243 relations: Advocacy group, Alexander Hamilton, American Association for Justice, American Bar Association, American Civil War, American Samoa's at-large congressional district, Andrew Johnson, Appropriations bill (United States), Article Four of the United States Constitution, Article One of the United States Constitution, Articles of Confederation, Bicameralism, Bill Clinton, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, Bipartisanship, Breach of the peace, British colonization of the Americas, Cabinet of the United States, Capitol Hill, Caucuses of the United States Congress, Chairman, Chris Cillizza, Civil Service Retirement System, Commerce Clause, Committee, Congress, Congressional Baseball Game, Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, Congressional district, Congressional oversight, Congressional Research Service, Connecticut Compromise, Conservative coalition, Constitutional amendment, Constitutional Convention (United States), Constitutionality, Contempt of Congress, Conviction, Copyright, Current members of the United States House of Representatives, Defamation, Defendant, Democratic Party (United States), Demography, Direct election, Dred Scott, Due process, Economics, Electoral College (United States), Electoral district, ..., Enrolled bill, Equal Protection Clause, Executive (government), Farm team, Federal Election Campaign Act, Federal Employees Retirement System, Federal government of the United States, Federal law, Federalism, Federalist No. 78, Felony, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Continental Congress, First inauguration of Barack Obama, Founding Fathers of the United States, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Franking, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Freedom of speech, Gallup (company), George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, George Will, Gerrymandering, Gilded Age, Government Accountability Office, Government debt, Governor, Great Depression, Great Society, Guam's at-large congressional district, Harry S. Truman, Henry Clay, Henry Waxman, Hillary Clinton, History of the United States Constitution, History of the United States Republican Party, Household income in the United States, Impeachment, Impeachment in the United States, Implied powers, Income tax, Incumbent, Independent politician, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Jim Cooper, Joe Biden, John Boehner, John Charles Thomas (judge), John F. Kennedy, Joseph Gurney Cannon, Joseph McCarthy, Judicial review, K Street (Washington, D.C.), Keynesian economics, Lawrence Lessig, Lee H. Hamilton, Legislative session, Library of Congress, Life tenure, List of current United States Senators, List of enacting clauses, List of federal agencies in the United States, List of Latin phrases (E), List of United States Congresses, Lobbying, Lobbying in the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Mexican–American War, Michael Kinsley, Michael Schudson, Military, National Archives and Records Administration, National Association of Realtors, Necessary and Proper Clause, Negative campaigning, New Deal, Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives, NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–07), Opinion poll, Originalism, Orrin Hatch, Parliamentary immunity, Parliamentary privilege, Parliamentary procedure, Partisan (political), Party divisions of United States Congresses, Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives, Party leaders of the United States Senate, Perjury, Plame affair, Pocket veto, Polarization (politics), Police, Political science, Power of the purse, Preservation (library and archival science), President of the United States, President pro tempore, President pro tempore of the United States Senate, Pro bono, Progressive Era, Proxy voting, Quorum, Ranking member, Representation (politics), Republican Party (United States), Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, Revenue, Richard Fenno, Richard Nixon, Roll call, Ronald Reagan, Safe seat, Sanford Levinson, Second Continental Congress, Separation of powers, Separation of powers under the United States Constitution, Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Signing statement, Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Spanish–American War, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Speech from the throne, Speech or Debate Clause, Standing Rules of the United States Senate, State of the Union, States' rights, Stephen Macedo, Subpoena, Suffrage, Summons, Supreme Court of the United States, Tennessee, Term limits in the United States, The Federalist Papers, The Wall Street Journal, Theodore Roosevelt, Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, THOMAS, Thomas Brackett Reed, Thomas Jefferson, Time (magazine), Treason, Trial, Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Two-party system, Ulysses S. Grant, Unicameralism, Unitary executive theory, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Capitol, United States Census, United States Congress Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, United States congressional apportionment, United States congressional committee, United States congressional conference committee, United States congressional delegations from the Northern Mariana Islands, United States congressional hearing, United States congressional subcommittee, United States Constitution, United States Declaration of Independence, United States Department of Education, United States Government Publishing Office, United States House Committee on Rules, United States House Committee on the Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, United States House of Representatives elections, 2014, United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Presidents and control of Congress, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate elections, 2014, United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Virgin Islands's at-large congressional district, Utah, Vice President of the United States, Voting methods in deliberative assemblies, War of 1812, War Powers Resolution, Washington, D.C., Watergate scandal, Whip (politics), White House, Woodrow Wilson, World War I, World War II, Wyoming, 114th United States Congress. 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Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a founding father of the United States, chief staff aide to General George Washington, one of the most influential interpreters and promoters of the U.S. Constitution, the founder of the nation's financial system, the founder of the Federalist Party, the world's first voter-based political party, and the Father of the United States Coast Guard.
The American Association for Justice (AAJ), formerly the Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA) is a nonprofit advocacy and lobbying organization for plaintiff's lawyers in the United States.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.
American Samoa's At-large Congressional District encompasses the entire U.S. territorial region of American Samoa.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
An appropriations bill is a bill that appropriates (gives to, sets aside for) money to specific federal government departments, agencies, and programs.
Article Four of the United States Constitution outlines the relationship between each state and the others, as well as between the several States and the federal government.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, were an agreement among all thirteen original states in the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.
William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III; August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA, McCain–Feingold Act) is a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.
Bipartisanship is a political situation, especially in the context of a two-party system, as is the case for countries such as the United States, in which opposing political parties find common ground through compromise, in theory.
Breach of the peace is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.
British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland before the Acts of Union, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, who are generally the heads of the federal executive departments.
Capitol Hill, in addition to being a metonym for the United States Congress, is the largest historic residential neighborhood in Washington, D.C., stretching easterly in front of the United States Capitol along wide avenues.
A congressional caucus is a group of members of the United States Congress that meets to pursue common legislative objectives.
The chairman or chairwoman, or simply the chair, sometimes known as chairperson, is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
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Christopher Michael "Chris" Cillizza (born February 20, 1976) is an American political reporter for the Washington Post.
The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) was organized in 1920 and has provided retirement, disability, and survivor benefits for most civilian employees in the United States federal government.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
A committee (or "commission") is a type of small deliberative assembly that is usually intended to remain subordinate to another, larger deliberative assembly.
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A -->congress --> is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, independent organizations (such as trade unions), or groups.
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The Congressional Baseball Game is an annual baseball game played each summer by members of the United States Congress.
The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 is a United States federal law that governs the role of the Congress in the United States budget process.
A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress.
Congressional oversight refers to oversight by the United States Congress on the Executive Branch, including the numerous U.S. federal agencies.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman's Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
The conservative coalition was an unofficial Congressional coalition bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative, mostly Southern, wing of the Democratic Party.
A constitutional amendment refers to the modification of the Constitution of a nation or state.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees.
In law, a conviction is the verdict that results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime.
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.
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This is a list of individuals currently serving in the United States House of Representatives.
Defamation—also calumny, vilification, and traducement—is the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual person, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation as well as other various kinds of defamation that retaliate against groundless criticism.
A defendant is a person or entity accused of a crime in criminal prosecution or a person or entity against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
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The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party to its right.
Demography is the statistical study of populations, including of human beings.
Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
Dred Scott (circa 1799 – September 17, 1858) was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly known as the "Dred Scott Decision." Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Economics is the social science that seeks to describe the factors which determine the production, distribution and consumption of goods and services.
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The United States Electoral College is the institution that elects the President and Vice President of the United States every four years.
An electoral district (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
In the United States Congress and in many state legislatures, an enrolled bill is the final copy of a bill or joint resolution which has passed both Houses of Congress in identical form.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.
In sports, a farm team, farm system, feeder team or nursery club, is generally a team or club whose role is to provide experience and training for young players, with an agreement that any successful players can move on to a higher level at a given point.
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The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA,, et seq.) is a United States federal law designed to increase disclosure of contributions for federal campaigns.
The Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) is the retirement system for employees within the United States civil service.
The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.
The term felony, in some common law countries, means a serious crime.
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The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude." It was ratified on February 3, 1870, as the third and last of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that met on September 5 to October 26, 1774 at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
The first inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States took place on Tuesday, January 20, 2009.
The term Founding Fathers of the United States of America refers broadly to those individuals of the Thirteen British Colonies in North America who led the American Revolution against the authority of the British Crown and established the United States of America.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Franking refers to any devices, markings, or combinations thereof ("franks") applied to mails of any class which qualifies them to be postally serviced.
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt (his own pronunciation, or) (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), commonly known by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States.
Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.
Gallup, Inc., is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993, and the 43rd Vice President of the United States (1981–1989).
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000.
George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is an American newspaper columnist and political commentator.
In the process of setting electoral districts, gerrymandering is a practice that attempts to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries to create partisan advantaged districts.
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Government debt (also known as public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a central government.
A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
Guam's at-large congressional district comprises the entire area of the United States territory of Guam.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States (1945–53).
Henry Clay, Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, politician, and skilled orator who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939) is an American politician who served as the U.S. Representative for from 1975 until 2015.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician who served as the 67th United States Secretary of State under President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2013.
The United States Constitution was written in 1787 during the Philadelphia Convention.
The Republican Party, also commonly called the GOP (for "Grand Old Party"), is one of the world's oldest political parties still in existence, the second oldest existing political party in the United States after its great rival, the Democratic Party.
Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country.
Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.
Impeachment in the United States is an expressed power of the legislature that allows for formal charges against a civil officer of government for crimes committed in office.
Implied powers, in the United States, are those powers authorized by a document (from the Constitution) that, while not stated, seem to be implied by powers expressly stated.
An income tax is a government levy (tax) imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with the income or profits (taxable income) of the taxpayer.
The incumbent, in United States politics, is the current holder of a political office.
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An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated to any political party.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) is a labor union which represents nearly 750,000 workers and retirees in the electrical industry in the United States, Canada, Panama, Guam and Wake Island.
James Hayes Shofner "Jim" Cooper (born June 19, 1954) is the U.S. Representative for (based in Nashville), serving since 2003.
Joseph Robinette "Joe" Biden, Jr.
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John Andrew Boehner (born, 1949) is the 61st and current Speaker of the United States House of Representatives.
John Charles Thomas (born 1950) is an American attorney and a former Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (JFK), (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party.
Joseph Raymond "Joe" McCarthy (November 14, 1908May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.
Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
K Street is a major thoroughfare in the United States capital of Washington, D.C. known as a center for numerous think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups.
Keynesian economics (or Keynesianism) is the view that in the short run, especially during recessions, economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total spending in the economy).
Lester Lawrence "Larry" Lessig, III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, lawyer, and political activist who is a candidate for the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
Lee Herbert Hamilton (born April 20, 1931) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives and currently a member of the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory Council.
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections.
The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.
A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office that lasts for the office holder's lifetime (in some cases subject to mandatory retirement at a specified age), unless the office holder is removed from office for cause under extraordinary circumstances or chooses to resign.
This is a list of the current members of the United States Senate (114th United States Congress).
An enacting clause, or enacting formula, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by a legislature.
This is a list of agencies of the United States federal government.
Ex solo ad solem.
This is a list of the United States Congresses, including their beginnings, endings, and the dates of their sessions.
Lobbying (also lobby) is the act of attempting to influence decisions made by officials in a government, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
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Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates, often lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963–1969), a position he assumed after his service as the 37th Vice President (1961–1963).
Marbury v. Madison,, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court formed the basis for the exercise of judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution.
McCulloch v. Maryland,, was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War, the U.S.–Mexican War or the Invasion of Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States and the Centralist Republic of Mexico (which became the Second Federal Republic of Mexico during the war) from 1846 to 1848.
Michael Kinsley (born March 9, 1951) is an American political journalist and commentator.
Michael S. Schudson (born November 3, 1946) is Professor of Journalism in the Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia University and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Sociology.
The military, also called the armed forces, are forces authorized to use deadly force, and weapons, to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens.
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The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Association of Realtors (NAR), whose member Brokers are known as Realtors member agents are known as Realtor associates, is the largest trade association and one of the most powerful lobbying groups in North America, having spent more than $99 million between 1999 and 2012.
The Necessary and Proper Clause, also known as the Elastic Clause, the Basket Clause, the Coefficient Clause, and the Sweeping Clause, is a provision in Article One of the United States Constitution, located at section 8, clause 18.
Negative campaigning, also known more colloquially as "mudslinging", is trying to win an advantage by referring to negative aspects of an opponent rather than emphasizing one's own positive attributes or preferred policies.
The New Deal was a series of domestic programs enacted in the United States between 1933 and 1938, and a few that came later.
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Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives include non-voting delegates and resident commissioners.
The NSA warrantless surveillance controversy ("warrantless wiretapping") concerns surveillance of persons within the United States during the collection of allegedly foreign intelligence by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the touted war on terror.
An opinion poll, sometimes simply referred to as a poll, is a survey of public opinion from a particular sample.
In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, originalism is a principle of interpretation that views the Constitution's meaning as fixed as of the time of enactment.
Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is an American politician who is the President pro tempore of the United States Senate, serving since January 2015.
Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity, is a system in which members of the parliament or legislature are granted partial immunity from prosecution.
Parliamentary privilege is a legal immunity enjoyed by members of certain legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made in the course of their legislative duties.
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics, and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies, and other deliberative assemblies.
In politics, a partisan is a committed member of a political party.
The following table lists the party divisions for each United States Congress.
Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot and are also known as floor leaders.
The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators who are elected by the party caucuses that hold the majority and the minority respectively.
Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or of falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to an official proceeding.
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The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal and Plamegate) was a political scandal that revolved around journalist Robert Novak's public identification of Valerie Plame as a covert Central Intelligence Agency officer in 2003.
A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver that allows a president or other official with veto power to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action (instead of affirmatively vetoing it).
In the world of politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by the state to enforce the law, protect property, and limit civil disorder.
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Political science is a social science discipline that deals with systems of government and the analysis of political activity and political behavior.
The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.
Preservation refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record and relevant metadata, or enhance its value, or improve access to it through non-interventive means.
The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.
A president pro tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of a legislative body who presides over the chamber in the absence of the normal presiding officer.
The President pro tempore, also president pro tem, is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate.
Pro bono publico (for the public good; usually shortened to pro bono) is a Latin phrase for professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment or at a reduced fee as a public service.
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The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s.
Proxy voting is a form of voting whereby some members of a decision-making body may delegate their voting power to other members of the same body to vote in their absence, and/or to select additional representatives.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
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In United States politics, a ranking member is the second-most senior member of a congressional or state legislative committee from the majority party.
In politics, representation describes how some individuals stand in for others or a group of others, for a certain time period.
The Republican Party, commonly referred to as GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Comisionado Residente de Puerto Rico) is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of Puerto Rico every four years.
In business, revenue (net sales) is the income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.
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Richard F. Fenno, Jr. (born December 12, 1926) is an American political scientist known for his pioneering work on the U.S. Congress and its members.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974 when he became the only U.S. president to resign the office.
Roll call is the calling of the names of people from a list (roll) to determine the presence or absence of the listed people (also known as a register in regions such as the United Kingdom).
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Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician, commentator, and actor, who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A safe seat is a seat (constituency) in a legislative body (e.g. Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secure, for either a certain political party, or the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both.
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Sanford Victor Levinson (born June 17, 1941) is an American legal scholar, best known for his writings on constitutional law and as a professor at the University of Texas Law School.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the summer of 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun.
The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).
Separation of powers is a political doctrine originating in the writings of Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws where he urged for a constitutional government with three separate branches of government.
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
A signing statement is a written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into law.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-estadounidense) was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.
A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to the members of parliament when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda for the session.
The Speech or Debate Clause is a clause in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1).
The Standing Rules of the Senate are the Parliamentary procedures adopted by the United States Senate that govern its procedure.
The State of the Union is the address presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, typically delivered annually.
In American political discourse, states' rights refers to political powers reserved for the U.S. state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
Stephen Macedo is the Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Politics at Princeton University, as well as the former Director for the University Center for Human Values at Princeton.
A subpoena (also subpœna) is a writ issued by a government agency, most often a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure.
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Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
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Legally, a summons (also known in England and Wales as a claim form and in the Australian state of New South Wales as a Court Attendance Notice (CAN)) is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes.
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The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tennessee (ᏔᎾᏏ, Tanasi) is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States.
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Term limits in the United States apply to many offices at both the federal and state level, and date back to the American Revolution.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay (under the pseudonym Publius) promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909.
Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives are generally rare.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
THOMAS was the first online database of United States Congress legislative information.
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Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902), occasionally ridiculed as Czar Reed, was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889–1891 and also from 1895–1899.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13 [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801–1809).
Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign or nation.
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In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
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The Twentieth Amendment (Amendment XX) to the United States Constitution moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the President and Vice President from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3.
A two-party system is a system where two major political parties dominate politics within a government.
Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–77).
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The Unitary Executive Theory is a theory of American constitutional law holding that the President possesses the power to control the entire executive branch.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the federal military forces of the United States.
The United States Capitol, often called Capitol Hill, is the seat of the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction,Budget Control Act of 2011,, Title IV colloquially referred to as the Supercommittee, was a joint select committee of the United States Congress, created by the Budget Control Act of 2011 on August 2, 2011.
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress).
A conference committee is a committee of the Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill.
The United States congressional delegations from the Northern Mariana Islands consist of single Delegate elected at-large.
Congressional hearings are the principal formal method by which committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.
A congressional subcommittee in the United States Congress is a subdivision of a United States congressional committee that considers specified matters and reports back to the full committee.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America.
The Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Continental Congress meeting at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on July 4, 1776, which announced that the thirteen American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as thirteen newly independent sovereign states, and no longer a part of the British Empire.
The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The Committee on Rules, or (more commonly) Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, also called the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the United States Congress (a bicameral legislature).
The 2014 United States House of Representatives elections were held on November 4, 2014.
The United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Devin Nunes.
The degree to which the President of the United States's political party has control over the House of Representatives and Senate often determines his or her political strength - such as the ability to pass sponsored legislation, ratify treaties, and have Cabinet members and judges approved.
The United States Senate is a legislative chamber in the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the U.S. House of Representatives makes up the U.S. Congress.
The United States Senate Committee on Appropriations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
Elections to the United States Senate were a part of the elections held in the United States on November 4, 2014 (and in some areas for a period of time ending November 4, 2014).
The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as the Intelligence Committee or SSCI) is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the federal government of the United States who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches.
The United States Virgin Islands's At-large congressional district encompasses the entire area of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Utah (or; (Áshįįh bi Tó Hahoodzo; Arapaho: Wo'tééneihí) is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the Union on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest, the 33rd-most populous, and the 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of about 2.9 million, approximately 80% of whom live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, and Nevada to the west. It also touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. Approximately 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints or LDS (Mormons), which greatly influences Utah culture and daily life. The world headquarters of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) is located in Utah's state capital, Salt Lake City., the Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, pp 99–100. Retrieved July 2, 2008. Utah is the most religiously homogeneous state in the United States, the only state with a Mormon majority, and the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. The state is a center of transportation, education, information technology and research, government services, mining, and a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation. In 2013, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that Utah had the second fastest-growing population of any state. St. George was the fastest–growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah also has the 14th highest median average income out of U.S. states, and has the 2nd highest income when adjusted for cost of living. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic, lifestyle, and health-related outlook metrics.
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The Vice President of the United States (VPOTUS) is the second-highest position in the executive branch of the United States, after the president.
Deliberative assemblies – bodies that use parliamentary procedure to arrive at decisions – use several methods of voting on motions (formal proposal by a member or members of a deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action).
The War of 1812 was a military conflict, lasting for two and a half years, fought by the United States of America against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies, and its Native American allies.
The War Powers Resolution (also known as the War Powers Resolution of 1973) (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as "Washington", "the District", or simply "D.C.", is the capital of the United States.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s as a result of the June 17, 1972 break-in at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C., and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement.
A whip is an official in a political party whose primary purpose is to ensure party discipline in a legislature.
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States, located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C. It has been the residence of every U.S. president since John Adams in 1800.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the Western United States.
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The One Hundred and Fourteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives.