74 relations: Allied Control Council, Allies of World War II, Armed forces, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Basic Treaty, 1972, Berlin, Berlin Wall, Bonn–Paris conventions, Boris Yeltsin, Bundeswehr, Charles S. Maier, Cold War, Condoleezza Rice, Council of Foreign Ministers, Die Wende, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, East German general election, 1990, East Germany, End of World War II in Europe, English language, European Union, Former eastern territories of Germany, Four Power Agreement on Berlin, France, French Fifth Republic, French language, General Treaty, German Air Force, German Army, German language, German News Information Services GmbH, German reunification, German–Polish Border Treaty (1990), Germany, Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, Leipzig/Halle Airport, London and Paris Conferences, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military occupation, Military operation, Moscow, NATO, New states of Germany, Nuclear-weapon-free zone, Occupation statute, Oder–Neisse line, Peaceful Revolution, Petersberg Agreement, Philip D. Zelikow, ..., Poland, Potsdam Agreement, Potsdam Conference, Ratification, Robert Zoellick, Russia, Russian language, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Socialist Unity Party of Germany, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Stephen F. Cohen, Succession of states, The Daily Telegraph, The Nation, The National Interest, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Trollenhagen, United Kingdom, United Nations Charter, United States, United States Department of State, West Germany. Expand index (24 more) » « Shrink index
The Allied Control Council or Allied Control Authority, known in the German language as the Alliierter Kontrollrat and also referred to as the Four Powers (German: Vier Mächte), was a military occupation governing body of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany after the end of World War II in Europe.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The armed forces of a country are its government-sponsored defense, fighting forces, and organizations.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) is the shorthand name for the Treaty concerning the basis of relations between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic (Vertrag über die Grundlagen der Beziehungen zwischen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik).
Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.
The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.
The Bonn–Paris conventions were signed in May 1952 and came into force after the 1955 ratification.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Charles S. Maier (born February 23, 1939, in New York City) is the Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History at Harvard University.
The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
Condoleezza "Condi" Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
Council of Foreign Ministers was an organisation agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 and announced in the Potsdam Agreement.
Die Wende ("The Change" or "The Turn") is a German term that has come to signify the complete process of change from the rule of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany and a centrally planned economy to the revival of parliamentary democracy and market economy in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) around the years 1989 and 1990.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.
Legislative elections were held in East Germany on 18 March 1990.
East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Western Allies and the Soviet Union took place in late April and early May 1945.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The former eastern territories of Germany (Ehemalige deutsche Ostgebiete) are those provinces or regions east of the current eastern border of Germany (the Oder–Neisse line) which were lost by Germany after World War I and then World War II.
The Four Power Agreement on Berlin also known as the Berlin Agreement or the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin was agreed on 3 September 1971 by the four wartime allied powers, represented by their Ambassadors.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, introduced on 4 October 1958.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
The General Treaty (Generalvertrag also Deutschlandvertrag - “Germany Treaty”) is a treaty of international law which was signed by the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany), and the Western Allies (France, The United Kingdom, and the USA) on May 26, 1952 but which took effect, with some slight changes, only in 1955.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
German News Information Services GmbH (www.german-foreign-policy.com) is a German "left and critical" news platform of "independent scientists and journalists".
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz constitution Article 23.
The German–Polish Border Treaty of 1990 finally settled the issue of the Polish–German border, which in terms of international law had been pending since 1945.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1949–88) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–49) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–94) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
Leipzig/Halle Airport (German: Flughafen Leipzig/Halle) is an international airport located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt.
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (also known as Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in English, nicknamed MV or MeckPomm) is a federated state in northern Germany.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.
A nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ) is defined by the United Nations as an agreement which a group of states has freely established by treaty or convention, that bans the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area, that has mechanisms of verification and control to enforce its obligations, and that is recognized as such by the General Assembly of the United Nations.
The Occupation Statute of Germany (Besatzungsstatut) of April 10, 1949 specified the roles and responsibilities of the newly created German government and the Allied High Commission in West Germany.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the border between Germany and Poland which was drawn in the aftermath of World War II.
The Peaceful Revolution (Friedliche Revolution) was the process of sociopolitical change that led to the end of the SED dominance of the German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) and the transition to a parliamentary democracy which enabled the reunification of Germany.
The Petersberg Agreement is an international treaty that extended the rights of the Federal Government of Germany vis-a-vis the occupying forces of Britain, France, and the United States, and is viewed as the first major step of Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) towards sovereignty.
Philip David Zelikow (born September 21, 1954) is an American attorney, diplomat, academic and author.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.
The Potsdam Agreement was the agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, United Kingdom, United States, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, for the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany—referring to the German Reich with its pre-war 1937 borders including the former eastern territories—and the entire European theatre of War territory.
The Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal.
Robert Bruce Zoellick (born July 25, 1953) is an American banker who was the eleventh president of the World Bank, a position he held from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2012.
Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.
The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands, SED') was the governing Marxist–Leninist political party of the German Democratic Republic from its formation in 1946 until it was dissolved after the Peaceful Revolution in 1989.
In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
Stephen Frand Cohen (born November 25, 1938) is an American scholar of Russian studies at Princeton University and New York University.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state.
The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, a successor to William Lloyd Garrison's The Liberator.
The National Interest (TNI) is an American bi-monthly international affairs magazine published by the Center for the National Interest.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Trollenhagen is a municipality in the district Mecklenburgische Seenplatte, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Charter of the United Nations is the foundational treaty of the intergovernmental organization; the United Nations.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DoS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministry of other countries.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or ''BRD'') in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.
2 + 4, 2 + 4 Negotiations, 2 4 Negotiations, 2 Plus 4, 2+4, 2+4 Negotiations, 2+4 Treaty, German Treaty, Treaty of the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Treaty on the Final Settlement, Treaty on the Final Settlement With Respect to Germany, Two Plus Four, Two Plus Four Agreement, Two Plus Four Treaty.