsday device is a hypothetical construction — usually a weapon, or collection of weapons — which could destroy all life on a planet, particularly the Earth, or destroy the planet itself, bringing "doomsday", a term used for the end of planet Earth.
In the field of counterintelligence, a double agent (also double secret agent) is an employee of a secret intelligence service, whose primary purpose is to spy on a different target organization, but who, in fact, is a member of the target organization.
Edward Teller (Teller Ede; January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist who, although he claimed he did not care for the title, is known colloquially as "the father of the hydrogen bomb".
Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.
Encyclopedia Americana is one of the largest general encyclopedias in the English language.
Enewetak Atoll (or Eniwetok Atoll, sometimes also spelled Eniewetok; Ānewetak,, or Āne-wātak) is a large coral atoll of 40 islands in the Pacific Ocean and with its 850 people forms a legislative district of the Ralik Chain of the Marshall Islands.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian physicist, who is credited with the creation of the first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1.
An explosive lens—as used, for example, in nuclear weapons—is a highly specialized explosive charge, a special type of a shaped charge.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
"Fat Man" was the codename for the type of atomic bomb that was detonated over the Japanese city of Nagasaki by the United States on 9 August 1945.
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The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
A foam is a substance that is formed by trapping pockets of gas in a liquid or solid.
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FOGBANK is a code name given to a material used in nuclear weapons such as the W76, W78 and W80.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over forty countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
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In thermodynamics, a heat engine is a system that converts heat or thermal energy to mechanical energy, which can then be used to do mechanical work.
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This article chronicles the history and origins of the Teller-Ulam design, the technical concept behind modern thermonuclear weapons, also known as hydrogen bombs.
In radiation thermodynamics, a hohlraum (a non-specific German word for a "hollow area" or "cavity") is a cavity whose walls are in radiative equilibrium with the radiant energy within the cavity.
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Howard Morland (born September 14, 1942) is an American journalist and activist against nuclear weapons who, in 1979, became famous for apparently discovering the "secret" of the hydrogen bomb (the Teller–Ulam design) and publishing it after a lengthy censorship attempt by the Department of Energy (United States v. The Progressive).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is a type of fusion energy research that attempts to initiate nuclear fusion reactions by heating and compressing a fuel target, typically in the form of a pellet that most often contains a mixture of deuterium and tritium.
Insensitive munitions are munitions that are chemically stable enough to withstand mechanical shocks, fire, and impact by shrapnel, but that can still explode as intended to destroy their targets.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of more than primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
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Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.
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Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
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Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
Joe 4 (Warhead name: RDS-6s (Reaktivnyi Dvigatel Specialnyi; Special Jet Engine)) was an American nickname for the first Soviet test of a thermonuclear weapon on August 12, 1953.
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John von Neumann (Hungarian: Neumann János,; December 28, 1903 – February 8, 1957) was a Hungarian-American pure and applied mathematician, physicist, inventor, polymath, and polyglot.
The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province.
The Kharan Desert (صحرائے خاران) is a sandy and mountainous desert situated in Balochistan province in south-western Pakistan.
Kiritimati, sometimes Christmas Island, is a Pacific Ocean raised coral atoll in the northern Line Islands, and part of the Republic of Kiribati.
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A layer cake (US English) or sandwich cake (UK English), also called a sandwich in UK English, is a cake consisting of multiple stacked sheets of cake, held together by frosting or another type of filling, such as jam or other preserves.
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Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.
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There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
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Lithium hydride is the inorganic compound with the formula LiH.
Little Boy was the codename for the type of atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
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Los Alamos National Laboratory (or LANL; previously known at various times as Project Y, Los Alamos Laboratory, and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is the only laboratory in the United States where classified work towards the design of nuclear weapons has been undertaken besides the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II.
The Ministry of National Defense (MND) is a department within the government of South Korea and responsible for the military branches of South Korea.
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light.
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In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
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A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) is a ballistic missile payload containing several warheads, each capable of being aimed to hit one of a group of targets.
Munir Ahmad Khan (منير احمد خان; b. 20 May 1926 – 22 April 1999; ''NI'' ''HI''), was a Pakistani nuclear engineer and a nuclear physicist, who served as the chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) from 1972 to 1991.
A mushroom cloud is a distinctive pyrocumulus mushroom-shaped cloud of debris/smoke and usually condensed water vapor resulting from a large explosion.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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A neutron bomb, officially known as one type of Enhanced Radiation Weapon (ERW), is a low yield fission-fusion thermonuclear weapon (hydrogen bomb) in which the burst of neutrons generated by a fusion reaction is intentionally allowed to escape the weapon, rather than being absorbed by its other components.
The neutron flux is a quantity used in nuclear reactor physics corresponding to the total length travelled by all neutrons per unit time and volume,Rudi J. J. Stamm'ler, Máximo Julio Abbate, Methods of steady-state reactor physics in nuclear design.
A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
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The term nose cone is used to refer to the forwardmost section of a rocket, guided missile or aircraft.
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National Public Radio (NPR) is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States.
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A nuclear bunker buster, also known as an earth-penetrating weapon (EPW), is the nuclear equivalent of the conventional bunker buster.
A nuclear chain reaction occurs when one single nuclear reaction causes an average of one or more subsequent nuclear reactions, thus leading to the possibility of a self-propagating series of these reactions.
Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an unshielded facility, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and shock wave have passed.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.
Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when a nuclear weapon is detonated, expressed usually in TNT equivalent (the standardized equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene which, if detonated, would produce the same energy discharge), either in kilotons (kt—thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (Mt—millions of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of TNT.
Nuclear weapons tests are experiments carried out to determine the effectiveness, yield, and explosive capability of nuclear weapons.
Operation Castle was a United States series of high-yield (high-energy) nuclear tests by Joint Task Force 7 (JTF-7) at Bikini Atoll beginning in March 1954.
Operation Grapple, and operations Grapple X, Grapple Y and Grapple Z, were the names of British nuclear weapons tests of very-early hydrogen bombs.
Operation Greenhouse was the fifth American nuclear test series, the second conducted in 1951 and the first to test principles that would lead to developing thermonuclear weapons (hydrogen bombs).
Operation Redwing was a United States series of 17 nuclear test detonations from May to July 1956.
In physics, optical depth or optical thickness or Napierian absorbance, is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral optical depth or spectral optical thickness or spectral Napierian absorbance is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.
Orange Herald was a British nuclear weapon of the 1950s.
An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg.
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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The Pakistan Army Corps of Engineers, (Urdu: ﺁرمى انجنيرينگ كور; Army Engineering Core), is an active military administrative staff corps, and a major science and technology command of the Pakistan Army.
The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), (Urdu), is an independent governmental authority and a scientific research institution, concerned with research and development of nuclear power, promotion of nuclear science, energy conservation and the peaceful usage of nuclear technology.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure, internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength, defined as one newton per square metre.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
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Peta is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1015.
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Peter Louis Galison (born 1955, New York) is the Joseph Pellegrino University Professor in History of Science and Physics at Harvard University.
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Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phúsis "nature") is the natural science that involves the study of matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization, and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
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The pit, named after the hard core found in fruits such as peaches and apricots, is the core of an implosion weapon – the fissile material and any neutron reflector or tamper bonded to it.
Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.
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Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic polymer made from the monomer styrene.
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Prior restraint (also referred to as prior censorship or pre-publication censorship) is censorship imposed, usually by a government, on expression before the expression actually takes place.
A pure fusion weapon is a hypothetical hydrogen bomb design that does not need a fission "primary" explosive to ignite the fusion of deuterium and tritium, two heavy isotopes of hydrogen (see thermonuclear weapon for more information about fission-fusion weapons).
The term radiation implosion describes the process behind a class of devices which use high levels of electromagnetic radiation to compress a target.
Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation.
Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
RDS-37 was the Soviet Union's first two-stage hydrogen bomb, first tested on November 22, 1955.
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Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
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The Reliable Replacement Warhead (RRW) was a proposed new American nuclear warhead design and bomb family that was intended to be simple, reliable and to provide a long-lasting, low maintenance future nuclear force for the United States.
Restricted Data (RD) is a category of classified information in the United States.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the processes of extracting knowledge or design information from anything man-made and re-producing it or reproducing anything based on the extracted information.
Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, The Twilight of the Bombs (2010).
Samar Mubarakmand (Urdu: ثمر مبارک مند; b. 17 September 1942), is a Pakistani nuclear physicist known for his research in gamma spectroscopy and experimental development of the linear accelerator.
The San Jose Mercury News is an American daily newspaper, published in San Jose, California.
The Sandia National Laboratories, managed and operated by the Sandia Corporation (a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation), are two major United States Department of Energy research and development national laboratories.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Secrets of the Dead is an ongoing PBS television series produced by Thirteen/WNET New York, which began in 2000.
Seismology (from Greek σεισμός "earthquake" and -λογία "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
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The short ton is a unit of weight equal to, that is most commonly used in the United States where it is known simply as the ton.
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Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.
The Smyth Report is the common name of an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Manhattan Project, the Allied effort to develop atomic bombs during World War II.
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
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Stanisław Marcin Ulam (pronounced; 13 April 1909 – 13 May 1984) was a Polish-American mathematician.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
Talk of the Nation (TOTN) was an American talk radio program based in Washington D.C., produced by National Public Radio (NPR) and was broadcast nationally from 2 to 4 p.m. Eastern Time.
Tel Aviv University (TAU) (אוּנִיבֶרְסִיטַת תֵּל-אָבִיב Universitat Tel Aviv) is a public university located in the neighborhood of Ramat Aviv in Tel Aviv, Israel.
Tera is a unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by 1012 or (one trillion short scale; one billion long scale).
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The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
The Progressive is an American monthly magazine of politics, culture and progressivism with a pronounced liberal perspective.
Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
TNT equivalent is a method of quantifying the energy released in explosions.
The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.
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A toxic heavy metal is any relatively dense metal or metalloid that is noted for its potential toxicity, especially in environmental contexts.
The Trident missile is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) equipped with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRV).
Tritium (or; symbol or, also known as hydrogen-3) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen.
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Tsar Bomba (Царь-бомба; "Tsar of bombs") is the nickname for the AN602 hydrogen bomb, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated.
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The Polaris missile was a two-stage Solid-fuel rocket nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed Corporation of California for the United States Navy.
Underground nuclear testing is the test detonation of nuclear weapons that is performed underground.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
United States of America v. Progressive, Inc., Erwin Knoll, Samuel Day, Jr., and Howard Morland, 467 F. Supp. 990 (W.D. Wis. 1979), was a lawsuit brought against The Progressive magazine by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979.
Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
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Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature.
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The Vela Incident, also known as the South Atlantic Flash, was an unidentified "double flash" of light detected by an American Vela Hotel satellite on September 22, 1979, near the Prince Edward Islands off Antarctica, which many believe was of nuclear origin.
Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, ForMemRS (Вита́лий Ла́заревич Ги́нзбург; October 4, 1916 – November 8, 2009) was a Soviet and Russian theoretical physicist, astrophysicist, Nobel laureate, a member of the Soviet and Russian Academies of Sciences and one of the fathers of Soviet hydrogen bomb.
The W47 was an American thermonuclear warhead used on the Polaris A-1 sub-launched ballistic missile system.
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The W80 is a small thermonuclear warhead (fusion or, more descriptively, two-stage weapon) in the U.S. enduring stockpile with a variable yield of between 5 and 150 kt of TNT.
The W87 is an American thermonuclear missile warhead.
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The W88 is a United States thermonuclear warhead, with an estimated yield of 475 kilotons (kt), and is small enough to fit on MIRVed missiles.
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Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus, family Cucurbitaceae) is a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from southern Africa.
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Wen Ho Lee (born December 21, 1939 in Nantou City, Taiwan) is a Chinese American scientist who worked for the University of California at the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
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William George Penney, Baron Penney OM, KBE, PhD, DSc, FRS, FRSE, FIC, Hon FCGI (24 June 1909 – 3 March 1991), was an English mathematician and professor of mathematical physics at the Imperial College London and later the rector of Imperial College.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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The Y-12 National Security Complex is a United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, near the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich (Якаў Барысавіч Зяльдовіч, Я́ков Бори́сович Зельдо́вич; 8 March 1914 – 2 December 1987) was a prolific Soviet physicist born in Belarus.
Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
Yulii Borisovich Khariton (Russian: Ю́лий Бори́сович Харито́н, February 27, 1904 – December 18, 1996) was a Soviet physicist working in the field of nuclear power.
The 1958 US–UK Mutual Defense Agreement, or UK–US Mutual Defense Agreement, is a bilateral treaty between the United States and the United Kingdom on nuclear weapons cooperation.