A carbon star is a late-type star similar to a red giant (or occasionally to a red dwarf) whose atmosphere contains more carbon than oxygen; the two elements combine in the upper layers of the star, forming carbon monoxide, which consumes all the oxygen in the atmosphere, leaving carbon atoms free to form other carbon compounds, giving the star a "sooty" atmosphere and a strikingly ruby red appearance.
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In modern astronomy, a constellation is a specific area of the celestial sphere as defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
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In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
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Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
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Hydra is the largest of the 88 constellations, measuring 1303 square degrees.
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