457 relations: Abrahamic religions, Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, Accelerating universe, Acceleration, Adam Riess, Adi-Buddha, Age of the universe, Air (classical element), Al-Ghazali, Al-Kindi, Al-Sijzi, Albert Einstein, Alexander Friedmann, Ali Qushji, Anaxagoras, Anaximander, Anaximenes of Miletus, Ancient Egyptian religion, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek astronomy, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andromeda Galaxy, Angular momentum, Annihilation, Anthropic principle, Antimatter, Antiparticle, Apeiron (cosmology), Arche, Archimedes, Aristarchus of Samos, Aristotle, Aryabhata, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Astrophysics, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic physics, Atomism, Atum, Aztec mythology, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian astronomy, Baryon, Baryon acoustic oscillations, Beryllium, Big Bang, Big Bang nucleosynthesis, ..., Big Bounce, Big Crunch, Big Rip, Black body, Boron, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bound state, Brahman, Brahmanda Purana, Buddhist atomism, Callippus, Cambridge 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Abrahamic religions (also Semitic religions) are monotheistic religions of West Asian origin, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him.
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Abū Maʿshar, Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī (also known as al-Falakī or Ibn Balkhī, Latinized as Albumasar, Albusar, or Albuxar) (10 August 787 in Balkh, Khurasan – 9 March 886 in Wāsiṭ, Iraq), was an astrologer, astronomer, and Islamic philosopher, thought to be the greatest astrologer of the Abbasid court in Baghdad.
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The accelerating universe is the observation that the universe appears to be expanding at an increasing rate.
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Acceleration, in physics, is the rate of change of velocity of an object.
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Adam Guy Riess (born December 16, 1969) is an American astrophysicist at Johns Hopkins University and the Space Telescope Science Institute and is known for his research in using supernovae as cosmological probes.
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In Vajrayana Buddhism, the Adi-Buddha, or Adibuddha (Tibetan: Dang-po'i sangs-rgyas), is the "Primordial Buddha." The term refers to a self-emanating, self-originating Buddha, present before anything else existed.
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In physical cosmology, the age of the universe is the time elapsed since the Big Bang.
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Air is often seen as a universal power or pure substance.
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Abū Ḥāmid Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Ghazālī (ابو حامد محمد ابن محمد الغزالي; c. 1058–1111), known as Al-Ghazali or Algazel to the Western medieval world, was a Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic of Persian descent.
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(أبو يوسف يعقوب بن إسحاق الصبّاح الكندي, Alkindus) (c. 801–873 AD), known as "the Philosopher of the Arabs", was a Muslim Arab philosopher, polymath, mathematician, physician and musician.
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Abu Sa'id Ahmed ibn Mohammed ibn Abd al-Jalil al-Sijzi (c. 945 - c. 1020, also known as al-Sinjari and al-Sijazi; ابوسعید سجزی; Al-Sijzi is short for "Al-Sijistani") was an Iranian Muslim astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer.
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist.
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Alexander Alexandrovich Friedmann (also spelled Friedman or Fridman, Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Фри́дман) (June 17 (old style or new style) by himself, June 16 (4 old style) by J. O'Conor in 1888, Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire – September 16, 1925, Leningrad, USSR) was a Russian and Soviet physicist and mathematician.
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Ala al-Dīn Ali ibn Muhammed (1403 – 16 December 1474), known as Ali Qushji (Ottoman Turkish/Persian language: علی قوشچی, kuşçu - falconer in Turkish; Latin: Ali Kushgii) was an astronomer, mathematician and physicist originally from Samarkand, who settled in the Ottoman Empire some time before 1472.
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Anaxagoras (Ἀναξαγόρας, Anaxagoras, "lord of the assembly"; c. 510 – 428 BC) was a Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher.
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Anaximander (Ἀναξίμανδρος Anaximandros; c. 610 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who lived in Miletus,"Anaximander" in Chambers's Encyclopædia.
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Anaximenes of Miletus (Ἀναξιμένης; c. 585 – c. 528 BCE) was an Ancient Greek Pre-Socratic philosopher active in the latter half of the 6th century BC.
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Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
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Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BCE and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth.
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In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational analog of linear momentum.
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Annihilation is defined as "total destruction" or "complete obliteration" of an object; having its root in the Latin nihil (nothing).
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The anthropic principle is the philosophical consideration that observations of the universe must be compatible with the conscious and sapient life that observes it.
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In particle physics, antimatter is material composed of antiparticles, which have the same mass as particles of ordinary matter but opposite charges, as well as other particle properties such as lepton and baryon numbers and quantum spin.
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Corresponding to most kinds of particles, there is an associated antimatter antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charge (including electric charge).
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Apeiron (ἄπειρον) is a Greek word meaning "unlimited," "infinite", or "indefinite" from ἀ- a-, "without" and πεῖραρ peirar, "end, limit", the Ionic Greek form of πέρας peras, "end, limit, boundary".
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Arche (ἀρχή) is a Greek word with primary senses "beginning", "origin" or "source of action".
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Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης; BC – BC) was an Ancient Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
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Aristarchus of Samos (Ἀρίσταρχος Aristarkhos; c. 310 – c. 230 BC) was an ancient Greek astronomer and mathematician who presented the first known model that placed the Sun at the center of the known universe with the Earth revolving around it (see Solar system).
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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
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Aryabhata (आर्यभट; IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
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Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the heavenly bodies, rather than their positions or motions in space." Among the objects studied are the Sun, other stars, galaxies, extrasolar planets, the interstellar medium and the cosmic microwave background.
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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
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The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.
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Atomic physics is the field of physics that studies atoms as an isolated system of electrons and an atomic nucleus.
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Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
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Atum, sometimes rendered as Atem or Tem, is an important deity in Egyptian mythology.
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Aztec mythology is the body or collection of myths of Aztec civilization of Central Mexico.
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Babylon (Bābili or Babilim; بابل, Bābil) was a significant city in ancient Mesopotamia, in the fertile plain between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking Semitic state and cultural region based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
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According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descendants in direct line from the work of the late Babylonian astronomers.
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A baryon is a composite subatomic particle made up of three quarks (as distinct from mesons, which are composed of one quark and one antiquark).
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In cosmology, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) are regular, periodic fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter of the universe.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
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The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
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In physical cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (abbreviated BBN, also known as primordial nucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than those of the lightest isotope of hydrogen (hydrogen-1, 1H, having a single proton as a nucleus) during the early phases of the universe.
The Big Bounce is a hypothetical scientific model of the formation of the known universe.
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In physical cosmology, the Big Crunch is one possible scenario for the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the metric expansion of space eventually reverses and the universe recollapses, ultimately ending as a black hole singularity or causing a reformation of the universe starting with another big bang.
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The Big Rip is a cosmological hypothesis first published in 2003, about the ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, is progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future.
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A black body (also blackbody) is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.
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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
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A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero (that is, very near or). Under such conditions, a large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest quantum state, at which point macroscopic quantum phenomena become apparent.
In quantum physics, a bound state describes a system where a particle is subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.
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In Hinduism, Brahman (ब्रह्मन्) connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.
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The Brahmanda Purana (The history of the universe) (ब्रह्माण्ड पुराण) is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of eighteen Hindu religious texts and has been assigned the eighteenth place in almost all the lists of the Puranas.
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Buddhist atomism is a school of atomistic Buddhist philosophy that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during two major periods.
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Callippus (Κάλλιπος; c. 370 BC – c. 300 BC) was a Greek astronomer and mathematician.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
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Carl Vilhelm Ludwig Charlier (April 1, 1862 – November 5, 1934) was a Swedish astronomer.
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Causality (also referred to as 'causation', or 'cause and effect') is the relation between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the first event is understood to be responsible for the second.
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The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus and others.
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Chaldea, from Χαλδαία,; māt Kaldu/Kašdu; כשדים,; ܟܠܕܘ,, also spelled Chaldaea, was a small Semitic nation that emerged between the late 10th and early 9th century BC, surviving until the mid 6th century BC, after which it disappeared as the Chaldean tribes were absorbed into the native population of Babylonia.
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A chemical property is any of a material's properties that becomes evident during, or after, a chemical reaction; that is, any quality that can be established only by changing a substance's chemical identity.
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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Christiaan Huygens, FRS (Hugenius) (14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a prominent Dutch mathematician and scientist.
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Christian philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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The chronology of the universe describes the history and future of the universe according to Big Bang cosmology, the prevailing scientific model of how the universe developed over time from the Planck epoch, using the cosmological time parameter of comoving coordinates.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (Κικέρων, Kikerōn; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist.
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In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.
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Many philosophies and worldviews have a set of classical elements believed to reflect the simplest essential parts and principles of which anything can consist or upon which the constitution and fundamental powers of everything are based.
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Cleanthes (Κλεάνθης Kleanthēs; c. 330 BC – c. 230 BC), of Assos, was a Greek Stoic philosopher and the successor to Zeno as the second head (scholarch) of the Stoic school in Athens.
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Coatlicue (Cōātl īcue), also known as Teteoh innan (Tēteoh īnnān), is the Aztec goddess who gave birth to the moon, stars, and Huitzilopochtli, the god of the sun and war.
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In cosmology and physics, cold dark matter (CDM) is a hypothetical form of matter (a kind of dark matter) whose particles moved slowly compared to the speed of light (the cold in CDM) since the universe was approximately one year old (a time when the cosmic particle horizon contained the mass of one typical galaxy); and interact very weakly with ordinary matter and electromagnetic radiation (the dark in CDM).
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A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, heats up and begins to outgas, displaying a visible atmosphere or coma, and sometimes also a tail.
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In standard cosmology, comoving distance and proper distance are two closely related distance measures used by cosmologists to define distances between objects.
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The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was a satellite dedicated to cosmology.
Cosmic background radiation is electromagnetic radiation from the sky with no discernible source.
The Cosmic Calendar is a method to visualize the vast history of the universe in which its 13.8 billion year lifetime is condensed down into a single year.
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Cosmic Latte is a name assigned to the average color of the universe, given by a team of astronomers from Johns Hopkins University.
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The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation left over from the time of recombination in Big Bang cosmology.
Cosmic rays are immensely high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System.
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Cosmogony (or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the coming-into-existence (i.e. origin) of either the cosmos (i.e. universe), or the so-called reality of sentient beings.
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In cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space.
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A cosmological horizon is a measure of the distance from which one could possibly retrieve information.
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In modern physical cosmology, the cosmological principle is the notion that the distribution of matter in the universe is homogeneous and isotropic when viewed on a large enough scale, since the forces are expected to act uniformly throughout the universe, and should, therefore, produce no observable irregularities in the large scale structuring over the course of evolution of the matter field that was initially laid down by the Big Bang.
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Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of"), is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
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The cosmos is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.
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The Course of Theoretical Physics is a ten-volume series of books covering theoretical physics that was initiated by Lev Landau and written in collaboration with his student Evgeny Lifshitz starting in the late 1930s.
In particle physics, CP violation (CP standing for charge parity) is a violation of the postulated CP-symmetry (or charge conjugation parity symmetry): the combination of C-symmetry (charge conjugation symmetry) and P-symmetry (parity symmetry).
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Creationism is the religious belief that the Universe and life originated "from specific acts of divine creation."Gunn 2004, p. 9, "The Concise Oxford Dictionary says that creationism is 'the belief that the universe and living organisms originated from specific acts of divine creation.'" For young Earth creationists, this includes a biblical literalist interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative and the rejection of the scientific theory of evolution.
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In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.
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In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe.
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Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that cannot be seen with telescopes but would account for most of the matter in the universe.
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In physical cosmology, the dark-energy-dominated era refers to the last of the three phases of the known universe, the other two being the matter-dominated era and the radiation-dominated era.
The deceleration parameter \! q in cosmology is a dimensionless measure of the cosmic acceleration of the expansion of space in a Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker universe.
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Democritus (Δημόκριτος Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an influential Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
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The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
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Deuterium (symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen.
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Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.
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Dignāga (c. 480 – c. 540 CE) was an Indian scholar and one of the Buddhist founders of Indian logic.
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In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally defined as the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.
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In physics, a dimensionless physical constant, sometimes called fundamental physical constant, is a physical constant that is dimensionless – having no units attached, having a numerical value that is the same under all possible systems of units.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is applicable.
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In fiction and folklore, a doppelgänger or doppelga(e)nger (or;, literally "double-goer") is a look-alike or double of a living person, sometimes portrayed as a paranormal phenomenon, and in some traditions as a harbinger of bad luck.
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A double exponential function is a constant raised to the power of an exponential function.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
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In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) refers to forces acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
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A dwarf galaxy is a small galaxy composed of up to several billion stars, a small number compared to our own Milky Way's 200–400 billion stars.
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Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).
Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.
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Earth's rotation is the rotation of the planet Earth around its own axis.
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Ecphantus or Ecphantos (Ἔκφαντος) is a shadowy Greek pre-Socratic philosopher.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (pronounced; 8 November 1656 – 14 January 1742) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist who is best known for computing the orbit of the eponymous Halley's Comet.
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The Einstein field equations (EFE; also known as "Einstein's equations") are the set of 10 equations in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity that describes the fundamental interaction of gravitation as a result of spacetime being curved by matter and energy.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
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Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
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In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.
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Elsevier B.V. is an academic publishing company that publishes medical and scientific literature.
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Empedocles (Ἐμπεδοκλῆς, Empedoklēs; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily.
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Empirical evidence, data, or knowledge, also known as sense experience, is a collective term for the knowledge or source of knowledge acquired by means of the senses, particularly by observation and experimentation.
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Empirical research is research using empirical evidence.
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The Enûma Eliš (Akkadian Cuneiform:, also spelled "Enuma Elish"), is the Babylonian creation mythos (named after its opening words).
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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
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In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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The Ennead (ἐννεάς, meaning a collection of nine things) was a group of nine deities in Egyptian mythology.
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An epic (from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός (epikos), from ἔπος (epos) "word, story, poem") is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.
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Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought.
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Eternal inflation is a hypothetical inflationary universe model, which is itself an outgrowth or extension of the Big Bang theory.
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Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.
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In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.
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Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios; 408–355 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar and student of Plato.
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In physics, and in particular relativity, an event is a point in spacetime (which for a given inertial frame of reference can be specified by position and time), and the physical situation or occurrence associated with it.
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Everything (or every thing), is all that exists; the opposite of nothing, or its complement.
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In quantum field theory, a false vacuum is a metastable sector of space that appears to be a perturbative vacuum, but is unstable due to instanton effects that may tunnel to a lower energy state.
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In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics.
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A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.
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The terms Finns and Finnish people (suomalaiset, finnar) may refer in English to ethnic Finns, not including other ethnic groups in Finland, such as Finland Swedes and Russians in Finland.
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Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
The flat Earth model is an archaic conception of the Earth's shape as a plane or disk.
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In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
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In particle physics, force carriers are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.
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In mathematics, four-dimensional space ("4D") is a geometric space with four dimensions.
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In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a (wave-like) function as the sum of simple sine waves.
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A fractal is a natural phenomenon or a mathematical set that exhibits a repeating pattern that displays at every scale.
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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.
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The Friedmann equations are a set of equations in physical cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity.
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The Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric is an exact solution of Einstein's field equations of general relativity; it describes a homogeneous, isotropic expanding or contracting universe that may be simply connected or multiply connected.
Fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions in physical systems that don't appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
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Observations suggest that the expansion of the universe will continue forever.
In Greek mythology, Gaia, (or; from Ancient Greek Γαῖα, a poetical form of Γῆ Gē, Ge, "land" or "earth") also spelled Gaea, was the personification of the Earth and one of the Greek primordial deities.
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A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.
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The is a project to exploit the latest generation of ground-based wide-field survey facilities to study cosmology and galaxy formation and evolution.
The distribution reveals fine, filamentary structures.
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Galaxy groups and clusters are the largest known gravitationally bound objects to have arisen thus far in the process of cosmic structure formation.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
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In physics, Gauss's law, also known as Gauss's flux theorem, is a law relating the distribution of electric charge to the resulting electric field.
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General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
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The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a description of the cosmos where Earth is at the orbital center of all celestial bodies.
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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
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Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are sometimes called Abrahamic religions because they all accept the tradition that God revealed himself to the prophet Abraham.
The Goethe University Frankfurt (full German name: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main) is a university which was founded in 1914 as a Citizens' University, which means that, while it was a State university of Prussia, it had been founded and financed by the wealthy and active liberal citizenry of Frankfurt am Main, a unique feature in German university history.
A googolplex is the number 10, or equivalently, 10.
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A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces, are merged into one single force.
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In physics, Gravitation is a well-known compendium on Einstein's theory of gravity by Charles W. Misner, Kip S. Thorne, and John Archibald Wheeler, originally published by W. H. Freeman and Company in 1973.
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A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location where the quantities that are used to measure the gravitational field of a celestial body become infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.
Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass are brought towards (or 'gravitate' towards) one another including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles.
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In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force (in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force).
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In physical cosmology, the hadron epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe during which the mass of the universe was dominated by hadrons.
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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
In physics, heat is energy in a process of transfer between a system and its surroundings, other than as work or with the transfer of matter.
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The heat death of the universe is a historically suggested ultimate fate of the universe in which the universe has diminished to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and therefore can no longer sustain processes that consume energy (including computation and life).
Hecataeus of Miletus (Ἑκαταῖος; c. 550 BC – c. 476 BC), son of Hagesandrus, was an early Greek historian of a wealthy family.
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Heliocentrism, or heliocentricism, is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
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Helium is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
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Father Henry Gravrand (France, 1921 - Abbey of Latrun, Palestine, 11 July 2003) was a French Catholic missionary to Africa and an anthropologist who has written extensively on Serer religion and culture.
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Heraclides Ponticus (Ἡρακλείδης ὁ Ποντικός; c. 390 BC – c. 310 BC), also known as Herakleides and Heraklides of Pontus, was a Greek philosopher and astronomer who lived and died at Heraclea Pontica, now Karadeniz Ereğli, Turkey.
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Heraclitus of Ephesus (Ἡράκλειτος ὁ Ἐφέσιος, Hērákleitos ho Ephésios; c. 535 – c. 475 BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, a native of the Greek city Ephesus, Ionia, on the coast of Asia Minor.
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The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
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The history of India begins with evidence of human activity Anatomically modern humans, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.
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The center of the Universe is a concept that lacks a coherent definition in modern astronomy; according to standard cosmological theories on the shape of the Universe, it has no center.
In physics, a homogeneous material or system has the same properties at every point; it is uniform without irregularities.
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Hot dark matter is a form of dark matter which consists of particles that travel with ultrarelativistic velocities.
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In cosmology, a Hubble volume, or Hubble sphere, is a spherical region of the Universe surrounding an observer beyond which objects recede from that observer at a rate greater than the speed of light due to the expansion of the Universe.
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Hubble's law is the name for the observation in physical cosmology that.
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Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.
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The Illustris project is an ongoing series of astrophysical simulations run by an international collaboration of scientists.
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ʿIlm al-Kalām (علم الكلام, literally "science of discourse"Winter, Tim J. "Introduction." Introduction. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2008. 4-5. Print.), usually foreshortened to kalam and sometimes called "Islamic scholastic theology", is an Islamic undertaking born out of the need to establish and defend the tenets of Islamic faith against doubters and detractors.
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Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.
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From pre-historic to modern times, Indian astronomy continues to play an integral role.
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Indian philosophy (Sanskrit: darśhana) refers to the philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
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In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is the exponential expansion of space in the early universe.
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In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
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The invariant mass, rest mass, - Lawrence S. Lerner - Science - 1997 intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is a characteristic of the total energy and momentum of an object or a system of objects that is the same in all frames of reference related by Lorentz transformations.
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An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.
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Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
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is a deity born of the seven divine generations in Japanese mythology and Shinto, and is also referred to in the roughly translated Kojiki as "male-who-invites" or Izanagi-no-mikoto ("Lord Izanagi").
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In Japanese mythology, is a goddess of both creation and death, as well as the former wife of the god Izanagi-no-Mikoto.
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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.
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Japanese mythology embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculturally based folk religion.
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Jean-Philippe Loys de Chéseaux (1718–1751) was an astronomer from Lausanne in Switzerland.
In physics, the Jeans instability causes the collapse of interstellar gas clouds and subsequent star formation.
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Jewish philosophy includes all philosophy carried out by Jews, or in relation to the religion of Judaism.
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Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.
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Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
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John Philoponus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Φιλόπονος; c. 490 – c. 570; also known as John the Grammarian or John of Alexandria) was an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works.
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Judeo-Christian is a term used by many Christians and some Jews since the 1950s to encompass common beliefs of Christianity and Judaism.
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The Kalevala or The Kalewala is a 19th-century work of epic poetry compiled by Elias Lönnrot from Karelian and Finnish oral folklore and mythology.
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Kanada (Sanskrit: कणाद) was a Hindu sage and philosopher who founded the philosophical school of Vaisheshika and authored the text Vaisheshika Sutra.
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The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.
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In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
The ΛCDM (Lambda cold dark matter) or Lambda-CDM model is a parametrization of the Big Bang cosmological model in which the universe contains a cosmological constant, denoted by Lambda (Greek Λ), associated with dark energy, and cold dark matter (abbreviated CDM).
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The Laniakea Supercluster (Laniakea; also called Local Supercluster or Local SCl) is the galaxy supercluster that is home to the Milky Way, our galaxy, and 100,000 other nearby galaxies It was defined in September 2014, when a group of astronomers including R. Brent Tully of the University of Hawaii and Hélène Courtois of the University of Lyon published a new way of defining superclusters according to the relative velocities of galaxies.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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A lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin (spin) particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.
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In physical cosmology, the lepton epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which the leptons dominated the mass of the universe.
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Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leukippos; fl. 5th century BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism — the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
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Life is a characteristic distinguishing physical entities having biological processes (such as signaling and self-sustaining processes) from those that do not,The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, via.
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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
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A light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime.
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A light-year (abbreviation: ly), sometimes written light year, is a unit of length used informally to express astronomical distances.
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A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
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A creation myth (or creation story) is a cultural, traditional or religious myth which describes the earliest beginnings of the present world.
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This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe.
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Lithium (from λίθος lithos, "stone") is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
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The Local Group is the galaxy group that includes the Milky Way.
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Logos (or; Greek: λόγος, from λέγω lego "I say") is an important term in philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion.
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Lucio Russo (born 22 November 1944) is an Italian physicist, mathematician and historian of science.
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The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible practically with the naked eye, without magnifying devices.
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In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that resembles Euclidean space near each point.
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The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In physics, mass–energy equivalence is the concept that the mass of an object or system is a measure of its energy content.
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Before the 20th century, the term matter included ordinary matter composed of atoms and excluded other energy phenomena such as light or sound.
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The matter-dominated era was the epoch in the evolution of the Universe that began when the radiation-dominated era ended, when the Universe was about 47,000 years old.
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Max Erik Tegmark (born 5 May 1967) is a Swedish-American cosmologist.
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Māori mythology and Māori traditions are the two major categories into which the legends of the Māori of New Zealand may usefully be divided.
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In metrology, measurement uncertainty is a non-negative parameter characterizing the dispersion of the values attributed to a measured quantity.
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In particle physics, mesons are hadronic subatomic particles composed of one quark and one antiquark, bound together by the strong interaction.
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In astronomy and physical cosmology, the metallicity or Z, is the fraction of mass of a star or other kind of astronomical object, beyond hydrogen (X) and helium (Y).
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In mathematics, a metric or distance function is a function that defines a distance between each pair of elements of a set.
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The metric expansion of space is the increase of the distance between two distant parts of the universe with time.
In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function defined on a manifold (such as a surface in space) which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors v and w and produces a real number (scalar) g(v,w) in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.
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Michio Kaku (born January 24, 1947) is an American futurist, theoretical physicist and popularizer of science.
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The microscopic scale (from, mikrós, "small" and σκοπέω, skopéō "look") is the scale of objects and events smaller than those that can easily be seen by the naked eye, requiring a lens or microscope to see them clearly.
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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from as long as one meter to as short as one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
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In mathematical physics, Minkowski space or Minkowski spacetime is a combination of Euclidean space and time into a four-dimensional manifold where the spacetime interval between any two events is independent of the inertial frame of reference in which they are recorded.
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Modern physics is an effort to understand the underlying processes of the interactions of matter utilizing the tools of science & engineering.
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In quantum field theory, the term moduli (or more properly moduli fields) is sometimes used to refer to scalar fields whose potential energy function has continuous families of global minima.
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In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
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In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves the given order.
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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.
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The multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of infinite or finite possible universes (including the Universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them.
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The muon (from the Greek letter mu (μ) used to represent it) is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with electric charge of −1 e and a 2, but with a much greater mass.
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Khawaja Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Hasan Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن الحسن طوسی) (born 17 February 1201 in Ṭūs, Khorasan – died on 25 June 1274 in al-Kāżimiyyah district of metropolitan Baghdad), better known as Nasīr al-Dīn Tūsī (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath and prolific writer: An architect, astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed.
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Natural law is a philosophy that certain rights or values are inherent by virtue of human nature, and universally cognizable through human reason.
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Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
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A nebula (Latin for "cloud"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
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A neutrino (or, in Italian) is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin.
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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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Newton's law of universal gravitation states that any two bodies in the universe attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
Nicholas of Kues (1401 – 11 August 1464), also referred to as Nicolaus Cusanus and Nicholas of Cusa, was a German philosopher, theologian, jurist, and astronomer.
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Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.
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A non-standard cosmology is any physical cosmological model of the universe that has been, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the Big Bang model of standard physical cosmology.
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Norse mythology is the body of mythology of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
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Nous (British:; US), sometimes equated to intellect or intelligence, is a philosophical term for the faculty of the human mind which is described in classical philosophy as necessary for understanding what is true or real.
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The nuclear force (or nucleon–nucleon interaction or residual strong force) is the force between protons and neutrons, subatomic particles that are collectively called nucleons.
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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.
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Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies the constituents and interactions of atomic nuclei.
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In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
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Nucleocosmochronology, also known as cosmochronology, is a relatively new technique used to determine timescales for astrophysical objects and events.
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A number is a mathematical object used to count, measure and label.
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The observable universe consists of the galaxies and other matter that can, in principle, be observed from Earth at the present time because light and other signals from these objects has had time to reach the Earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion.
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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
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Observational astronomy is a division of the astronomical science that is concerned with recording data, in contrast with theoretical astrophysics, which is mainly concerned with finding out the measurable implications of physical models.
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In special relativity, an observer is a frame of reference from which a set of objects or events are being measured.
In astrophysics and physical cosmology, Olbers' paradox, named after the German astronomer Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers (1758–1840) and also called the "dark night sky paradox", is the argument that the darkness of the night sky conflicts with the assumption of an infinite and eternal static universe.
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Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century.
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De mundo (Περὶ Κόσμου), known in English as On the Universe, is the work of an unknown author who wrote under the name of Aristotle.
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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities.
Outer space, or just space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth.
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Pangu is the first living being and the creator of all in some versions of Chinese mythology.
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Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης; fl. late sixth or early fifth century BCE) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
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A parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure the astronomically large distances to objects outside the Solar System.
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In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.
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Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles).
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The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle that states that two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state simultaneously.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher, part of Penguin Random House.
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The Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems are a set of results in general relativity which attempt to answer the question of when gravitation produces singularities.
Periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) are a set of boundary conditions which are often chosen for approximating a large (infinite) system by using a small part called a unit cell.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
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Philolaus (Φιλόλαος; c. 470 – c. 385 BCE) was a Greek Pythagorean and Presocratic philosopher.
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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Philosophy is the study of the general and fundamental nature of reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
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In physical cosmology, the photon epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which photons dominated the energy of the universe.
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A physical constant is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and constant in time.
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Physical cosmology is the study of the largest-scale structures and dynamics of the Universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its origin, structure, evolution, and ultimate fate.
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A physical law or scientific law "is a theoretical principle deduced from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
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In particle physics, a pion (or a pi meson, denoted with the Greek letter pi) is any of three subatomic particles:,, and.
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Planck was a space observatory operated by the European Space Agency (ESA) from 2009 to 2013, which mapped the anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at microwave and infra-red frequencies, with high sensitivity and small angular resolution.
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In physical cosmology, the Planck epoch (or Planck era) is the earliest period of time in the history of the universe, from zero to approximately 10−43 seconds (Planck time).
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In physics, the Planck time is the unit of time in the system of natural units known as Planck units.
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In esoteric cosmology, a plane other than the physical plane is conceived as a subtle state of consciousness that transcends the known physical universe.
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A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.
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A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in orbit around a star or star system.
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Plasma (from Greek πλάσμα, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas.
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Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
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In three-dimensional space, a Platonic solid is a regular, convex polyhedron.
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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος); c. AD 46 – AD 120) was a Greek historian, biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
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Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.
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Prakṛti, also Prakṛiti or Prakṛuti (from Sanskrit language प्रकृति, prakṛti), means "nature".
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Pre-Socratic philosophy is Greek ancient philosophy before Socrates (and includes schools contemporary to Socrates that were not influenced by him).
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In Bayesian statistical inference, a prior probability distribution, often simply called the prior, of an uncertain quantity is the probability distribution that would express one's beliefs about this quantity before some evidence is taken into account.
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In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold (also called a semi-Riemannian manifold) is a generalization of a Riemannian manifold in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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Pythagoras of Samos (Samian, or simply Πυθαγόρας; Πυθαγόρης in Ionian Greek) was an Ionian Greek philosopher, mathematician, and has been credited as the founder of the movement called Pythagoreanism.
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Pythagoreanism originated in the 5th century BCE, based on teachings, or beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics, music and astronomy.
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In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction.
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In quantum mechanics, quantum decoherence is the loss of coherence or ordering of the phase angles between the components of a system in a quantum superposition.
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Quantum gravity (QG) is a field of theoretical physics that seeks to describe the force of gravity according to the principles of quantum mechanics.
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Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, or quantum theory), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental branch of physics concerned with processes involving, for example, atoms and photons.
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Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.
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A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
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In physical cosmology the quark epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction had taken their present forms, but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.
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A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which is hypothesized to exist at extremely high temperature, density, or both temperature and density.
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Quasars or quasi-stellar radio sources are the most energetic and distant members of a class of objects called active galactic nuclei (AGN).
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In physics, quintessence is a hypothetical form of dark energy, more precisely a scalar field, postulated as an explanation of the observation of an accelerating rate of expansion of the universe announced in 1998, rather than due to a true cosmological constant.
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In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
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In Māori mythology the primal couple Rangi and Papa (or Ranginui and Papatuanuku) appear in a creation myth explaining the origin of the world.
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In planetary astronomy and astrobiology, the Rare Earth Hypothesis argues that the origin of life and the evolution of biological complexity such as sexually reproducing, multicellular organisms on Earth (and, subsequently, human intelligence) required an improbable combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances.
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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, applying logic, establishing and verifying facts, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
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In cosmology, recombination refers to the epoch at which charged electrons and protons first became bound to form electrically neutral hydrogen atoms.
In physics, redshift happens when light or other electromagnetic radiation from an object is increased in wavelength, or shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
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In Big Bang cosmology, reionization is the process that reionized the matter in the universe after the "dark ages", and is the second of two major phase transitions of gas in the universe.
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A religious cosmology (also mythological cosmology) is a way of explaining the origin, the history and the evolution of the cosmos or universe based on the religious mythology of a specific tradition.
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Rabbi Sa'adiah ben Yosef Gaon (سعيد بن يوسف الفيومي / Saʻīd bin Yūsuf al-Fayyūmi, Sa'id ibn Yusuf al-Dilasi, Saadia ben Yosef aluf, Sa'id ben Yusuf ra's al-Kull; רבי סעדיה בן יוסף אלפיומי גאון' or in short: סעדיה גאון; alternative English Names: Saadia b. Joseph, Saadia ben Joseph or Saadia ben Joseph of Faym or Saadia ben Joseph Al-Fayyumi; b. Egypt 882/892, d. Baghdad 942) was a prominent rabbi, Jewish philosopher, and exegete of the Geonic period.
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Samkhya or Sankhya (सांख्य, IAST) is one of the six āstika (orthodox) schools of Indian philosophy.
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Saul Perlmutter (born September 22, 1959) is an American astrophysicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and a professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley.
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In theoretical physics, scalar field theory can refer to a classical or quantum theory of scalar fields.
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The scale factor, cosmic scale factor or sometimes the Robertson-Walker scale factor parameter of the Friedmann equations is a function of time which represents the relative expansion of the universe.
ScienceFrom Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge".
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Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.
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Scientific notation (also referred to as "standard form" or "standard index form") is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form and is commonly used by scientists, mathematicians and engineers.
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Sean Michael Carroll (born 5 October 1966) is a cosmologist and Physics professor specializing in dark energy and general relativity.
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Seleucus of Seleucia (Σέλευκος Seleukos; born c. 190 BC; fl. c. 150 BC) was a Hellenistic astronomer and philosopher.
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The Serer creation myth is the traditional creation myth of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania.
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The Serer people (also spelt "Sérère", "Sereer", "Serere", "Seereer" and sometimes wrongly "Serre") are a West African ethnoreligious group.
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In mathematics, a set is a collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right.
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The shape of the universe is the local and global geometry of the Universe, in terms of both curvature and topology (though, strictly speaking, the concept goes beyond both).
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In topology, a topological space is called simply-connected (or 1-connected) if it is path-connected and every path between two points can be continuously transformed, staying within the space, into any other such path while preserving the two endpoints in question (see below for an informal discussion).
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Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality.
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A soap bubble is an extremely thin film of soapy water enclosing air that forms a hollow sphere with an iridescent surface.
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The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
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Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
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In physics, spacetime (also space–time, space time or space–time continuum) is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single interwoven continuum.
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In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
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A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
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The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
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In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.
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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms that matter takes on.
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The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
Static force fields are fields, such as a simple electric, magnetic or gravitational fields, that exist without excitations.
Stellar nucleosynthesis is the process by which the natural abundances of the chemical elements within stars vary due to nuclear fusion reactions in the cores and overlying mantles of stars.
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Stellar parallax is parallax on an interstellar scale: the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
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Joannes Stobaeus (Ἰωάννης ὁ Στοβαῖος; fl. 5th-century CE), from Stobi in Macedonia, was the compiler of a valuable series of extracts from Greek authors.
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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC.
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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In the theory of general relativity, a stress–energy–momentum pseudotensor, such as the Landau–Lifshitz pseudotensor, is an extension of the non-gravitational stress–energy tensor which incorporates the energy–momentum of gravity.
In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.
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In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force or colour force), one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.
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In physical cosmology, structure formation refers to the formation of galaxies, galaxy clusters and larger structures from small early density fluctuations.
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In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
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The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.
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Supernova nucleosynthesis is a theory of the production of many different chemical elements in supernova explosions, first advanced by Fred Hoyle in 1954.
The TalkOrigins Archive is a website that presents mainstream science perspectives on the antievolution claims of young-earth, old-earth, and "intelligent design" creationists.
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Tao or Dao is a Chinese concept signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle'.
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The tau (τ), also called the tau lepton, tau particle or tauon, is an elementary particle similar to the electron, with negative electric charge and a 2.
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Temporal finitism is the idea that time is finite.
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Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and mathematician from Miletus in Asia Minor and one of the Seven Sages of Greece.
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The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Sand Reckoner (Ψαμμίτης, Psammites) is a work by Archimedes in which he set out to determine an upper bound for the number of grains of sand that fit into the universe.
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Theology is the systematic and rational study of concepts of God and of the nature of religious ideas, but can also mean the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university, seminary, or school of divinity.
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Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
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A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
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Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if no heat flows between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.
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Thomas Wright (22 September 171125 February 1786) was an English astronomer, mathematician, instrument maker, architect and garden designer.
Three-dimensional space (also: tri-dimensional space) is a geometric three-parameter model of the physical universe (without considering time) in which all known matter exists.
In Mesopotamian Religion (Sumerian, Assyrian, Akkadian and Babylonian), Tiamat is a primordial goddess of the ocean, mating with Abzû (the god of fresh water) to produce younger gods.
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Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Buddhism in Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia, Buryatia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim).
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Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of gravitational forces exerted by the Moon, Sun, and rotation of the Earth.
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Time is a measure in which events can be ordered from the past through the present into the future, and also the measure of durations of events and the intervals between them.
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Time in physics is defined by its measurement: time is what a clock reads.
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In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study), is the study of topological spaces.
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In mathematics, a toroid is a doughnut-shaped object, such as an O-ring.
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In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.
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Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality,Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary,, 2005 or fidelity to an original or to a standard or ideal.
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Type Ia supernovae occur in binary systems (two stars orbiting one another) in which one of the stars is a white dwarf while the other can vary from a giant star to an even smaller white dwarf.
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Udayana also known as Udayanācārya (Udyanacharya, or Master Udayana) was a very important Hindu logician of the tenth century who attempted to reconcile the views held by the two major schools of logic (Nyaya and Vaisheshika).
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The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology.
The universal wavefunction or universal wave function is a term introduced by Hugh Everett in his Princeton PhD thesis The Theory of the Universal Wave Function, and forms a core concept in the relative state interpretationHugh Everett, Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics, Reviews of Modern Physics vol 29, (1957) pp 454–462.
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The University of Texas at Austin, informally UT Austin, UT, University of Texas, or Texas in sports contexts, is a public research university and the flagship institution of The University of Texas System.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
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USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.
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Vacuum is space void of matter.
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Vacuum energy is an underlying background energy that exists in space throughout the entire Universe.
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Vacuum genesis (zero-energy universe) is a scientific theory about the Big Bang that states that the universe began as a single particle arising from an absolute vacuum, similar to how virtual particles come into existence and then fall back into non-existence.
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Vaisheshika or (वैशेषिक) is one of the six orthodox schools of Hinduism (Vedic systems) from ancient India.
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Vācaspati Miśra (900–980 CE) was an Indian philosopher who founded one of the main Advaita Vedanta schools, the Bhāmatī school (named after his commentary on Śankara's Brahma-sūtra-bhāṣya).
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In physics, a virtual particle is an explanatory conceptual entity that is found in mathematical calculations about quantum field theory.
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Cosmic voids are the vast empty spaces between filaments (the largest-scale structures in the Universe), which contain very few, or no, galaxies.
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The W and Z bosons (together known as the weak bosons or, less specifically, the intermediate vector bosons) are the elementary particles that mediate the weak interaction; their symbols are,, and.
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Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
In physics, a wave is an oscillation accompanied by a transfer of energy that travels through space or mass.
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A wave function in quantum mechanics describes the quantum state of an isolated system of one or more particles.
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Wave–particle duality is the fact that every elementary particle or quantic entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves.
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In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and the inverse of the spatial frequency.
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While the presence of any mass bends the path of light passing near it, this effect rarely produces the giant arcs and multiple images associated with strong gravitational lensing.
In particle physics, the weak interaction is the mechanism responsible for the weak force or weak nuclear force, one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.
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The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
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The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured differences across the sky in the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
William James Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
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World is a common name for the whole of human civilization, specifically human experience, history, or the human condition in general, worldwide, i.e. anywhere on Earth or pertaining to anywhere on earth.
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The world egg, cosmic egg or mundane egg is a mythological motif found in the creation myths of many cultures and civilizations.
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A comprehensive world view or worldview is the fundamental cognitive orientation of an individual or society encompassing the entirety of the individual or society's knowledge and point of view.
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In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (also, yin-yang or yin yang) describes how apparently opposite or contrary forces are actually complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
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In Norse mythology, Ymir, Aurgelmir, Brimir, or Bláinn is a primeval being born of primordial elemental poison and the ancestor of all jötnar.
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Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης; c. 490 – c. 430 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
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Zeno's paradoxes are a set of philosophical problems generally thought to have been devised by Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea (ca. 490–430 BC) to support Parmenides's doctrine that contrary to the evidence of one's senses, the belief in plurality and change is mistaken, and in particular that motion is nothing but an illusion.
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The zero-energy universe theory states that the total amount of energy in the universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy in the form of matter is exactly canceled out by its negative energy in the form of gravity.
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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
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In mathematics, a 3-sphere (also called a glome) is a higher-dimensional analogue of a sphere.
New!!: Universe and 3-sphere ·
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