288 relations: -stan, Abdulkerim Abbas, Abdurehim Ötkür, Afaq Khoja, Afghanistan, Agglutinative language, Aksu, Xinjiang, Almond, Altai Mountains, Altishahr, Amannisa Khan, Arabic alphabet, Arch, Äynu language, Bactrian camel, Bagel, Battle of Kashgar (1934), Beef, Beijing, Belgium, Bell pepper, Bernard Quaritch, Bolsheviks, Book of Wei, Bread, Bronze Age, Buddhism in Central Asia, Canada, Carrot, Caspian Sea, Ceiling, Celery, Central Asia, Chagatai Khan, Chagatai Khanate, Chagatai language, Changde, Chicken (food), Chigils, Chih-yu Shih, China, Chorba, Christopher I. Beckwith, Church of the East, Communist Party of China, Cyrillic script, Daf, Dairy product, Diaspora, Dingling, ..., Dolan people, Doner kebab, Dughlats, Dungan Revolt (1862–77), Dutar, Dzhamaldin Khodzhaniyazov, Dzungar conquest of Altishahr, Dzungar genocide, Dzungar Khanate, Dzungar people, Dzungar–Qing War, Dzungaria, East Asia, East Turkestan independence movement, East Turkestan Islamic Movement, East Turkestan Liberation Organization, Eggplant, Ehmetjan Qasim, Ella Maillart, Ethnic group, Ethnic groups in Europe, Ethnic minorities in China, Ethnogenesis, Ethnography, Ethnonym, Eurasia, Eurasian (mixed ancestry), First East Turkestan Republic, Five Races Under One Union, Forbidden City, Fragrant Concubine, Fruit, Gansu, Gaochang, Gautama Buddha, Genghis Khan, George W. Hunter (missionary), Germany, Goose, Grammatical case, Guazhou County, Hami City, Han Chinese, Honey, Hotan, Hui people, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, Hunan, Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Ili Rebellion, Ili Turki language, Indo-European languages, Jadid, Jimsar County, Jisr al-Shughur, Joseph Stalin, July 2009 Ürümqi riots, Kalmyk people, Kara Del, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Karasahr, Karim Massimov, Karluk languages, Karluks, Kashgar, Kashgar Prefecture, Kazakhstan, Kebab, Khalkha Mongols, Khanate of Kokand, Kharosthi, Khizr Khoja, Khoja (Turkestan), Kingdom of Khotan, Kingdom of Qocho, Korla, Kucha, Kumul Rebellion, Kuomintang, Kushan Empire, Kutadgu Bilig, Kyrgyz people, Kyrgyzstan, Lake Baikal, Lamb and mutton, Lamian, Language Log, List of Uyghurs, Lop dialect, Loulan Kingdom, Ma Fuyuan, Ma Zhancang, Madrasa, Mahmud al-Kashgari, Maktab, Manchuria, Manichaeism, Mao Zedong, Maqama, Masud Sabri, Meshrep, Miao people, Miao Rebellions (Ming dynasty), Middle East, Mixed-sex education, Moghulistan, Mongol Empire, Mongolia, Muhammad Amin Bughra, Muqam, Mural, Muslim, Naan, Naqshbandi, Netherlands, New Book of Tang, Niya (Tarim Basin), North Africa, Northern Wei, Norway, Nowruz, Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra, Ohio University Press, Oirats, Old History of the Five Dynasties, Old Turkic alphabet, Old Turkic language, Olive, Omar Akhun, Onion, Ordu-Baliq, Pakistan, Pamirdin, Pan-Islamism, Pan-Turkism, People's Daily, Peter Fleming (writer), Pie, Pilaf, Qara Khitai, Qing dynasty, Quddus Khojamyarov, Raisin, Rebiya Kadeer, Republic of China (1912–49), Rock-cut architecture, Ruoqiang County, Russia, Sabit Damulla Abdulbaki, Saifuddin Azizi, Saka, Saka language, Salar people, Samosa, Sanam (dance), Sangza, Saudi Arabia, Second East Turkestan Republic, Shamanism, Sheng Shicai, Silk Road, Smetana (dairy product), Sogdian language, Soup, Strategic Insights, Subject–object–verb, Sufism, Sunni Islam, Sven Hedin, Sweden, Tang dynasty, Taoyuan County, Taqsim, Taranchi, Tarim Basin, Tarim mummies, Tashkent, Tea, Ten Great Campaigns, Tengrism, The Independent, Tian Shan, Tibetan Buddhism, Tiele people, Tocharian languages, Tocharians, Tohax, Tomato, Toquz Oghuz, Transoxiana, Tughlugh Timur, Turdi Akhun, Turghun Almas, Turkey, Turki, Turkic Khaganate, Turkic languages, Turkic peoples, Turpan, United States, Uyghur American Association, Uyghur Arabic alphabet, Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet, Uyghur Khaganate, Uyghur language, Uyghur Latin alphabet, Uyghur New Script, Uyghur timeline, Uyghurs in Beijing, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, Uzbeks, Vowel harmony, Western Regions, Western Xia, Wheat flour, World Uyghur Congress, Xinjiang, Xinjiang University, Xiongnu, Yagma, Yang Zengxin, Yaqub Beg, Yarkant County, Yarkent Khanate, Yenisei Kirghiz, Yenisei River, Yining City, Youtazi, Yuezhi, Yugur, Yusuf Khass Hajib, Zhangye, Zhetysu, Ziya Samedi, Zordun Sabir, Zuo Zongtang, 5th Dalai Lama. Expand index (238 more) » « Shrink index
The suffix -stan (ـستان -) is Persian for "place of" or "country".
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Abdulkerim Abbas, also Abdul Kerim Abbas, Abdulkerim Abbasoff, 'Abd al-Karīm 'Abbās) (1921 – August 27, 1949), was a Uyghur leader in Xinjiang, China during the 20th century. He helped lead the Ili Rebellion of 1944, which led to the founding of the Second East Turkestan Republic (ETR) in northern Xinjiang. Abbas, along with Ehmetjan Qasim, headed the Marxist faction within the ETR, which in 1946 set aside the rebellion's declaration of independence and joined the Nationalist Chinese in forming a coalition provincial government. Qasim and Abbas led the ETR in joining the Chinese Communists toward the end of the Chinese Civil War. They and several other senior leaders of the ETR perished in August 1949 in a plane crash while traveling en route to Beiping (Beijing) where they were invited to participate in the Chinese Communists' political consultative conference, which resulted in the founding of the People's Republic of China. Abbas is officially in hailed in the People's Republic of China as a revolutionary martyr.
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Abdurehim Tileshüp Ötkür (1923-5 October 1995) (Uyghur:ئابدۇرېھىم تىلەشۈپ ئۆتكۈر) was a popular Uyghur author and poet.
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Afaq Khoja (1626 – 1694), born Hidayat Allah, a.k.a. Apaq Xoja, or more properly Āfāq Khwāja (Persian: آفاق خواجه) was a religious and political leader with the title of Khwaja in Kashgaria (in present-day southern Xinjiang, China).
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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
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An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meaning, but each of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remains in every aspect unchanged after their union, thus resulting in generally easier deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in the phonetics and/or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, generally for shortening the word on behalf of an easier pronunciation.
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Aksu (also transliterated Akesu, Ak-su, Akshu, Aqsu; also known as Bharuka and Bolujia (in pinyin), Po-lu-chia (in Wade-Giles)), is a city in and the seat of Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang, lying at the northern edge of the Tarim Basin.
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The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus, Amygdalus communis, Amygdalus dulcis) (or badam in Indian English, from بادام) is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia.
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The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
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Altishahr is a historical name for the Tarim Basin region used in the 18th and 19th centuries.
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Āmānnisā Khan Nāfisi, also known as Amanni Shahan (ئاماننىسا خان;, 1526-1560) was a concubine of Abdurashit Khan or Abdurashid Khan of the Yerqiang (Yarkand) kingdom.
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The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language.
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An arch is a curved structure that spans a space and may or may not support weight above it.
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Äynu (also Aini, Ejnu, Abdal) is a Turkic cryptolect spoken in western China known in various spelling as Aini, Aynu, Ainu, Eyni or by the Uyghur Abdal (ئابدال), in Russian sources Эйну́, Айну, Абдал, by the Chinese as Ainu.
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The Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) is a large, even-toed ungulate native to the steppes of Central Asia.
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A bagel (בײגל ''beygl''., bajgiel), also spelled beigel, is a bread product originating in Poland, traditionally shaped by hand into the form of a ring from yeasted wheat dough, roughly hand-sized, which is first boiled for a short time in water and then baked.
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The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars.
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Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially cattle.
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Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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Bell pepper, also known as sweet pepper or a pepper (in the United Kingdom, Canada and Ireland) and capsicum (in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Australia, Singapore and New Zealand), is a cultivar group of the species Capsicum annuum.
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Bernard Quaritch, full name Bernard Alexander Christian Quaritch, (April 23, 1819 – December 17, 1899) was a German-born British bookseller and collector.
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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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The Book of Wei is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550.
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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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Buddhism in Central Asia refers to the forms of Buddhism that existed in Central Asia, which were historically especially prevalent along the Silk Road.
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Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist.
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The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
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A ceiling is an overhead interior surface that covers the upper limit of a room.
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Celery (Apium graveolens) is a cultivated plant, variety in the family Apiaceae, commonly used as a vegetable.
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Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
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Chagatai Khan (Persian:; Цагадай, Tsagadai; 22 December 1183 – 1 July 1242) was the second son of Genghis Khan.
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The Chagatai Khanate (Mongolian: Tsagadain Khaant Uls/Цагаадайн Хаант Улс) was a khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendents and successors.
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Chagatai (جغتای) is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia, and remained the shared literary language there until the early 20th century.
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Changde is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Hunan province, People's Republic of China, with a population of 5,717,218 as of the 2010 census, of which 1,232,182 reside in the urban districts of Dingcheng and Wuling.
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Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world.
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The Chigil (Chihil, and also Jigil, Djikil, Chiyal) were a Turkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area.
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Chih-yu Shih (born 8 August 1958) is a political science professor in Taiwan and National Chair Professor of the Republic of China.
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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Chorba (pronounced) is one of various kinds of soup or stew found in national cuisines across the Balkans, North Africa, Eastern Europe, Central Asia, and the Middle East.
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Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.
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The Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒ(d)tāʾ d-Maḏn(ə)ḥāʾ), also known as the Nestorian Church, was a Christian church within the Syriac tradition of Eastern Christianity.
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The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
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The Cyrillic script is an alphabetic writing system employed across Eastern Europe and north and central Asia.
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Daf (dap) (Persian, Khowar dialect: دف, from dap) is a large Persian frame drum used in popular and classical music.
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A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals.
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A diaspora (from Greek διασπορά, "scattering, dispersion") is a scattered population whose origin lies within a smaller geographic locale.
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The Dingling are an ancient people mentioned in Chinese historiography in the context of the 1st century BCE.
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Dolan (Uyghur: دولان, Simplified Chinese: 刀朗, or 多朗) refers to a people or region of what is now Xinjiang Province, China.
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Döner kebab (Turkish: döner or döner kebap) is a Turkish dish made of meat cooked on a vertical rotisserie, normally lamb but sometimes beef, or chicken.
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The Dughlat clan (Mongolian: Dolood/sevens, Doloo/seven; Middle Mongolian: Doluga, Dolugad; Dulğat and Дулат in Kazakh language) was a Mongol (later Turko-Mongol) clan that served the Chagatai khans as hereditary vassal rulers of the several cities of the western Tarim Basin from the 14th century until the 16th century.
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The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Hui Minorities War was a mainly ethnic war fought in 19th-century China.
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The dutar (دوتار, дутор, Duttar, dutor, Chinese: 都塔尔) (also dotar or doutar) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia.
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Dzhamaldin Abdukhalitovich Khodzhaniyazov (Джамалдин Абдухалитович Ходжаниязов, Jamaldin Abduhalitowiç Hojanyýazow; born 18 July 1996 in Baýramaly, Turkmenistan) is a Turkmen-born Russian professional football player.
The Dzungar conquest of Altishahr resulted in the Tibetan Buddhist Dzungar Khanate in Dzungaria conquering and subjugating the Genghisid-ruled Chagatai Khanate in Altishahr (the Tarim Basin).
The Dzungar genocide was the mass extermination of the Dzungar people by the ethnic Manchu-led Qing dynasty of China.
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The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe.
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The name Dzungar people, also written as Zunghar (literally züüngar, from the Mongolian for "left hand"), referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries.
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The Dzungar-Qing War (1687-1758) was a decades-long series of conflicts that pitted the Dzungar Khanate against the Qing dynasty of China and their Mongolian vassals.
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Dzungaria (also spelled Zungharia) is a geographical region in northwest China corresponding to the northern half of Xinjiang, also known as Beijiang.
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East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
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The East Turkestan independence movement (ETIM) is a broad term that refers to advocates of an independent, self-governing East Turkestan in the region now known as Xinjiang, an autonomous region in the People's Republic of China.
The East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) (Arabic:حركة شرق تركستان الإسلامية), also known as the Turkistan Islamic Party (TIP) (Uyghur:تۈركىستان ئىسلام پارتىيىسى) Ḥizb al-Islāmī li-Turkistān (Arabic:الحزب الإسلامي لتركستان) or Ḥizb al-Islāmī al-Turkistānī (Arabic:الحزب الإسلامي التركستاني), Turkistan Islamic Movement (TIM), and other names, is an Islamic terrorist and separatist organization founded by Uyghur militants in western China.
The East Turkestan Liberation Organization (ETLO; East Turkistan Islamic Movement; Uyghur: شارقىي تۇركەستان ئازاتلىق تەشكىلاتى; ULY: Sharqiy Turkestan Azatliq Teshkilati; SHAT) was a secessionist Uyghur organization that advocates an independent state called "East Turkestan" in the Western Chinese territory known as Xinjiang.
Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.
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Ehmetjan Qasimi (15 April 1914–27 August 1949) was a Uyghur political leader in Xinjiang province of the Republic of China.
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Ella Maillart (or Ella K. Maillart; February 20, 1903, Geneva – March 27, 1997, Chandolin) was a French-speaking Swiss adventurer, travel writer and photographer, as well as a sportswoman.
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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.
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The ethnic groups in Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
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Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China.
Ethnogenesis (from Greek ethnos ἔθνος, "group of people, nation", and genesis γένεσις, "beginning, coming into being"; plural ethnogeneses) is a process in which a group of people acquire an ethnicity, that is, a group identity that identifies them as an ethnic group.
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Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
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An ethnonym (from the ἔθνος, éthnos, "nation" and ὄνομα, ónoma, "name") is the name applied to a given ethnic group.
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Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.
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A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry.
The First Eastern Turkestan Republic (ETR), or Islamic Republic of East Turkestan (TIRET) (شەرقىي تۈركىستان ئىسلام جۇمھۇرىيىتى), was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933.
Five races under one union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was originally founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.
The Forbidden City was the Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty—the years 1420 to 1912.
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The Fragrant Concubine (Uyghur: ئىپارخان / Iparxan / Ипархан) is a figure in Chinese legend who was taken as a consort by the Qianlong Emperor during the 18th century.
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In botany, a fruit is a part of a flowering plant that derives from specific tissues of the flower, one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues.
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Gansu is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
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Gaochang, also called Qara-hoja or Kara-Khoja (قاراغوجا in Uyghur), is the site of an ancient oasis city built on the northern rim of the inhospitable Taklamakan Desert in Xinjiang, China.
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Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
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Genghis Khan (often pronounced;; c. 1162 18 August 1227), born Temüjin, was the founder and Great Khan (emperor) of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his demise.
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George W. Hunter MBE (Chinese name: 胡进洁) (31 July 1862 - 20 December 1946) was a Scottish Protestant Christian missionary in China and Turkestan.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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Geese are waterfowl belonging to the tribe Anserini of the family Anatidae.
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Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence.
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Guazhou County, formerly (until 2006) Anxi County (安西县), is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China.
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Kumul (Kumul) or Hami is an oasis city and the seat of Hami Prefecture, eastern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China; it is also the name of a modern city and the surrounding district.
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Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers.
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Hotan(), also transliterated from Chinese as Hetian, is a major oasis town in southwestern Xinjiang, an autonomous region in western China.
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The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو/حواري, Dungan: Хуэйзў/Huejzw) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group in China.
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In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA.
Hunan (Hunanese, Shuangfeng dialect) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the south-central part of the country to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting (hence the name Hunan, which means "south of the lake").
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Ili or Yili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in northernmost Xinjiang is the only Kazakh autonomous prefecture of the People's Republic of China.
The Ili Rebellion or was a Soviet-backed revolt by the Second East Turkestan Republic against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China from 1944 to 1949.
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Ili Turki is a Turkic language spoken primarily in China.
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The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
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The Jadids were Muslim modernist reformers within the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century.
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Jimsar County (Xiao'erjing: کِمُوسَاعَر ﺷِﯿًﺎ) is a county in Changji Hui Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China.
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Jisr ash-Shugur (جسر الشغور,; also spelled Jisr al-Shughour) is a city in the Idlib Governorate in northwestern Syria.
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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
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The July 2009 Ürümqi riots were a series of violent riots over several days that broke out on 5 July 2009 in Ürümqi, the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), in northwestern People's Republic of China (PRC).
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The Kalmyk people (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Hal'mgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Khalimag) or Kalmyks are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
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Kara Del or Qara Del was a Mongol kingdom that existed in Hami in present-day Xinjiang.
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The Kara-Khanid Khanate (قَراخانيان, Qarākhānīyān or, Khakānīya,, 桃花石) was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.
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Yanqi (Wade–Giles Yen-ch’i; Sanskrit अग्निदेश Agnideśa), or Karasahr (also Karashar, meaning 'black city' in Uyghur languages), is an ancient town on the Silk Road and the capital of Yanqi Hui Autonomous County in the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, in northwestern China.
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Karim Qajymqanuly Massimov (Кәрім Қажымқанұлы Мәсімов; Кари́м Кажимка́нович Маси́мов; born 15 June 1965) United Press International is a Kazakh politician who has served as Prime Minister of Kazakhstan since 2 April 2014.
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The Karluk (Qarluk) Turkic, Uyghuric Turkic or Southeastern Common Turkic languages, also referred to as the Karluk languages, are one of the six major branches of the Turkic language family.
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The Karluks (also Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Old Turkic:, Qarluq, Persian: خَلُّخ (Khallokh), Arabic قارلوق "Qarluq") were a prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh (Black Irtysh) and the Tarbagatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia.
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Kashgar (known in Chinese as Kashi) is an oasis city with an approximate population of 350,000.
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Kashgar Prefecture or Kashi Prefecture officially Kaxgar Prefecture (also spelled Kashgar) is located in southwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
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Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.
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Kebab, (also kebap, kabob, kebob, kabab, or shish kebab) is a Middle Eastern, Eastern Mediterranean, and South Asian dish of pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables roasted or grilled on a skewer or spit originating in the Eastern Mediterranean,, 6-2-2011 (picture 2 of 7), Archaeology Magazine where it is mentioned by Homer,Homer,, on Perseus Digital Library or the Middle East, and later adopted in Central Asia and by the regions of the former Mongol Empire, before spreading worldwide.
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The Khalkha (Mongolian: Халх; Khalkh, Halh) is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century.
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The Khanate of Kokand (Qo'qon Xonligi, خانات خوقند) was a Central Asian state that existed from 1709–1876 within the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan, eastern Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and southeastern Kazakhstan.
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The script is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
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Khizr Khwaja Khan (also known as Khizr Khoja) was the son of Tughlugh Timur and Khan of Moghulistan.
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Khwāja or Khoja, (Қожа, خوجا), a Persian word literally meaning 'master', was used in Central Asia as a title of the descendants of the noted Central Asian Naqshbandi Sufi teacher, Ahmad Kasani (1461–1542) or others in the Naqshbandi intellectual lineage prior to Baha al-din Naqshband.
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The Kingdom of Khotan was an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
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The Kingdom of Qocho, (Mongolian Uihur "id.") also called the Idiqut state ("Holy Wealth, Glory"), was a Uyghur state created during 856–866 and based in Qocho (modern Gaochang, also called Qara-Khoja, near modern Turpan); Jimsar County; Hami City; and Kucha.
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Korla, Kurla, or Kuerle (ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠯ;; كورل, lit. Krorain) is a mid-sized city in central Xinjiang, and is, administratively, a county-level city and the seat of the Bayin'gholin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, which is larger than Great Britain and is the largest Chinese prefecture.
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Kucha or Kuche (also: Kuçar, Kuchar; كۇچار,; also romanized as Qiuzi, Qiuci, Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu from; Kucina) was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the northern edge of the Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin and south of the Muzat River.
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The Kumul Rebellion (Hāmì bàodòng, "Hami Uprising") was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Chinese Muslim Gen.
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The Kuomintang of China (or; KMT), or sometimes spelled as Guomindang (GMD) by its Pinyin transliteration, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC).
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The Kushan Empire (Κυϸανο, Kushano; कुषाण राजवंश Kuṣāṇ Rājavaṃśa; BHS:; 𐭊𐭅𐭔𐭍 𐭇𐭔𐭕𐭓 Kušan-xšaθr) was a syncretic Empire formed by Yuezhi in the Greco-Bactrian territories of the early 1st century.
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The Kutadgu Bilig, or Qutadğu Bilig (proposed Middle Turkic (Middle Uyghur):; Chinese: 福樂智慧), is a Karakhanid work from the 11th century written by an Turki author Yusūf Khāṣṣ Ḥājib of Balasagun for the prince of Kashgar.
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The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kyrghyz and Kirghiz), a Turkic people, live primarily in the Kyrgyz Republic.
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Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan; Киргизия or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Кыргызская Республика Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia.
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Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Байгал нуур, Baygal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Turkic, "the rich lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
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Lamb, hogget, and mutton (UK, India, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand and Australia) are terms for the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.
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Lamian is a type of Chinese noodle.
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Language Log is a collaborative language blog maintained by Mark Liberman, a phonetician at the University of Pennsylvania.
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This List of Uyghurs includes noted or famous members of the Turkic ethnic group who today live primarily in the north-western People's Republic of China.
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Lop, also known as Lopnor or Lopnur is a language spoken in Lop County in Xinjiang, China.
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Loulan, also called Krorän or Kroraina (Kroran), and known to Russian archaeologists as Krorayina, was an ancient kingdom based around an important oasis city along the Silk Road already known in the 2nd century BCE on the north-eastern edge of the Lop Desert.
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Ma Fuyuan was a Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
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Ma Zhancang was a Hui Chinese Muslim general of the 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army), who served under Generals Ma Zhongying and Ma Hushan.
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Madrasa (مدرسة,, pl. مدارس,, Medrese) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion).
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Mahmud ibn Hussayn ibn Muhammed al-Kashgari (محمود بن الحسين بن محمد الكاشغري - Maḥmūd ibnu 'l-Ḥussayn ibn Muḥammad al-Kāšġarī; Mahmûd bin Hüseyin bin Muhammed El Kaşgari, Kaşgarlı Mahmûd; مەھمۇد قەشقىرى) was an 11th-century Turkic scholar and lexicographer of Turkic languages from Kashgar.
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Maktab (مكتب) or Maktabeh (مكتبة) or Maktabkhaneh (مكتب، مکتبخانه) (other transliterations include makteb, mekteb, mektep, meqteb, maqtab), also called a Kuttab (الكتَّاب) “school” is an Arabic word meaning elementary schools.
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Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
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Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin e Māni) was a major religion that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes; 216–276 AD) in the Sasanian Empire.
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Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
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Maqāma (literally "assemblies") are an (originally) Arabic prosimetric literary genre of rhymed prose with intervals of poetry in which rhetorical extravagance is conspicuous.
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Masud Sabri (1886–1952), also known as Masʿūd Ṣabrī (مسعود صبري),, was a Uyghur political leader in Xinjiang and Governor of Xinjiang during the Ili Rebellion.
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A meshrep (pin;, lit. "harvest festival") is a traditional male Uyghur gathering that typically includes "poetry, music, dance, and conversation within a structural context".
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The Miao is an ethnic group recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
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The Miao Rebellions (Ming Dynasty) were a series of rebellions of the Miao and other aboriginal tribes of southern China.
The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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In early civilizations, people were educated informally: primarily save within the household.
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Moghulistan (Mughalistan, Moghul Khanate) (from the مغولستان), also called the Eastern Chagatai Khanate, was a Mongol breakaway khanate of the Chagatai Khanate and a historical geographic area north of the Tian Shan mountain range, on the border of Central Asia and East Asia.
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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
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Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.
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Muhammad Amin Bughra also Muḥammad Amīn Bughra (1901–1965) (محمد أمين بۇغرا), Муххамад Эмин Бугро, (sometimes known by his Turkish name Mehmet Emin Bugra) was a Turkic Muslim leader, who planned to set up an independent state, the First East Turkestan Republic.
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A Muqam is the melody type used in the music of East Turkistan, that is, a musical mode and set of melodic formulas used to guide improvisation and composition.
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A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other large permanent surface.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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Naan, nan or khamiri is a leavened, oven-baked flatbread by Bernard Clayton, Donnie Cameron found in the cuisines of West, Central and South Asia.
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Naqshbandi (naqshbandī; also written Naqshibandi, an-Naqshbandiyyah, Nakşibendi, or Naksibendi) is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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The New Book of Tang, generally translated as “New History of the Tang,” or “New Tang History,” is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
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The ruins of Niya, is an archaeological site located about north of modern Minfeng Town (also called Niya) on the southern edge of the Tarim Basin in modern-day Xinjiang, China.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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The Northern Wei, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535).
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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.
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Nowruz (نوروز,, meaning " New Day") is the name of the Iranian New Year.
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Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra (d. April 16, 1934) (نور احمد جان بۇغرا), was an Uighur Emir of the First East Turkestan Republic.
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Ohio University Press is a university press founded in 1947, a department of Ohio University.
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Oirats ("ойрд", Oird; in the past, also Eleuths) are the westernmost group of the Mongols whose ancestral home is in the Altai region of western Mongolia.
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The History of the Five Dynasties was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907-960), which controlled much of northern China.
The Old Turkic script (also known as variously Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk and other early Turkic Khanates during the 8th to 10th centuries to record the Old Turkic language.
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Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested form of Turkic, found in Göktürk and Uyghur inscriptions dating from about the 7th century to the 13th century.
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The olive or, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", (syn. Olea sylvestrishttp://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-355062) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in much of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion.
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Omar Akhun is a noted Uyghur composer and musical performer.
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The onion (Allium cepa L.) (Latin 'cepa'.
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Ordu-Baliqalso spelled Ordu Balykh, Ordu Balik, Ordu-Baliq, Ordu Balig, Ordu Baligh (meaning "city of the court", "city of the army"), also known as Mubalik and Karabalghasun, was the capital of the first Uyghur Khaganate, built on the site of the former Göktürk imperial capital, 17 km north-to-northeast of the later Mongol capital, Karakorum.
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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.
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Pamirdin is a type of pie, consumed within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
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Pan-Islamism (الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political movement advocating the unity of Muslims under one Islamic state – often a Caliphate – or an international organization similar to a European Union with Islamic principles.
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Pan-Turkism is a movement that emerged in the 1880s among the Turkic intellectuals of Azerbaijan (part of the Russian Empire at that time) and Ottoman Empire, with the aim of cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples.
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The People's Daily is a daily newspaper in China.
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Robert Peter Fleming, OBE (31 May 1907 – 18 August 1971) was a British adventurer and travel writer.
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A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.
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Pilaf, also known as pilav, pilau, pilafi, pulao, palaw, plov, polov, polo, and polu, is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.
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The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai, Хар Хятан; خانات قراختایی, 1124–1218), also known as the Western Liao or Kara Khitan Khanate, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
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The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.
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Quddus Khojamyarov (also transliterated as Kuddus Kuzhamyarov; Куддус Ходжамьярович Кужамьяров) (May 12, 1918— April 8, 1994) was an Uyghur Soviet composer from Kazakhstan.
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A raisin is a dried grape.
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Rebiya Kadeer (رابىيە قادىر) born 15 November 1946) is an ethnic Uyghur, businesswoman and activist. Born in China's Xinjiang region, Kadeer became a millionaire in the 1980s through her real estate holdings and ownership of a multinational conglomerate. Kadeer held various positions in China's parliament and other political institutions before being arrested in 1999 for sending confidential internal reference reports to her husband, who worked in the United States as a pro-Xinjiang independence broadcaster. After she was discharged to the United States in 2005 on compassionate release, Kadeer claimed various leadership titles from overseas Uyghur organizations such as the World Uyghur Congress. Kadeer speaks Uyghur and Mandarin Chinese.
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The Republic of China governed the present-day territories of China, Mongolia and Taiwan at differing times between 1912 and 1949.
Rock-cut architecture is the creation of structures, buildings, and sculptures, by excavating solid rock where it naturally occurs.
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Ruoqiang (Qarkilik) County (historically known as Charkliq, Chaqiliq, or Qakilik) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China under the administration of the Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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Sabit Damulla (沙比提大毛拉) (1883-1934) was a Uyghur independence movement leader who led the Khotan rebellion against the Xinjiang Province government of Jin Shuren, and later the Uyghur leader Hoja-Niyaz.
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Saifuddin Azizi (March 12, 1915 – November 24, 2003), also known as Seypidin Azizi, Saif al-Dīn ʿAzīz, Saifuding Aizezi, and Saifuding, was the first chairman of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
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The Saka (Old Persian: Sakā; New Persian/ساکا; Sanskrit: Śaka; Greek: Σάκαι; Latin: Sacae;; Old Chinese: *Sək) was the term used in Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eastern Iranian nomadic tribes on the Eurasian Steppe.
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(Eastern) Saka or Sakan is a variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China.
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The Salar people (Salır) are an ethnic minority of China who largely speak Salar, in the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages.
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A samosa or samoosa is a fried or baked pastry with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, macaroni, noodles and/or minced meat (lamb, beef or chicken).
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Sanam, or senem, also written as sainaimu in Chinese, is an ethnic music and dance widespread among the Uyghur people in the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang.
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Sangza (ساڭزا) is a popular snack in Xinjiang consisting of deep-fried noodles in a twisted pyramid shape.
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Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Second East Turkestan Republic, usually known as the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), was a short-lived Soviet-backed Turkic Communist people's republic.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
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Sheng Shicai (1897 – July 13, 1970, Taiwan) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang (Sinkiang) province from April 12, 1933 to August 29, 1944.
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The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.
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Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.
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The Sogdian language (Sogdian swγδyʼw) was an Eastern Iranian language spoken in the Central Asian region of Sogdia, located in modern-day Uzbekistan and Tajikistan (capital: Samarkand; other chief cities: Panjakent, Fergana, Khujand and Bukhara).
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Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.
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Strategic Insights is a monthly electronic journal produced by the Center for Contemporary Conflict at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California.
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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order.
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Sufism (تصوف, Ta'sawwuf), according to its adherents, is the inner mystical dimension of Islam.
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Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.
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Sven Anders Hedin, KNO1kl RVO,Wennerholm, Eric (1978) Sven Hedin - En biografi, Bonniers, Stockholm ISBN 978-9-10043-621-6 (19 February 1865 – 26 November 1952) was a Swedish geographer, topographer, explorer, photographer, travel writer, and illustrator of his own works.
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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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The Tang dynasty, was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
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Taoyuan County is under the administration of Changde, Hunan province, China.
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Taqsim (تَقْسِيم / ALA-LC: taqsīm; ταξίμι taksimi, taksim) is a melodic musical improvisation that usually precedes the performance of a traditional Arabic, Greek, Middle Eastern, or Turkish musical composition.
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Taranchi is a term denoting the Muslim sedentary population living in oases around the Tarim Basin in today's Xinjiang, whose native language is Turkic Karluk, and whose ancestral heritages include Iranian and Tocharian populations of Tarim and the later Turkic peoples such as the Uyghurs, Karluks, Yaghmas, Chigils, Basmyls and lastly, the Mongolic tribes of the Chagatai Khanate.
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The Tarim Basin is an endorheic basin in northwest China occupying an area of about.
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The Tarim mummies are a series of mummies discovered in the Tarim Basin in present-day Xinjiang, China, which date from 1800 BCE to the first centuries BCE.
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Tashkent (Toshkent, Тошкент, تاشکنت; Ташкент,; literally "Stone City") is the capital and largest city of Uzbekistan.
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Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia.
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The Ten Great Campaigns were a series of military campaigns launched by the Qing Empire of China in the mid–late 18th century during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735–96).
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Tengrism (sometimes spelled Tengriism), occasionally referred to as Tengrianism is a Central Asian religion characterized by features of shamanism, animism, totemism, both polytheism and monotheism,Michael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
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The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.
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The Tian Shan (Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, Tenğri tağ), is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.
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Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Buddhism in Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia, Buryatia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim).
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The Tiele, also named Chile, Gaoche, or Tele, were a confederation of nine Turkic peoples living to the north of China and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the Xiongnu confederacy.
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Tocharian, also spelled Tokharian, is an extinct branch of the Indo-European language family, known from manuscripts dating from the 6th to the 8th century AD found in oasis cities on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (now part of Xinjiang in northwest China).
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The Tocharians or Tokharians were inhabitants of medieval oasis city-states on the northern edge of the Tarim Basin (modern Xinjiang, China).
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Toqach or Tohax, (тоқаш, токоч, توغاچ) is a type of tandoor bread.
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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red berry-type fruit of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
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Toquz Oghuz (Old Turkic:, Toquz Oγuz) was a political alliance of nine Turkic tribes.
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Transoxiana (also spelled Transoxania), known in Arabic sources as Maa waraa' an-nahr ("what (is) beyond the (Oxus) river") and in Persian as "Fœrɑ:ru:dɑ:n" (فرارودان), is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan and southwest Kazakhstan.
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Tughlugh Timur Khan (also Tughluq Tömür or Tughluk Timur) (1329/30-1363) was the Khan of Moghulistan from c. 1347 and Khan of the whole Chagatai Khanate from c. 1360 until his death.
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Turdi Akhun (1881–1956), sometimes spelled Turdu Ahun, was a traditional Uyghur folk musician in the Xinjiang region.
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Turghun Almas (Uyghur:تۇرغۇن ئالماس, simplified Chinese: 吐尔洪•阿力马斯) (30 October 1924 - 11 September 2001) was an Uyghur historian and poet born in Kashgar.
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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.
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The Turki language is a Türkic literary language active from the 13th to the 19th centuries, used by different (predominantly but not exclusively) Türkic peoples.
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The Turkic Khanate (552-744; Old Turkic: Türk xanlïqï) or Göktürk Khanate was a khanate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia.
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The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are proposed to be part of the controversial Altaic language family.
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The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethnic groups that live in northern, eastern, central, and western Asia, northwestern China, and parts of eastern Europe.
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Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The Uyghur American Association (UAA) is a Washington-based advocacy organization.
The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet (or UEY) is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China.
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The Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet (cyr. Уйғур Сирил Йезиқи, lat. Uyghur Siril Yëziqi or USY) is a Cyrillic-derived alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in Kazakhstan and former CIS countries.
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The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate or Toquz Oghuz Country) (Уйгурын хаант улс, Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: or) was a Turkic empire that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries.
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Uyghur or Uighur (Uyghur tili, Uyghurche), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 8 to 11 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
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The Uyghur Latin alphabet (or ULY) is an auxiliary alphabet for the Uyghur language based on the Latin script.
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Uyghur Yëngi Yëziqi (abbr. UYY; lit. Uyghur New Script) or Uyƣur Yengi Yeziⱪi (lit. new script; lat;; sometimes falsely rendered as Yengi Yeziķ or Yengi Yezik̡), was a Latin alphabet, with both Uniform Turkic Alphabet and Pinyin influence, used for writing the Uyghur language during 1965~1982, primarily by Uyghurs living in China, although the use of Uyghur Ereb Yëziqi is much more widespread.
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This timeline is a supplement of the main article Uyghur.
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Beijing has a population of Uyghur people.
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Uzbek is a Turkic language and the official language of Uzbekistan.
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Uzbekistan, officially the Republic of Uzbekistan (Uzbek: Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi/Ўзбекистон Республикаси), is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia.
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The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek, pl. Oʻzbeklar) are the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.
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Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
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The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia or sometimes more specifically the easternmost portion of it (e.g. Altishahr or the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang), though it was sometimes used more generally to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent (as in the novel Journey to the West).
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The Western Xia, also known as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people and the Tibetans as Minyak,Stein (1972), pp.
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Wheat flour is a powder made from the grinding of wheat used for human consumption.
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The World Uyghur Congress (WUC) (lat) is an international organisation of exiled Uyghur groups that aspires to "represent the collective interest of the Uyghur people" both inside and outside of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
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Xinjiang (Shinjang), officially Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
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Xinjiang University (XJU) is one of the major universities in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China, and is a national key university.
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The Xiongnu (Old Chinese: /qʰoŋ.naː/, Wade-Giles: Hsiung-nu), were a large confederation of Eurasian nomads who dominated the Asian Steppe from the late 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.
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The Yagmas, or Yaghmas, were a medieval tribe of Turkic people that came to the forefront of history after the disintegration of the Western Turkic Kaganate.
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Yang Zengxin (Wade–Giles: Yang Tseng-hsin) (1867 – July 7, 1928), born in Mengzi, Honghe, Yunnan in 1859, was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.
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Muhammad Yaqub Bek (Tajiki: Яъқуб-бек) (182030 May 1877) was a Tajik adventurer who became head of the kingdom of Kashgaria.
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Shache (Yarkant) County or Yarkand County (lit. Cliff cityP. Lurje, “”, Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition) is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, located on the southern rim of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin.
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Yarkent Khanate was a state ruled by the Genghisid Chagatais whose subject population was majority Turkic in Central Asia.
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The Yenisei Kyrgyz, also known as the Khyagas or Khakas, were an ancient Turkic people that dwelled along the upper Yenisei River in the southern portion of the Minusinsk Depression from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
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The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Yenisey, Gorlog), also written as Yenisey, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
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Yining (Gulja / Qulja), also known as Ghulja (Kazakh: قۇلجا), and formerly Ili and Kulja, is a county-level city in northwestern Xinjiang, People's Republic of China, and the seat of the Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture.
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Youtazi ((yutaza) is a type of steamed multi-layer bread. It is eaten within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China.
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The Yuezhi or Rouzhi (Wade–Giles Yüeh-chih) were an ancient Indo-European people originally settled in an arid grassland area spanning the modern Chinese provinces of Xinjiang and Gansu.
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The Yugurs, or Yellow Uyghurs, as they are traditionally known, are one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census.
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Yusuf Khass Hajib (يوسف خاصّ حاجب;; يۈسۈپ خاس ھاجىپ; Жусуп Баласагын) was an 11th-century Turkic poet from the city of Balasaghun, the capital of the Karakhanid Empire in modern-day Kyrgyzstan.
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Zhangye is a prefecture-level city in northwest-central Gansu province, People's Republic of China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the north and Qinghai to the south.
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Zhetysu (Жетісу, pronounced meaning "seven rivers"; also transcribed Zhetisu, Jetisuw, Jetysu, Jeti-su, Jity-su, Жетысу, Джетысу, etc.) is a historical name of a part of Central Asia, corresponding to the South-Eastern part of modern Kazakhstan.
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Ziya Samedi (Зия Самеди) (1914-20 November 2000) was a Uyghur nationalist writer who held various Chinese government posts and then emigrated to Kazakhstan.
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Zordun Sabir (1937-13 August 1998) (Uyghur: زوردۇن سابىر) was a popular Uyghur author.
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Zuo Zongtang (pronounced; Courtesy name) (November 10, 1812 – September 5, 1885), spelled Tso Tsung-t'ang in Wade-Giles and known simply as General Tso in the West, was a Chinese statesman and military leader in the late Qing Dynasty.
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Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso was the fifth Dalai Lama: a key religious and temporal leader of Tibet who lived from 1617 to 1682.
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The uighurs, Ugyhur, Uigar, Uighars, Uigher, Uighers, Uighur, Uighur Turks, Uighur people, Uighurs, Uiguir, Uigur, Uigurs, Ujghurs, Urgoy, Uygher, Uyghers, Uyghur (people), Uyghur People, Uyghur Turk, Uyghur Turks, Uyghur flag, Uyghur people, Uyghur peoples, Uyghurs (redirects), Uygur, Uygurs, Weeger, Weegers, Weigers, Weiwur, Wigar, ئۇيغۇر, 維吾爾, 维吾尔, 维吾尔族.