306 relations: Acrocanthosaurus, Alamosaurus, Albertosaurinae, Albertosaurus, Alioramus, Alligator, Allosauroidea, Allosaurus, Amateur, American Museum of Natural History, Ammonoidea, Ancient Greek, Ankylosaurus, Apex predator, Apposition, Araucaria araucana, Arctometatarsal, Arthur Lakes, Asia, Association football, Aublysodon, Australopithecine, Avulsion fracture, Bambiraptor, Barnum Brown, Bayou, BBC News, Biceps, Binocular vision, Binomial nomenclature, Biofilm, Biomechanics, Bipedalism, Bird, Bistahieversor, Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Blood cell, Blood vessel, Bone, Bone marrow, Brachialis muscle, Buffalo, South Dakota, Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture, Burpee Museum of Natural History, Calcium, Calorie, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Cannibalism, ..., Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Carnivore, Carnosauria, Carrion, Ceratopsia, Ceratopsidae, Charles W. Gilmore, Chevron (anatomy), Chicken, Cladistics, Cnemial crest, Cochlea, Coelurosauria, Collagen, Compsognathus, Coprolite, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Crocodile, Dactyloidae, Darwinius, Daspletosaurus, Deinonychus, Deltoid muscle, Depth perception, Diagenesis, Digitigrade, Dilong paradoxus, Dinosaur, Dinosaur Park Formation, Dinosaur renaissance, Dinosaur size, Dromaeosauridae, Ecological niche, Ectotherm, Edmontosaurus, Edmontosaurus annectens, Edward Drinker Cope, Egg, Eggshell, Elephant, Encephalization quotient, Endothermic process, Estrogen, Evgeny Maleev, Evolution, Faith, South Dakota, Family (biology), Feather, Femur, Fenestra (anatomy), Fibula, Field Museum of Natural History, Flowering plant, Footprint, Fossil, Framboid, Genus, Geochemistry, Geological formation, Geological Society of America, George Olshevsky, Giganotosaurus, Gigantothermy, Giraffe, Glyptodontopelta, Golden, Colorado, Gorgosaurus, Greek language, Gregory M. Erickson, Hadrosaurid, Hadrosaurus, Haemal arch, Harvard University, Hawk, Hell Creek Formation, Henry Fairfield Osborn, Heterodont, Hill City, South Dakota, Histology, Holotype, Homeothermy, Hormone, Horse, Human, Human equivalent, Humerus, Hyena, Hypothesis, Hypsilophodont, Ichnotaxon, Ilium (bone), Incisor, Indeterminate growth, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, Isotopes of oxygen, Jack Horner (paleontologist), John Bell Hatcher, John Ostrom, Joint, Joint dislocation, Joseph Leidy, Journal of Paleontology, Journal of Zoology, Jurassic Park (film), Kangaroo, Kenneth Carpenter, Kleptoparasitism, Komodo dragon, Lance Formation, Lancian, Laramidia, Late Cretaceous, Latin, Lawrence Lambe, Lawrence Witmer, Lemur, Leptoceratops, Lizard, Lucy (Australopithecus), Lythronax, Maastrichtian, Marginocephalia, Martin Lockley, Mary Higby Schweitzer, Megalosauroidea, Metabolism, Metacarpus, Metasequoia, Metatarsus, Moment of inertia, Mongolia, Montana State University, Morphology (biology), Muscle, Museum of the Rockies, Nanotyrannus, Nasal bone, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Natural History Museum, London, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Neck frill, New Mexico, New Scientist, New York City, Newsvine, Nomen oblitum, North Carolina State University, Oedipus the King, Olfactory bulb, Olfactory nerve, Online Etymology Dictionary, Ontogeny, Ornithischia, Ornithomimus, Ornithopod, Ostrich, Othniel Charles Marsh, Ovulation, Pachycephalosaurus, Paleontology, Peabody Museum of Natural History, Pelvis, Period (geology), Peter Dodson, Peter Larson, Philip J. Currie, Philmont Scout Ranch, Phylogenetics, Physiology, PLOS ONE, Popular culture, Predation, Premaxilla, Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Protein, Pterosaur, Quetzalcoatlus, Ratite, Reproductive system, Rhinoceros, Robert T. Bakker, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Rudolph F. Zallinger, Saskatchewan, Sauropoda, Scavenger, Science (journal), Science News, Sea turtle, Serengeti, Sexual dimorphism, Sexual intercourse, Simon & Schuster, Sister group, Skeletal pneumaticity, Smithsonian (magazine), Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Soft tissue, Species, Specimens of Tyrannosaurus, Squamosal bone, Standard deviation, Stereopsis, Stress fracture, Struthiomimus, Sue (dinosaur), Sue Hendrickson, Synonym (taxonomy), Tarbosaurus, Taxonomy (biology), Teratophoneus, Teres major muscle, The Age of Reptiles, The Company of Biologists, The Dinosaur Heresies, The Guardian, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Thermoregulation, Theropoda, Thescelosaurus, Thomas R. Holtz, Jr., Tibia, Timeline of tyrannosaur research, Titanosaur, Toe, Torosaurus, Trackway, Triceratops, Trichomonas, Troodon, Troodontidae, Two Medicine Formation, Type (biology), Tyrannosauridae, Tyrannosauripus, Tyrannosauroidea, University of Washington, USA Today, Varanidae, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vestigiality, Vulture, Warm-blooded, Western Interior Seaway, William Abler, Wyoming, Yale University, Year, Yixian Formation, Yutyrannus, Zhuchengtyrannus. Expand index (256 more) » « Shrink index
Acrocanthosaurus (meaning "high-spined lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that existed in what is now North America during the Aptian and early Albian stages of the Early Cretaceous.
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Alamosaurus (meaning "Ojo Alamo lizard") is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaurs, containing a single known species, Alamosaurus sanjuanensis, from the late Cretaceous Period of what is now southern North America.
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Albertosaurines, or dinosaurs of the subfamily Albertosaurinae, lived in the Late Cretaceous of USA and Canada.
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Albertosaurus (meaning "Alberta lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, about 70 million years ago.
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Alioramus (meaning 'different branch') is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period of Asia.
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An alligator is a crocodilian in the genus Alligator of the family Alligatoridae.
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Allosauroidea is a superfamily or clade of theropod dinosaurs which contains four families — the Metriacanthosauridae, Allosauridae, Carcharodontosauridae, and Neovenatoridae.
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Allosaurus is a genus of large theropod dinosaur that lived 155 to 150 million years ago during the late Jurassic period (Kimmeridgian to early TithonianTurner, C.E. and Peterson, F., (1999). "Biostratigraphy of dinosaurs in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of the Western Interior, U.S.A." Pp. 77–114 in Gillette, D.D. (ed.), Vertebrate Paleontology in Utah. Utah Geological Survey Miscellaneous Publication 99-1.). The name "Allosaurus" means "different lizard".
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An amateur (French amateur "lover of", from Old French and ultimately from Latin amatorem nom. amator, "lover") is generally considered a person attached to a particular pursuit, study, or science in a non-professional or unpaid manner.
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The American Museum of Natural History (abbreviated as AMNH), located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world.
Ammonites are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Ankylosaurus (or, meaning "fused lizard") is a genus of thyreophoran dinosaur.
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An apex predator, also known as an alpha predator, super predator, top predator or top-level predator, is a predator residing at the top of a food chain on which no other creatures predate.
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Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side, with one element serving to identify the other in a different way.
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Araucaria araucana (commonly called the monkey puzzle tree, monkey tail tree, Chilean pine, or pehuén) is an evergreen tree growing to tall with a 2-m (7-ft) trunk diameter.
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An arctometatarsalian organism is one in which the proximal part of the third metatarsal is pinched between metatarsals II and IV.
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Arthur Lakes (21 December 1844 – 21 November 1917) was a notable geologist, artist, writer, teacher and minister.
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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aublysodon (uncertain derivation; perhaps "backwards-flowing tooth"?) is a genus of carnivorous dinosaurs known only from the Judith River Formation in Montana, which has been dated to the late Campanian age of the late Cretaceous period (about 75 million years ago).
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The term australopithecines refers generally to all species in the related genera of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, and it is typically intended to include members of Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.
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An avulsion fracture is a bone fracture which occurs when a fragment of bone tears away from the main mass of bone as a result of physical trauma.
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Bambiraptor is a Late Cretaceous, 72-million-year-old, bird-like dromaeosaurid theropod dinosaur described by scientists at the University of Kansas, Yale University, and the University of New Orleans.
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Barnum Brown (February 12, 1873 – February 5, 1963), commonly referred to as Mr.
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A bayou is a Franco-English term used in the United States for a body of water typically found in a flat, low-lying area, and can refer either to an extremely slow-moving stream or river (often with a poorly defined shoreline), or to a marshy lake or wetland.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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In human anatomy, the biceps brachii, commonly known as the biceps, is a two-headed muscle that lies on the upper arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
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Binocular vision is vision in which creatures having two eyes use them together.
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Binomial nomenclature (also called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface.
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Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics.
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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.
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Birds (class Aves) are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, a beak with no teeth, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a lightweight but strong skeleton.
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Bistahieversor (meaning "Bistahi destroyer") is a genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur.
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The Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc. (BHI) is a private corporation specializing in the excavation and preparation of fossils, as well as the sale of both original fossil material and museum-quality replicas.
A blood cell, also called a hematocyte, is a cell produced by hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood.
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The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system that transports blood throughout the human body.
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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton.
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Bone marrow is the flexible tissue in the interior of bones.
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The brachialis (brachialis anticus) is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint.
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Buffalo is a town in Harding County, South Dakota, United States.
The Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture (Burke Museum) is a natural history museum in Seattle, Washington, in the United States.
The Burpee Museum of Natural History is located along the Rock River in downtown Rockford, Illinois, USA, at 737 North Main Street.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
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The name calorie is used for two units of energy.
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The city of Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings.
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Carnegie Museum of Natural History, located at 4400 Forbes Avenue in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, was founded by the Pittsburgh-based industrialist Andrew Carnegie in 1896.
A carnivore meaning 'meat eater' (Latin, caro meaning 'meat' or 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour') is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
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Carnosauria is a large group of predatory dinosaurs that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.
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Carrion (from the Latin "caro", meaning "meat") refers to the dead and decaying flesh of an animal.
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Ceratopsia or Ceratopia (or; Greek: "horned faces") is a group of herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs that thrived in what are now North America, Europe, and Asia, during the Cretaceous Period, although ancestral forms lived earlier, in the Jurassic.
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Ceratopsidae (sometimes spelled Ceratopidae) is a speciose group of marginocephalian dinosaurs including Triceratops and Styracosaurus.
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Charles Whitney Gilmore (March 11, 1874 – September 27, 1945) was an American paleontologist who gained renown in the early 20th century for his work on vertebrate fossils during his career at the United States National Museum (now the National Museum of Natural History).
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A chevron is one of a series of bones on the ventral (under) side of the tail in many reptiles, dinosaurs (such as Diplodocus; see picture), and some mammals such as kangaroos and manatees.
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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, klados, i.e. "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized based on shared derived characteristics that can be traced to a group's most recent common ancestor and are not present in more distant ancestors.
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The cnemial crest is a crestlike prominence located at the front side of the head of the tibiotarsus or tibia in the legs of many mammals and reptiles (including birds and other dinosaurs).
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The cochlea (κοχλίας, kōhlias, meaning spiral or snail shell) is the auditory portion of the inner ear.
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Coelurosauria (from Greek, meaning "hollow tailed lizards") is the clade containing all theropod dinosaurs more closely related to birds than to carnosaurs.
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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animals.
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Compsognathus (Greek kompsos/κομψός; "elegant", "refined" or "dainty", and gnathos/γνάθος; "jaw") is a genus of small, bipedal, carnivorous theropod dinosaurs.
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A coprolite is fossilized feces.
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The Cretaceous, derived from the Latin "creta" (chalk), usually abbreviated K for its German translation Kreide (chalk), is a geologic period and system from to years (Ma) ago.
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The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a mass extinction of some three-quarters of plant and animal species on Earth—including all non-avian dinosaurs—that occurred over a geologically short period of time, 66 million years ago.
Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.
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The Dactyloidae are a family of lizards commonly known as anoles.
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Darwinius is a genus within the infraorder Adapiformes, a group of basal strepsirrhine primates from the middle Eocene epoch.
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Daspletosaurus (meaning "frightful lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America between 77 and 74 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous Period.
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Deinonychus (δεινός, 'terrible' and ὄνυξ, genitive ὄνυχος 'claw') is a genus of carnivorous dromaeosaurid coelurosaurian dinosaurs, with one described species, Deinonychus antirrhopus.
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In human anatomy, the deltoid muscle is the muscle forming the rounded contour of the shoulder.
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Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions (3D) and the distance of an object.
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Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.
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A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes.
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Dilong (which means 'emperor dragon') is a genus of small proceratosaurid tyrannosauroid dinosaur.
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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade Dinosauria.
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The Dinosaur Park Formation is the uppermost member of the Belly River Group (also known as the Judith River Group), a major geologic unit in southern Alberta.
The dinosaur renaissance was a small-scale scientific revolution that started in the late 1960s, and led to renewed academic and popular interest in dinosaurs.
Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public and to scientists.
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Dromaeosauridae is a family of feathered theropod dinosaurs.
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In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is a term with a variety of meanings related to the behavior of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
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An ectotherm, from the Greek εκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot", is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
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Edmontosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid (duck-billed) dinosaur.
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Edmontosaurus annectens is a species of flat-headed or saurolophine hadrosaurid ornithopod dinosaur (a "duck-billed dinosaur") from the very end of the Cretaceous Period, in what is now North America.
Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840 – April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches.
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An eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs with soft outer coats.
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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
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Encephalization quotient (EQ), or encephalization level is a measure of relative brain size defined as the ratio between actual brain mass and predicted brain mass for an animal of a given size, which is hypothesized to be a rough estimate of the intelligence or cognition of the animal.
In thermodynamics, the term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat.
Estrogen or oestrogen (see spelling differences) is the primary female sex hormone and is responsible for development and regulation of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics.
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Evgeny Aleksandrovich Maleev (1915–1966) was a Soviet paleontologist who named the armoured dinosaur Talarurus, the fearsome Tarbosaurus, and the enigmatic Therizinosaurus.
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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.
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Faith is a city in Meade County, South Dakota, United States.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
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Feathers are epidermal growths that form the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on birds and some non-avian theropod dinosaurs.
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The femur (pl. femurs or femora), or thigh bone, is the most proximal (closest to the center of the body) bone of the leg in tetrapod vertebrates capable of walking or jumping, such as most land mammals, birds, many reptiles such as lizards, and amphibians such as frogs.
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A fenestra is, in anatomy, the term used to refer to natural (as opposed to traumatic) openings in the skull or other bones in vertebrates.
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The fibula or calf bone is a leg bone located on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below.
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The Field Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum in Chicago and among the largest in the world.
The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants.
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Footprints (or footmarks) are the impressions or images left behind by a person walking or running.
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Fossils (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past.
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The term framboid describes a micromorphological feature common to certain sedimentary minerals, particularly pyrite (FeS2).
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In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms.
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Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
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A formation or geological formation is the fundamental unit of lithostratigraphy.
The Geological Society of America (GSA) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to the advancement of the geosciences.
George Olshevsky (born 1946) is a freelance editor, writer, publisher, amateur paleontologist, and mathematician living in San Diego, California.
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Giganotosaurus (or meaning "giant southern lizard") is a genus of carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs that lived in what is now Argentina during the early Cenomanian age of the Late Cretaceous Period, approximately some 99.6 to 97 million years ago.
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Gigantothermy (sometimes called ectothermic homeothermy) is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature than smaller animals by virtue of their smaller surface area to volume ratio.
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The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest living terrestrial animal and the largest ruminant.
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Glyptodontopelta (meaning "Glyptodon shield", a reference to the similarity of its pelvic armor to that of Glyptodon) is a genus of dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous.
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The City of Golden is the Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States.
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Gorgosaurus (meaning "dreadful lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America during the Late Cretaceous Period, between about 76.6 and 75.1 million years ago.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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Gregory M. Erickson, Ph.D. in paleobiology at Florida State University.
Hadrosaurids (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick"), or duck-billed dinosaurs, are members of the ornithischian family Hadrosauridae.
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Hadrosaurus (from Greek ἁδρός, hadros, meaning "bulky" or "large", and σαῦρος, sauros, meaning "lizard") is a valid genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur. The only known skeleton was discovered in 1858, representing the first dinosaur species known from more than isolated teeth to be identified in North America. In 1868, it became the first ever mounted dinosaur skeleton. Hadrosaurus foulkii is the only species in this genus and has been the official state dinosaur of New Jersey, United States since 1991. H. foulkii is known from a single specimen consisting of much of the skeleton and parts of the skull. The specimen was collected from the Woodbury Formation in New Jersey, USA. Using radio-isotope dating of bivalve shells from the same formation, the sedimentary rocks where the Hadrosaurus fossil was found were formed at some time between 80.5 and 78.5 million years ago.Gallagher, W.B. (2005). "" Netherlands Journal of Geosciences, 84(3): 241.
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A haemal arch is a bony arch on the underside of a tail vertebra of a vertebrate.
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Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, established in 1636.
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Hawk is a common name for some small to medium-sized diurnal birds of prey, widely distributed and varying greatly in size.
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The Hell Creek Formation is an intensively-studied division of mostly Upper Cretaceous and some lower Paleocene rocks in North America, named for exposures studied along Hell Creek, near Jordan, Montana.
Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sr. ForMemRS (August 8, 1857 – November 6, 1935) was an American geologist, paleontologist, and eugenist, and the president of the American Museum of Natural History for 25 years.
In anatomy, a heterodont (from Greek, meaning 'different teeth') is an animal which possesses more than a single tooth morphology.
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Hill City is the oldest existing city in Pennington County, South Dakota, United States.
Histology (compound of the Greek words: ἱστός histos "tissue", and -λογία ''-logia'' "science") is the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals.
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A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
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Homeothermy is thermoregulation that maintains a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influence.
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A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.
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The term human equivalent is used in a number of different contexts.
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The humerus (Plural: humeri) is a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.
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Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are the animals of the family Hyaenidae of the feliform suborder of the Carnivora.
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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.
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Hypsilophodonts (named after Hypsilophodon, itself derived from the Hypsilophus ("high-crested") genus of iguana lizard and literally meaning "Hypsilophus-tooth") were small ornithopod dinosaurs, regarded as fast, herbivorous bipeds on the order of 1–2 meters long (3.3-6.6 feet).
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An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as "a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism", that is, the non-human equivalent of an artifact.
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The ilium is the uppermost and largest bone of the pelvis, and appears in most vertebrates including mammals and birds, but not bony fish.
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Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most heterodont mammals.
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In biology and botany, indeterminate growth refers to growth that is not terminated in contrast to determinate growth that stops once a genetically pre-determined structure has completely formed.
The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN or ICZN Code) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals".
There are three stable isotopes of oxygen (16O, 17O, and 18O).
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John R. "Jack" Horner (born June 15, 1946) is a American paleontologist who discovered and named Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that some dinosaurs cared for their young.
John Bell Hatcher (October 11, 1861 – July 3, 1904) was an American paleontologist and fossil hunter best known for discovering Torosaurus.
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John Harold Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s.
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A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the location at which bones connect.
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A joint dislocation, or luxation, occurs when there is an abnormal separation in the joint, where two or more bones meet.
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Joseph Leidy (September 9, 1823 – April 30, 1891) was an American paleontologist.
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The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.
The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.
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Jurassic Park is a 1993 American science fiction adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
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Kenneth Carpenter (born September 21, 1949 in Tokyo, Japan) is a paleontologist.
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Kleptoparasitism or cleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding in which one animal takes prey or other food from another that has caught, collected, or otherwise prepared the food, including stored food (as in the case of cuckoo bees, which lay their eggs on the pollen masses made by other bees).
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The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a large species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.
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The Lance (Creek) Formation is a division of Late Cretaceous (dating to about 69 - 66 Ma) rocks in the western United States.
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The Lancian was a North American faunal stage of the Late Cretaceous.
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Laramidia was an island continent that existed during the Late Cretaceous period (99.6–66 Ma), when the Western Interior Seaway split the continent of North America in two.
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The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Lawrence Morris Lambe (1863–1919) was a Canadian geologist and palaeontologist from the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC).
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Lawrence Witmer is an American paleontologist.
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Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar.
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Leptoceratops (meaning 'little-horned face' and derived from Greek lepto-/λεπτο- meaning 'small', 'insignificant', 'slender', 'meagre' or 'lean', cerat-/κερατ- meaning 'horn' and -ops/ωψ meaning face), is a genus of primitive ceratopsian dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous Period (late Maastrichtian age, 66.8-66 Ma ago) of what is now Western North America.
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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with approximately over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
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Lucy is the common name of AL 288-1, several hundred pieces of bone fossils representing 40 percent of the skeleton of a female of the hominin species Australopithecus afarensis.
Lythronax is an extinct genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived around 80.6 to 79.9 million years ago in what is now southern Utah, USA.
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The Maastrichtian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, the latest age or upper stage of the Late Cretaceous epoch or Upper Cretaceous series, the Cretaceous period or system, and of the Mesozoic era or erathem.
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Marginocephalia ("fringed heads") is a clade of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the thick-skulled pachycephalosaurids, and horned ceratopsians.
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Martin Lockley, a Welsh palaeontologist, was educated in the United Kingdom where he obtained degrees (BSc and PhD) and post-doctoral experience in Geology in the 1970s.
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Mary Higby Schweitzer is a paleontologist at North Carolina State University, who is known for leading the groups that discovered the remains of blood cells in dinosaur fossils and later discovered soft tissue remains in the Tyrannosaurus rex specimen MOR 1125, as well as evidence that the specimen was a pregnant female when she died.
Megalosauroidea is a group of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period.
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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms.
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In human anatomy, the metacarpus is the intermediate part of the hand skeleton that is located between the phalanges (bones of the fingers) and the carpus which forms the connection to the forearm.
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Metasequoia (dawn redwood) is a fast-growing, deciduous tree, and the sole living species, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, is one of three species of conifers known as redwoods.
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The metatarsus or metatarsal bones are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.
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The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis.
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Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.
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Montana State University (MSU) is a public university located in Bozeman, Montana, United States.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
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The Museum of the Rockies is a museum in Bozeman, Montana.
Nanotyrannus ("dwarf tyrant") is a genus of tyrannosaurid dinosaur.
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The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.
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The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (NHM) is the largest natural and historical museum in the western United States, and its collections include nearly 35 million specimens and artifacts and cover 4.5 billion years of history.
The Natural History Museum in London is a museum exhibiting a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype; it is a key mechanism of evolution.
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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
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Neck frill is the popular term for the relatively extensive margin seen on the back of the heads of reptiles with either a bony support such as those present on the skulls of dinosaurs of the suborder Marginocephalia or a cartilaginous one as in the frill-necked lizard.
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New Mexico (Nuevo México; Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state located in the southwestern and western regions of the United States, admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912.
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New Scientist is a UK-based weekly non-peer-reviewed English-language international science magazine, founded in 1956.
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New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.
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Newsvine is a liberal-leaning, community-powered, collaborative journalism news website which draws content from its users and syndicated content from mainstream sources such as The Associated Press.
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A nomen oblitum (Plural: nomina oblita; Latin for "forgotten name") is a technical term, used in zoological nomenclature, for a particular kind of disused scientific name.
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North Carolina State University, officially North Carolina State University at Raleigh, is a public, coeducational, research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
Oedipus the King (Οἰδίπους Τύραννος, Oidipous Tyrannos), also known by its Latin title Oedipus Rex, is an Athenian tragedy by Sophocles that was first performed about 429 BC.
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The olfactory bulb (bulbus olfactorius) is a neural structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, or the sense of smell.
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The olfactory nerve (Nervus olfactorius) is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I. It transmits impulses that convey sense of smell.
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The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary that describes the origins of English-language words.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form.
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Ornithischia or Predentata is an extinct order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs.
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Ornithomimus ("bird mimic") is a genus of ornithomimid dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America.
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Ornithopods or members of the clade Ornithopoda are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape.
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The ostrich or common ostrich (Struthio camelus) is either one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member(s) of the genus Struthio, which is in the ratite family.
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Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 – March 18, 1899) was an American paleontologist.
Ovulation is the release of egg from the ovaries.
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Pachycephalosaurus (meaning "thick headed lizard," from Greek pachys-/παχυς- "thick", kephale/κεφαλη "head" and sauros/σαυρος "lizard") is a genus of pachycephalosaurid dinosaurs.
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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life existent prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch roughly 11,700 years before present.
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The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University is among the oldest, largest, and most prolific university natural history museums in the world.
In human anatomy, the pelvis (plural pelvises) is either the lower part of the trunk,Moore (1992), pp 357-358 between the abdomen and the thighs (sometimes also called pelvic region of the trunk) or the skeleton embedded in it (sometimes also called bony pelvis, or pelvic skeleton).
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A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.
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Peter Dodson is an American paleontologist who has published many papers and written and collaborated on books about dinosaurs.
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Peter L. Larson (born 1952) is an American paleontologist, fossil collector, and president of the Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, a company that excavates, prepares, and sells fossils.
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Philip John Currie, AOE (born March 13, 1949) is a Canadian palaeontologist and museum curator who helped found the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta and is now a professor at the University of Alberta in Edmonton.
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Philmont Scout Ranch is a large, rugged, mountainous ranch located near the town of Cimarron, New Mexico, covering of wilderness in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico.
Phylogenetics (greek: φυλή, φῦλον - phylé, phylon.
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Physiology is the scientific study of the normal function in living systems.
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PLOS ONE (originally PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.
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Popular culture or pop culture is the entirety of ideas, perspectives, attitudes, images, and other phenomena that are within the mainstream of a given culture, especially Western culture of the early to mid 20th century and the emerging global mainstream of the late 20th and early 21st century.
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In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).
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The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.
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The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Доклады Академии Наук СССР, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (DAN SSSR), Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
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Pterosaurs (meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the clade or order Pterosauria.
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Quetzalcoatlus was a pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America (Maastrichtian stage) and the largest known flying animal of all time.
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A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of the infraclass Palaeognathae.
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The reproductive system or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism which work together for the purpose of sexual reproduction.
Rhinoceros, often abbreviated as rhino, is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae.
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Robert Thomas Bakker (born March 24, 1945) is an American paleontologist who helped reshape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were endothermic (warm-blooded).
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The Royal Tyrrell Museum is a Canadian tourist attraction and a centre of palaeontological research noted for its collection of more than 130,000 fossils.
Rudolph Franz Zallinger (November 12, 1919 — August 1, 1995) was an American-based Austrian-Russian artist notable for his mural The Age of Reptiles (1947) at Yale University's Peabody Museum of Natural History.
Saskatchewan is a prairie province in Canada, which has a total area of and a land area of, the remainder being water area (covered by lakes/ponds, reservoirs and rivers).
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Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are an infraorder of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.
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Scavenger is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
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Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.
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Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
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Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
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The Serengeti ecosystem is a geographical region in Africa.
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Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic differentiation between males and females of the same species.
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Sexual intercourse, or coitus or copulation, is principally the insertion and thrusting of a male's penis, usually when erect, into a female's vagina for the purposes of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
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Simon & Schuster, Inc., a division of CBS Corporation, is a publisher founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard L. Simon and M. Lincoln ("Max") Schuster.
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A sister group or sister taxon is a systematic term from cladistics denoting the closest relatives of a given unit in a phylogenetic tree.
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Skeletal pneumaticity is the presence of air spaces within bones.
Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.
The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology (SVP) was founded in the US in 1940 for people with an interest in vertebrate paleontology; by 2014 it had about 2,000 members internationally, and holds annual meetings, mostly but not all in North America.
In anatomy, soft tissues are the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being bone.
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In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.
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Tyrannosaurus rex, one of the most iconic dinosaurs, is known from numerous specimens, some of which have acquired a degree of notability in their own right because of their scientific importance and coverage by the media.
The squamosal is a bone of the head of higher vertebrates.
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In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma, σ for the population standard deviation or s for the sample standard deviation) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.
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Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- stereo- meaning "solid", and ὄψις opsis, "appearance, sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.
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A stress fracture, also known as a hairline fracture, is a fatigue-induced fracture of the bone caused by repeated stress over time.
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Struthiomimus (meaning "ostrich mimic", from the Greek στρούθειος/stroutheios meaning "of the ostrich" and μῖμος/mimos meaning "mimic" or "imitator") is a genus of ornithomimid dinosaurs from the late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Wyoming, USA.
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"Sue" is the nickname given to FMNH PR 2081, which is the largest, most extensive and best preserved Tyrannosaurus rex specimen ever found.
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Susan "Sue" Hendrickson (born December 2, 1949) is an American paleontologist.
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In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,''ICBN'', Appendix VII "Glossary", entry for "synonym" although zoologists use the term somewhat differently.
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Tarbosaurus (meaning "alarming lizard") is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that flourished in Asia about 70 million years ago, at the end of the Late Cretaceous Period.
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Taxonomy (from τάξις taxis, "arrangement," and -νομία -nomia, "method") is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups.
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Teratophoneus is a genus of carnivorous tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur which lived during the late Cretaceous period (late Campanian age, about 77 to 76 million years ago) in what is now Utah, USA.
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The teres major muscle (Latin teres meaning 'rounded') is a muscle of the upper limb and one of seven scapulohumeral muscles.
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The Age of Reptiles is a mural depicting the period of ancient history when reptiles were the dominant creatures on the earth, painted by Rudolph F. Zallinger.
The Company of Biologists is a UK-based charity and not-for-profit publisher that was established in 1925 by George Parker Bidder III with the aim of promoting research and study across all branches of biology.
The Dinosaur Heresies: New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosaurs and Their Extinction is a 1986 book that was written by Robert T. Bakker.
The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.
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The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.
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Theropoda, from Greek meaning "beast feet") are a group of saurischian dinosaurs. Theropods were ancestrally carnivorous, although a number of theropod groups evolved herbivory, omnivory, piscivory, and insectivory. Theropods first appeared during the Carnian age of the late Triassic period 231.4 million years ago (Ma) and included the sole large terrestrial carnivores from the Early Jurassic until at least the close of the Cretaceous, about 66 Ma. In the Jurassic, birds evolved from small specialized coelurosaurian theropods, and are today represented by 10,000 living species. On July 31, 2014, scientists reported details of the evolution of birds from other theropod dinosaurs. Among the features linking theropod dinosaurs to birds are a furcula (wishbone), air-filled bones, brooding of the eggs, and (in coelurosaurs, at least) feathers.
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Thescelosaurus (ancient Greek θέσκελος-/theskelos- meaning "godlike", "marvelous", or "wondrous" and σαυρος/sauros "lizard") was a genus of small ornithopod dinosaur that appeared at the very end of the Late Cretaceous period in North America.
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Thomas Richard Holtz, Jr., Ph.D. (born 1965 in Los Angeles) is an American vertebrate palaeontologist and senior lecturer at the University of Maryland's Department of Geology.
The tibia (plural tibiae or tibias), also known as the shinbone or shankbone, is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula), and it connects the knee with the ankle bones.
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This timeline of tyrannosaur research is a chronological listing of events in the history of paleontology focused on the tyrannosaurs, a group of predatory theropod dinosaurs that began as small, long-armed bird-like creatures with elaborate cranial ornamentation but achieved apex predator status during the Late Cretaceous as their arms shrank and body size expanded.
Titanosaurs (members of the group Titanosauria) were a diverse group of sauropod dinosaurs, which included Saltasaurus and Isisaurus.
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Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod.
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Torosaurus ("perforated lizard", in reference to the large openings in its frill) is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Cretaceous period, between 68 and 66 million years ago.
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A trackway is an ancient route of travel for people or animals.
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Triceratops is a genus of herbivorous ceratopsid dinosaur that first appeared during the late Maastrichtian stage of the late Cretaceous period, about 68 million years ago (Mya) in what is now North America.
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Trichomonas is a genus of anaerobic protists that are parasites of vertebrates.
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Troodon (Troödon in older sources) is a genus of relatively small, bird-like dinosaurs known definitively from the Campanian age of the Cretaceous period (about 77 mya), though possible additional species are known from later in the Campanian and also from the early (and probably lateDinosaur distribution (Late Cretaceous;North America;Yukon Territory, Canada). In: Weishampel et al. Page 5783.12 Wyoming, United States; 9. Ferris Formation. In: Weishampel, et al. (2004). Page 585) Maastrichtian age.
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Troodontidae is a group of bird-like theropod dinosaurs.
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The Two Medicine Formation is a geologic formation, or rock body, that was deposited between 83.5 ± 0.7 Ma to 70.6 ± 3.4 Ma (million years ago), during Campanian (Late Cretaceous) time, and is located in northwestern Montana and southern Alberta.
In biology, a type is one particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.
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Tyrannosauridae (or tyrannosaurids, meaning "tyrant lizards") is a family of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs which comprises two subfamilies containing up to eleven genera, including the eponymous Tyrannosaurus.
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Tyrannosauripus is an ichnogenus of dinosaur footprint.
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Tyrannosauroidea (meaning 'tyrant lizard forms') is a superfamily (or clade) of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs that includes the family Tyrannosauridae as well as more basal relatives.
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The University of Washington, commonly referred to as Washington or informally U-Dub, or locally as UW is a public flagship research university in Seattle, Washington, United States.
USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.
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Varanidae is a family of lizards of the superfamily Varanoidea.
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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate animal.
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The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is a bony skeletal structure found in vertebrates.
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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
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Vestigiality refers to genetically determined structures or attributes that have apparently lost most or all of their ancestral function in a given species, but have been retained during the process of evolution.
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Vulture is the name given to two groups of scavenging birds of prey: the New World vultures, including the Californian and Andean condors; and the Old World vultures, including the birds that are seen scavenging on carcasses of dead animals on African plains.
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Warm-blooded animal species can maintain a body temperature higher than their environment.
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The Western Interior Seaway (also called the Cretaceous Seaway, the Niobraran Sea, and the North American Inland Sea) was a large inland sea that existed during the mid- to late Cretaceous period as well as the very early Paleogene, splitting the continent of North America into two landmasses, Laramidia to the west and Appalachia to the east.
William L. Abler or simply known as Bill Abler is a paleontologist who has mostly studied the teeth of dinosaurs.
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Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States.
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Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
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The Yixian Formation is a geological formation in Jinzhou, Liaoning, People's Republic of China, that spans 11 million years during the early Cretaceous period.
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Yutyrannus (meaning "feathered tyrant") is a genus of tyrannosauroid dinosaurs which contains a single known species, Yutyrannus huali.
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Zhuchengtyrannus (meaning "Zhucheng tyrant") is an extinct genus of large carnivorous theropod dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous period of Shandong Province, China.
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