90 relations: Alpha decay, Astatine, Atom, Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, Beta decay, Beta particle, Bismuth, BN-600 reactor, Boosted fission weapon, Breeder reactor, Castle Bravo, Chain reaction, Clean and Environmentally Safe Advanced Reactor, Construction aggregate, Critical mass, Decay chain, Decay product, Delayed neutron, Depleted uranium, Doppler broadening, Double beta decay, Dry cask storage, Ducrete, Electron, Enriched uranium, Explosion, Exponential decay, Fast fission, Fertile material, Fissile material, Gamma ray, Half-life, Inelastic scattering, Inertia, Isotope, Isotopes of lead, Isotopes of protactinium, Isotopes of thorium, Isotopes of uranium, Ivy Mike, Lead, Mole (unit), Monju Nuclear Power Plant, MOX fuel, NATO, Natural uranium, Negative feedback, Neutron, Neutron capture, Neutron reflector, ..., Neutron temperature, Nuclear fallout, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear transmutation, Nuclear weapon, Nuclear weapon design, Plutonium-239, Plutonium-242, Polonium, Power station, Protactinium, Radiation protection, Radioactive decay, Radioactive waste, Radium, Radon, Relative atomic mass, Reprocessed uranium, Resonance, Second, Sediment, Soviet Union, Spontaneous fission, Thallium, Thermonuclear weapon, Thorium, Tsar Bomba, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium-232, Uranium-233, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Voyager Golden Record, Voyager program, X-ray. Expand index (40 more) » « Shrink index
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
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Astatine is a very rare radioactive chemical element with the chemical symbol At and atomic number 85.
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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
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The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station (NPS) (Белоярская атомная электростанция им.), was the second of the then Soviet Union's nuclear plants.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.
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Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei, such as potassium-40.
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Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
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The BN-600 reactor is a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, built at the Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Station, in Zarechny, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia.
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A boosted fission weapon usually refers to a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction.
A breeder reactor is a nuclear reactor capable of generating more fissile material than it consumes.
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Castle Bravo was the code name given to the first United States test of a dry fuel hydrogen bomb, detonated on March 1, 1954, at Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands, as the first test of Operation Castle.
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A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
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The Clean and Environmentally Safe Advanced Reactor (CAESAR) is a nuclear reactor concept created by Claudio Filippone, the Director of the Center for Advanced Energy Concepts at the University of Maryland, College Park and head of the ongoing CAESAR Project.
Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse particulate material used in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates.
A critical mass is the smallest amount of fissile material needed for a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
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In nuclear science, the decay chain refers to the radioactive decay of different discrete radioactive decay products as a chained series of transformations.
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In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
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In nuclear engineering, a delayed neutron is a neutron emitted after a nuclear fission event, by one of the fission products (or actually, a fission product daughter after beta decay), any time from a few milliseconds to a few minutes after the fission event.
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Depleted uranium (DU; also referred to in the past as Q-metal, depletalloy or D-38) is uranium with a lower content of the fissile isotope U-235 than natural uranium.
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In atomic physics, Doppler broadening is the broadening of spectral lines due to the Doppler effect caused by a distribution of velocities of atoms or molecules.
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Double beta decay is a radioactive decay process where a nucleus releases two beta rays as a single process.
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Dry cask storage is a method of storing high-level radioactive waste, such as spent nuclear fuel that has already been cooled in the spent fuel pool for at least one year and often as much as ten years.
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DUCRETE (Depleted Uranium Concrete) is a high density concrete alternative investigated for use in construction of casks for storage of radioactive waste.
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
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Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
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An explosion is a rapid increase in volume and release of energy in an extreme manner, usually with the generation of high temperatures and the release of gases.
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A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
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Fast fission is fission that occurs when a heavy atom absorbs a high-energy neutron, called a fast neutron, and splits.
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Fertile material is a material that, although not itself fissionable by thermal neutrons, can be converted into a fissile material by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions.
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In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.
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In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
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Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its state of motion including changes to its speed and direction or the state of rest.
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Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.
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Lead (Pb) has four stable isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
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Protactinium (Pa) has no stable isotopes.
Although thorium (Th), with atomic number 90, has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 14.05 billion years, considerably longer than the age of the earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
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Uranium (U) is a naturally occurring radioactive element that has no stable isotopes but two primordial isotopes (uranium-238 and uranium-235) that have long half-life and are found in appreciable quantity in the Earth's crust, along with the decay product uranium-234.
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Ivy Mike was the codename given to the first test of a full-scale thermonuclear device, in which part of the explosive yield comes from nuclear fusion.
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Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.
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The mole is a unit of measurement for amount of substance.
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is a Japanese sodium-cooled fast reactor, located in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Plant, Fukui Prefecture.
Mixed oxide fuel, commonly referred to as MOX fuel, is nuclear fuel that contains more than one oxide of fissile material, usually consisting of plutonium blended with natural uranium, reprocessed uranium, or depleted uranium.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
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Negative feedback occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.
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The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.
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Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.
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A neutron reflector is any material that reflects neutrons.
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The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
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Nuclear fallout, or simply fallout, is the residual radioactive material propelled into the upper atmosphere following a nuclear blast or a nuclear reaction conducted in an unshielded facility, so called because it "falls out" of the sky after the explosion and shock wave have passed.
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Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear fuel is a material that can be 'burned' by nuclear fission or fusion to derive nuclear energy.
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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.
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A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
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Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).
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Nuclear weapon designs are physical, chemical, and engineering arrangements that cause the physics package of a nuclear weapon to detonate.
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium.
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Plutonium-242 is one of the isotopes of plutonium, the second longest-lived, with a half-life of 373,300 years.
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Polonium is a chemical element with symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie Curie and Pierre Curie.
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A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse, or generating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
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Protactinium is a chemical element with symbol Pa and atomic number 91.
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Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science and practice of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.
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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
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Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material.
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Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
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Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.
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Relative atomic mass (symbol: A) is a dimensionless physical quantity, the ratio of the average mass of atoms of an element (from a single given sample or source) to of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (known as the unified atomic mass unit).
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Reprocessed uranium (RepU) is the uranium recovered from nuclear reprocessing, as done commercially in France, the UK and Japan and by nuclear weapons states' military plutonium production programs.
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In physics, resonance is a phenomenon that occurs when a given system is driven by another vibrating system or external force to oscillate with greater amplitude at a specific preferential frequency.
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The second (symbol: s) (abbreviated s or sec) is the base unit of time in the International System of Units (SI).
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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Spontaneous fission (SF) is a form of radioactive decay that is found only in very heavy chemical elements.
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Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
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A thermonuclear weapon is a nuclear weapon that uses the energy from a primary nuclear fission reaction to compress and ignite a secondary nuclear fusion reaction.
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Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
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Tsar Bomba (Царь-бомба; "Tsar of bombs") is the nickname for the AN602 hydrogen bomb, the most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated.
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Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
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Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
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Uranium-232 (U-232) is an isotope of uranium.
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Uranium-233 is a fissile isotope of uranium that is bred from thorium-232 as part of the thorium fuel cycle.
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Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
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Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
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Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.
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The Voyager Golden Records are phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.
The Voyager program is a continuing American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
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X-radiation (composed of X-rays) is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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