Absolute magnitude is the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object.
The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
A carbon star is a late-type star similar to a red giant (or occasionally to a red dwarf) whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
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In modern astronomy, a constellation is a specific area of the celestial sphere as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
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Corona Borealis is a small constellation in the Northern Celestial Hemisphere.
The Henry Draper Catalogue (HD) is an astronomical star catalogue published between 1918 and 1924, giving spectroscopic classifications for 225,300 stars; it was later expanded by the Henry Draper Extension (HDE), published between 1925 and 1936, which gave classifications for 46,850 more stars, and by the Henry Draper Extension Charts (HDEC), published from 1937 to 1949 in the form of charts, which gave classifications for 86,933 more stars.
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time.
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Mira variables, named after the prototype star Mira, are a class of pulsating variable stars characterized by very red colours, pulsation periods longer than 100 days, and amplitudes greater than one magnitude in infrared and 2.5 magnitude at visual wavelengths.
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A variable star is a star whose brightness as seen from Earth (its apparent magnitude) fluctuates.
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