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Vanadium

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. [1]

210 relations: A15 phases, Alexander von Humboldt, Algae, Alkali, Alloy, Aluminium, Amanita muscaria, Amavadin, Ammonium metavanadate, Andrés Manuel del Río, Annalen der Physik, Anton Eduard van Arkel, Ascidiacea, Atomic number, Axle, Azotobacter, Bauxite, Beta decay, Biochemistry, Blood cell, Bodybuilding, Brittleness, Bromoform, Bromomethane, Bromoperoxidase, By-product, Calcium, Carnotite, Catalysis, Ceramic, Chemical compound, Chemical element, Chicken, China, Chloride, Chloride peroxidase, Chromate and dichromate, Chromium, Chromium hexacarbonyl, Chrysoberyl, Cladding (metalworking), Coal, Coelom, Contact process, Coordination complex, Corrosion, Corundum, Crankshaft, Crystal bar process, Damascus steel, ..., Dental implant, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diene, Diesel fuel, Dietary supplement, Ductility, Electron capture, Enzyme, Equilibrium constant, Ferroalloy, Flow battery, Ford Model T, Fossil fuel, Freyja, Friedrich Wöhler, Fusion power, Gabbro, Gauss (unit), George William Featherstonhaugh, Grid energy storage, Half-life, Halide, Hardnesses of the elements (data page), Heme, Henry Enfield Roscoe, High-speed steel, High-temperature corrosion, Hippolyte-Victor Collet-Descotils, Human biology, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Infrared, Inorganic anhydride, Insulin, Ion, Iron, Iron ore, Isoelectronicity, Isotope, Jan Hendrik de Boer, Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Jet engine, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Kelvin, Lead, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, List of names of Freyja, Lithium cobalt oxide, Lithium vanadium phosphate battery, Magnesium, Magnetite, Maleic anhydride, Mass number, Metal aquo complex, Metal carbonyl, Metal ions in aqueous solution, Mexico, Micronutrient, Mineral, Molybdenum, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neutron capture, Nils Gabriel Sefström, Niobium-tin, Niobium-titanium, Nitrogen fixation, Nitrogenase, Norse mythology, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Oil shale, Old Norse, Organobromine compound, Oxidation state, Oxidative stress, Oxide, Oxohalide, Oxyanion, Parkerizing, Passivation (chemistry), Patrónite, Peroxidase, Petroleum, Pierre Louis Dulong, Pig iron, Placebo, Pourbaix diagram, Powder metallurgy, Predation, Predominance diagram, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rat, Redox, Reproduction, Rockwell scale, Russia, Salt (chemistry), Slag, Sodium carbonate, Sodium chloride, Sodium decavanadate, Sodium metavanadate, Sodium orthovanadate, South Africa, Spin (physics), Star, Steel, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Sun, Superconductivity, Surgical instrument, Tar, Teratology, Tesla (unit), The Periodic Table of Videos, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titanium, Titanium alloy, Tonne, Tool, Toxin, Transition metal, Tunicate, Ultimate tensile strength, Ultramafic rock, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States Geological Survey, Uranium, Vacuole, Vanabins, Vanadate, Vanadinite, Vanadium bromoperoxidase, Vanadium carbide, Vanadium hexacarbonyl, Vanadium nitride, Vanadium nitrogenase, Vanadium oxytrichloride, Vanadium redox battery, Vanadium tetrachloride, Vanadium(II) chloride, Vanadium(III) iodide, Vanadium(IV) oxide, Vanadium(V) oxide, Vanadium-gallium, Vanadocene dichloride, Vanadyl acetylacetonate, Vanadyl ion, Vanadyl sulfate, Vanir, Wah Chang Corporation, Wootz steel, X-ray crystallography, Zinc. Expand index (160 more) »

A15 phases

The A15 phases (also known as β-W or Cr3Si structure types) are series of intermetallic compounds with the chemical formula A3B (where A is a transition metal and B can be any element) and a specific structure.

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Alexander von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt (14 September 1769 – 6 May 1859) was a Prussian geographer, naturalist, explorer, and influential proponent of romantic philosophy.

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Algae

Algae (or; singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of eukaryotes that are not necessarily closely related and are thus polyphyletic.

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Alkali

In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly القلي, القالي, “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Alloy

An alloy is a mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal and another element.

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Aluminium

Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Amanita muscaria

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the fly agaric or fly amanita, is a mushroom and psychoactive basidiomycete fungus, one of many in the genus Amanita.

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Amavadin

Amavadin is a vanadium-containing anion found in three species of poisonous Amanita mushrooms: A. muscaria, A. regalis, and A. velatipes.

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Ammonium metavanadate

Ammonium metavanadate, NH4VO3, is a yellow crystalline solid and a water-soluble inorganic acid that acts as an insulin mimic.

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Andrés Manuel del Río

Andrés Manuel del Río Fernández (10 November 1764 – 23 March 1849) was a Spanish–Mexican scientist and naturalist who discovered compounds of vanadium in 1801.

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Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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Anton Eduard van Arkel

Anton Eduard van Arkel, ('s-Gravenzande Netherlands, 19 November 1893 – Leiden, 14 March 1976) was a Dutch chemist.

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Ascidiacea

Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.

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Atomic number

In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.

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Axle

An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.

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Azotobacter

Azotobacter is a genus of usually motile, oval or spherical bacteria that form thick-walled cysts and may produce large quantities of capsular slime.

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Bauxite

Bauxite, an aluminium ore, is the world's main source of aluminium.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.

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Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a hematocyte, is a cell produced by hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood.

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Bodybuilding

Bodybuilding is the use of progressive resistance exercise to control and develop one's musculature.

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Brittleness

A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress, it breaks without significant deformation (strain).

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Bromoform

Bromoform (CHBr3) is a brominated organic solvent, pale yellow liquid at room temperature, with a high refractive index, very high density, and sweet odor is similar to that of chloroform.

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Bromomethane

Bromomethane, commonly known as methyl bromide, is an organobromine compound with formula CH3Br.

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Bromoperoxidase

Bromoperoxidases are enzymes that catalyse the bromination of hydrocarbons.

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By-product

A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Carnotite

Carnotite is a potassium uranium vanadate radioactive mineral with chemical formula: K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalyst.

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Ceramic

A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid material comprising metal, nonmetal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chemical compound

A chemical compound (or just compound if used in the context of chemistry) is an entity consisting of two or more different atoms which associate via chemical bonds.

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Chemical element

A chemical element (or element) is a chemical substance consisting of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (i.e. the same atomic number, Z).

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Chicken

The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chloride peroxidase

Chloride peroxidase is a family of enzymes that catalyzs the chlorination of organic compounds.

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Chromate and dichromate

Chromate salts contain the chromate anion, CrO42−.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Chromium hexacarbonyl

Chromium carbonyl, also known as chromium hexacarbonyl, is the chemical compound with the formula Cr(CO)6.

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Chrysoberyl

The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.

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Cladding (metalworking)

Cladding is the bonding together of dissimilar metals.

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Coal

Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coelom

The coelom (plural coeloms or coelomata) (Greek koilōma, hollow, cavity) refers to the main body cavity in most multicellular animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Contact process

The contact process is the current method of producing sulfuric acid in the high concentrations needed for industrial processes.

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Coordination complex

In chemistry, a coordination complex or metal complex consists of a central atom or ion, which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents.

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Corrosion

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts refined metal to their more stable oxide.

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Corundum

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.

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Crankshaft

A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.

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Crystal bar process

The crystal bar process (also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process) was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925.

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Damascus steel

Damascus steel was a type of steel used for manufacturing blades in the Near East made with wootz steel imported from India.

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Dental implant

A dental implant (also known as an endosseous implant or fixture) is a surgical component that interfaces with the bone of the jaw or skull to support a dental prosthesis such as a crown, bridge, denture, facial prosthesis or to act as an orthodontic anchor.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (formerly noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) in the context of insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin.

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Diene

In organic chemistry a diene or diolefin is a hydrocarbon that contains two carbon double bonds.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is intended to provide nutrients that may otherwise not be consumed in sufficient quantities.

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Ductility

In materials science, ductility is a solid material's ability to deform under tensile stress; this is often characterized by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Equilibrium constant

The equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction is the value of the reaction quotient when the reaction has reached equilibrium.

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Ferroalloy

Ferroalloy refers to various alloys of iron with a high proportion of one or more other elements such as manganese, aluminium, or silicon.

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Flow battery

A flow battery, or redox flow battery (after reduction–oxidation), is a type of rechargeable battery where rechargeability is provided by two chemical components dissolved in liquids contained within the system and separated by a membrane.

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Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Tin Lizzy, T‑Model Ford, Model T, or T) is an automobile that was produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.

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Fossil fuel

Fossil fuels are fuels formed by natural processes such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms.

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Freyja

In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sexuality, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death.

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Friedrich Wöhler

Friedrich Wöhler (31 July 1800 – 23 September 1882) was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.

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Fusion power

Fusion power is the generation of energy by nuclear fusion.

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Gabbro

Gabbro refers to a large group of dark, often phaneritic (coarse-grained), mafic intrusive igneous rocks chemically equivalent to plutonic basalt.

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Gauss (unit)

The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of a magnetic field B, which is also known as the "magnetic flux density" or the "magnetic induction".

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George William Featherstonhaugh

George William Featherstonhaugh FRS (London, 9 April 1780 – Le Havre, 28 September 1866) was a British-American geologist and geographer.

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Grid energy storage

Grid energy storage (also called large-scale energy storage) refers to the methods used to store electricity on a large scale within an electrical power grid.

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Half-life

Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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Halide

A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically ununseptide compound.

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Hardnesses of the elements (data page)

No description.

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Heme

Heme (American English) or haem (British English) is a cofactor consisting of an Fe2+ (ferrous) ion contained in the centre of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin, made up of four pyrrolic groups joined together by methine bridges.

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Henry Enfield Roscoe

Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (7 January 1833 – 18 December 1915) was an English chemist.

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High-speed steel

High-speed steel (HSS or HS) is a subset of tool steels, commonly used in tool bits and cutting tools.

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High-temperature corrosion

High-temperature corrosion is a mechanism of corrosion that takes place in gas turbines, diesel engines, furnaces or other machinery coming in contact with hot gas containing certain contaminants.

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Hippolyte-Victor Collet-Descotils

Hippolyte-Victor Collet-Descotils was a French chemist, born November 21, 1773 in Caen, and died December 6, 1815 in Paris.

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Human biology

Human biology is an interdisciplinary area of study that examines humans through the influences and interplay of many diverse fields such as genetics, evolution, physiology, epidemiology, ecology, nutrition, population genetics and sociocultural influences.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless, highly pungent solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Infrared

Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).

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Inorganic anhydride

An inorganic anhydride is a chemical compound that is related to another by the loss of the elements of water, H2O.

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Insulin

Insulin (from the Latin, insula meaning island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or a molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving the atom or molecule a net positive or negative electrical charge.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

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Isoelectronicity

Two or more molecular entities (atoms, molecules, or ions) are described as being isoelectronic with each other if they have the same number of electrons or a similar electron configuration and the same structure (number and connectivity of atoms), regardless of the nature of the elements involved.

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Isotope

Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number, although all isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom.

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Jan Hendrik de Boer

Jan Hendrik de Boer (19 March 1899 – 25 April 1971) was a Dutch physicist and chemist.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), by himself and the contemporary society named Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Jet engine

A jet engine is a reaction engine discharging a fast moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion in accordance with Newton's laws of motion.

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Journal of the American Chemical Society

The Journal of the American Chemical Society is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1879 by the American Chemical Society.

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Kelvin

The kelvin is a unit of measure for temperature based upon an absolute scale.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lewis acids and bases

Lewis acid is a chemical species that reacts with a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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List of names of Freyja

In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse the "Lady") is a goddess associated with love, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war and death.

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Lithium cobalt oxide

Lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) is a chemical compound commonly used in the positive electrodes of lithium-ion batteries.

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Lithium vanadium phosphate battery

A lithium vanadium phosphate (LVP) battery is a type of battery that utilizes lithium ions in the anode and vanadium phosphate in the cathode, with higher energy density than earlier lithium ion batteries.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetite

Magnetite is a mineral, one of the three common naturally occurring iron oxides (chemical formula Fe3O4) and a member of the spinel group.

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Maleic anhydride

Maleic anhydride is an organic compound with the formula C2H2(CO)2O.

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Mass number

The mass number (A), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus.

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Metal aquo complex

Metal aquo complexes are coordination compounds containing metal ions with only water as a ligand.

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Metal carbonyl

Metal carbonyls are coordination complexes of transition metals with carbon monoxide ligands.

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Metal ions in aqueous solution

A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.

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Mexico

Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Micronutrient

Micronutrients are nutrients required by humans and other organisms throughout life in small quantities to orchestrate a range of physiological functions.

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.

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Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the U.S. federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Neutron capture

Neutron capture is a nuclear reaction in which an atomic nucleus and one or more neutrons collide and merge to form a heavier nucleus.

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Nils Gabriel Sefström

Nils Gabriel Sefström (2 June 1787 – 30 November 1845) was a Swedish chemist.

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Niobium-tin

Niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) or triniobium-tin is a metallic chemical compound of niobium (Nb) and tin (Sn), used industrially as a type II superconductor.

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Niobium-titanium

Niobium-titanium (NbTi) is an alloy of niobium and titanium, used industrially as a type II superconductor wire for superconducting magnets, normally as Nb-Ti fibres in an aluminium or copper matrix.

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Nitrogen fixation

Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH4+) or nitrogen dioxide, for example.

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Nitrogenase

Nitrogenases are enzymes used by some organisms to fix atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2).

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Norse mythology

Norse mythology is the body of mythology of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.

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Nuclear isomer

A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, most commonly known as NMR spectroscopy, is a research technique that exploits the magnetic properties of certain atomic nuclei.

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Oil shale

Oil shale, also known as kerogen shale, is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales) can be produced.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.

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Organobromine compound

Organobromine compounds are organic compounds that contain carbon bonded to bromine.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, often called the oxidation number, is an indicator of the degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxohalide

Molecular oxohalides (oxyhalides) are a group of chemical compounds in which both oxygen and halogen atoms are attached to another chemical element A in a single molecule.

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Oxyanion

An oxyanion or oxoanion is an ion with the generic formula AxOyz− (where A represents a chemical element and O represents an oxygen atom).

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Parkerizing

Parkerizing, bonderizing, phosphating, or phosphatizing is a method of protecting a steel surface from corrosion and increasing its resistance to wear through the application of a chemical phosphate conversion coating.

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Passivation (chemistry)

Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, being less affected by environmental factors such as air and water.

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Patrónite

Patronite is the vanadium sulfide mineral with formula VS4.

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Peroxidase

Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.

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Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Pierre Louis Dulong

Pierre Louis Dulong (12 February 1785 – 19 July 1838) was a French physicist and chemist, remembered today largely for the law of Dulong and Petit.

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Pig iron

Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore.

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Placebo

A placebo (Latin placēbō, "I shall please" from placeō, "I please") is a simulated or otherwise medically ineffectual treatment for a disease or other medical condition intended to deceive the recipient.

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Pourbaix diagram

In chemistry, a Pourbaix diagram, also known as a potential/pH diagram, EH-pH diagram or a pE/pH diagram, maps out possible stable (equilibrium) phases of an aqueous electrochemical system.

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Powder metallurgy

Powder metallurgy (PM) is a term covering a wide range of ways in which materials or components are made from metal powders.

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Predation

In ecosystem predation is a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Predominance diagram

A predominance diagram purports to show the conditions of concentration and pH where a chemical species has the highest concentration in solutions in which there are multiple acid-base equilibria.

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Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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Radionuclide

A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Rat

Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents of the superfamily Muroidea.

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Redox

Redox reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between species.

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Reproduction

Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".

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Rockwell scale

The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on indentation hardness of a material.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that results from the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Slag

Slag is the glass-like co-product left over after a desired metal has been separated (i.e., smelted) from its raw ore.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals), Na2CO3, is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium decavanadate

Sodium decavanadate (Na6) is an inorganic compound.

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Sodium metavanadate

Sodium metavanadate is a yellow solid which is soluble in water.

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Sodium orthovanadate

Sodium orthovanadate is the chemical compound Na3VO4 and contains the tetrahedral VO43−.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Star

A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Steel

Steels are alloys of iron and other elements, primarily carbon, widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile strengths and low costs.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfur trioxide

Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling, sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a highly corrosive strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4 and molecular weight 98.079 g/mol.

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Sun

The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Surgical instrument

A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access for viewing it.

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Tar

Tar is a black mixture of hydrocarbons and free carbon obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation.

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Teratology

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is the SI derived unit of the strength of the magnetic field, commonly denoted as B. One tesla is equal to one weber per square metre, and it was named in 1960 in honour of Nikola Tesla.

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The Periodic Table of Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos is a series of videos on YouTube produced by Brady Haran, a former BBC video journalist, featuring Sir Martyn Poliakoff ("The Professor"), Peter Licence, Stephen Liddle, Debbie Kays, Neil Barnes, Sam Tang and others at the University of Nottingham.

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Timeline of chemical element discoveries

The discovery of the elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.

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Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Titanium alloy

Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.

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Tonne

The tonne (British and SI; or metric ton (in the United States) is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to.

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Tool

A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.

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Toxin

A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has two possible meanings.

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Tunicate

A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.

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Ultimate tensile strength

Ultimate tensile strength (UTS), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength, is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking.

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Ultramafic rock

Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes USEPA) is an agency of the U.S. federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Vanabins

Vanabins (also known as vanadium-associated proteins or vanadium chromagen) are a specific group of vanadium-binding metalloproteins.

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Vanadate

In chemistry, a vanadate is a compound containing an oxoanion of vanadium generally in its highest oxidation state of +5.

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Vanadinite

Vanadinite is a mineral belonging to the apatite group of phosphates, with the chemical formula Pb5(VO4)3Cl.

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Vanadium bromoperoxidase

Vanadium bromoperoxidase are a kind of haloperoxidase that is involved in the bromination of organic compounds associated with defense and pigmentation in seaweeds and marine algae.

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Vanadium carbide

Vanadium carbide is the inorganic compound with the formula VC.

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Vanadium hexacarbonyl

Vanadium hexacarbonyl is the inorganic compound with the formula V(CO)6.

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Vanadium nitride

Vanadium nitride, VN, is a chemical compound of vanadium and nitrogen.

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Vanadium nitrogenase

Vanadium nitrogenase is a key enzyme for nitrogen fixation found in nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and is used as an alternative to molybdenum nitrogenase when molybdenum is unavailable.

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Vanadium oxytrichloride

Vanadium oxytrichloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VOCl3.

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Vanadium redox battery

The vanadium redox (and redox flow) battery (VRB) is a type of rechargeable flow battery that employs vanadium ions in different oxidation states to store chemical potential energy.

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Vanadium tetrachloride

Vanadium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl4.

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Vanadium(II) chloride

Vanadium(II) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula VCl2, and is the most reduced vanadium chloride.

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Vanadium(III) iodide

Vanadium(III) iodide is the inorganic compound with the formula VI3.

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Vanadium(IV) oxide

Vanadium(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula VO2. It is a dark blue solid. Vanadium(IV) oxide is amphoteric, dissolving in non-oxidising acids to give the blue vanadyl ion, 2+ and in alkali to give the brown 2− ion, or at high pH 4−.

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Vanadium(V) oxide

Vanadium(V) oxide (vanadia) is the inorganic compound with the formula V2O5.

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Vanadium-gallium

Vanadium-gallium (V3Ga) a superconducting alloy of vanadium and gallium often used for the high field insert coils of superconducting electromagnets.

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Vanadocene dichloride

Vanadocene dichloride, dichloro bis(η5-cyclopentadienyl)vanadium(IV) is (η5-C5H5)2VCl2 (commonly abbreviated as Cp2VCl2).

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Vanadyl acetylacetonate

Vanadyl acetylacetonate is the chemical compound with the formula VO(C5H7O2)2.

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Vanadyl ion

The vanadyl or oxovanadium(IV) cation, 2+, is a blue-coloured vanadium oxocation at an oxidation state of 4+.

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Vanadyl sulfate

Vanadyl(IV) sulfate, VOSO4, is a well known inorganic compound of vanadium.

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Vanir

In Norse mythology, the Vanir (singular Vanr) are a group of gods associated with fertility, wisdom, nature, magic, and the ability to see the future.

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Wah Chang Corporation

Wah Chang Corporation is an American manufacturing company based in Albany, Oregon in the United States.

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Wootz steel

Wootz steel is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Zinc

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Element 23, Erythronium (element), Panchromium, V (element), Vanadium compounds, Vanadium steel.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vanadium

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