202 relations: Abstract expressionism, Académie française, Actes et Paroles, Adèle Hugo, Albert Camus, Alexandre Dumas, Alps, Amilcare Ponchielli, Angel, Angelo, Tyrant of Padua, Anti-clericalism, Arc de Triomphe, Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale, Avellino, Avenue Victor-Hugo (Paris), Édouard Lalo, Émile Zola, Étienne Carjat, Barnes & Noble, Benito Juárez, Berne Convention, Besançon, Bois de Boulogne, Brussels, Bug-Jargal, Camille Saint-Saëns, Cao Đài, Capital punishment, Capital punishment in France, Capital punishment in Portugal, Capital punishment in Switzerland, Carl Maria von Weber, Catholic Church, César Franck, Champs-Élysées, Charles Baudelaire, Charles Dickens, Charles Vacquerie, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Claude Gueux, Claudio Monteverdi, Colombia, Comédie-Française, Conversations with Eternity, Copyright, Cromwell (play), Crucifix, Deism, Delphine de Girardin, Dieu, ..., Dramaturgy, Ernani, Eugène Delacroix, Euryanthe, Exile, Faith in Christianity, François-René de Chateaubriand, François-Victor Hugo, Franc, Franche-Comté, Franco-Prussian War, Franz Liszt, Freedom of the press, Freethought, French coup d'état of 1851, French First Republic, French nationality law, French Revolution, French Revolution of 1848, French Third Republic, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Gabriel Fauré, Gaetano Donizetti, Georges Bizet, Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, Giuseppe Verdi, Goncourt brothers, Griffin, Guernsey, Guillaume Connesson, Gustave Flaubert, Harvard University Press, Hauteville House, Havana, Hector Berlioz, Hernani (drama), Hippolyte Taine, House of Bourbon, Hugoton, Kansas, Hurst and Blackett, Index Librorum Prohibitorum, Jakin (magazine), Jean Boucher (artist), Jersey, John Brown (abolitionist), Joxe Azurmendi, Jules Barbey d'Aurevilly, Jules Massenet, Jules Michelet, Juliette Drouet, Kuusankoski, L'Année terrible, L'Art d'être grand-père, La Esmeralda (opera), La Fin de Satan, La Gioconda (opera), La Légende des siècles, La Pitié suprême, Lapsed Catholic, Léopoldine Hugo, Le Pape, Le Rhin, Le roi s'amuse, Les Burgraves, Les Châtiments, Les Contemplations, Les Misérables, Les Misérables (musical), Les Orientales, Les Rayons et les Ombres, Les Voix intérieures, Library of Congress, Literary realism, Louis Philippe I, Louis XVIII of France, Louise Bertin, Lucrezia Borgia (opera), Lucrezia Borgia (play), Ludwig van Beethoven, Manufacture nationale de Sèvres, Marie Tudor, Marion Delorme (Hugo), Maximilian I of Mexico, Monarchism, Mosaic, Naples, Napoléon le Petit, Napoleon III, National Assembly (France), Naturalism (literature), Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm, Ninety-Three, Notre Dame de Paris, Notre-Dame de Paris (musical), Odes et Ballades, Old Summer Palace, Panthéon, Paris, Paris Métro, Peerage of France, Pen, Pneumonia, Poems of Victor Hugo, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rationalism, Reign of Terror, Religions et religion, Religious fanaticism, Republicanism, Richard Wagner, Rigoletto, Roberto Alagna, Romanticism, Royalist, Ruy Blas, Saint, Saint Peter Port, Séance, Self-governance, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Shawinigan, Siege of Paris (1870–71), Sigmund Freud, Social justice, Spiritism, Spiritualism, Sun Yat-sen, Surrealism, Tây Ninh, The History of a Crime, The Hunchback of Notre-Dame, The Last Day of a Condemned Man, The Man Who Laughs, The Story of Adele H., Thierry Escaich, Thomas Jefferson Building, Toilers of the Sea, Torquemada (play), Unconscious mind, University of Toronto Press, Van Gogh Museum, Vianden, Victor Hugo (Paris Métro), Victor Lahorie, Victor-Joseph Étienne de Jouy, Vincent van Gogh, Voltaire, West End of London, William Shakespeare (essay), Woodburytype, Yale University Press, 16th arrondissement of Paris. Expand index (152 more) » « Shrink index
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
The Académie française, known in English as the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
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Actes et Paroles (English: Deeds and Words) is a book by Victor Hugo, that recounts his life story and his dreams of the future.
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Adèle Hugo (28 July 1830 - 21 April 1915) was the fifth and youngest child of French writer Victor Hugo.
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Albert Camus (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960) was a French Nobel Prize–winning author, journalist, and philosopher.
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Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père, was a French writer.
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The Alps (Alpi; Alpes; Alpen; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe, stretching approximately across eight Alpine countries: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Slovenia, and Switzerland.
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Amilcare Ponchielli (31 August 1834 – 16 January 1886) was an Italian composer, mainly of operas.
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An angel is a supernatural being or spirit found in various religions and mythologies.
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Angelo, Tyrant of Padua (Angelo, tyran de Padoue) is an 1835 play by the French writer Victor Hugo.
Anti-clericalism refers to historical movements that oppose the clergy for reasons including their actual or alleged power and influence in all aspects of public and political life and their involvement in the everyday life of the citizen, their privileges, or their enforcement of orthodoxy.
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The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile (Triumphal Arch of the Star) is one of the most famous monuments in Paris.
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The Association Littéraire et Artistique Internationale (ALAI) was founded in 1878 in Paris.
Avellino is a town and comune, capital of the province of Avellino in the Campania region of southern Italy.
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Avenue Victor-Hugo is an avenue in the 16th arrondissement of Paris.
Édouard-Victoire-Antoine Lalo (27 January 182322 April 1892) was a French composer.
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Émile Édouard Charles Antoine ZolaLarousse, (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was a French novelist, playwright, journalist, the most well-known practitioner of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism.
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Étienne Carjat (28 March 1828 in Fareins, Ain – 19 March 1906 in Paris), was a French journalist, caricaturist and photographer.
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Barnes & Noble, Inc., is a Fortune 500 company, the largest retail bookseller in the United States, and a leading retailer of content, digital media and educational products in the country.
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Benito Pablo Juárez García, (21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and politician of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca who served as the president of Mexico for five terms: 1858–1861 as interim, then 1861–1865, 1865–1867, 1867–1871 and 1871–1872 as constitutional president.
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The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, usually known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, which was first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886.
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Besançon (French and Arpitan:; archaic Bisanz, Vesontio) is the capital and principal city of the Franche-Comté region in eastern France.
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The Bois de Boulogne is a large public park located along the western edge of the 16th arrondissement of Paris, near the suburb of Boulogne-Billancourt and Neuilly-sur-Seine It was created between 1852 and 1858 during the reign of the Emperor Louis Napoleon.
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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the city of Brussels which de jure is the capital of Belgium, the French Community of Belgium, and the Flemish Community.
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Bug-Jargal is a novel by the French writer Victor Hugo.
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Charles-Camille Saint-Saëns (9 October 183516 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor and pianist of the Romantic era.
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Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
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Capital punishment, death penalty or execution is punishment by death.
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Capital punishment was practiced in France from the Middle Ages until 1977, when the last execution took place by guillotine, being the only legal method since the French Revolution (with the exception of firing squad for crimes against the safety of the state).
Capital punishment has been abolished in Portugal, as in every other member state of the European Union.
Capital punishment is forbidden in Switzerland by article 10, paragraph 1 of the Swiss Federal Constitution.
Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (18 or 19 November 1786 5 June 1826) was a German composer, conductor, pianist, guitarist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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César-Auguste-Jean-Guillaume-Hubert Franck (10 December 1822 – 8 November 1890) was a composer, pianist, organist, and music teacher who worked in Paris during his adult life.
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The Avenue des Champs-Élysées is a boulevard in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, long and wide, which runs between the Place de la Concorde and the Place Charles de Gaulle, where the Arc de Triomphe is located.
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Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
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Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
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Charles Vacquerie (12 April 1817, Nantes - 4 September 1843, Villequier) was a notable figure in the circle of Victor Hugo, his father-in-law.
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Christoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck (2 July 1714 – 15 November 1787) was a composer of Italian and French opera in the early classical period.
Claude Gueux was a short story written by Victor Hugo in 1834.
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Claudio Giovanni Antonio Monteverdi (15 May 1567 (baptized) – 29 November 1643) was an Italian composer, gambist, singer and Roman Catholic priest.
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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.
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The Comédie-Française or Théâtre-Français is one of the few state theatres in France.
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Conversations with Eternity is a book by John Chambers, published from a series of notes by Victor Hugo.
Copyright is a legal right created by the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for its use and distribution.
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Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo, written in 1827.
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A crucifix (from Latin cruci fixus meaning "(one) fixed to a cross") is an image of Jesus on the cross, as distinct from a bare cross.
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Deism, derived from the Latin word "Deus" meaning "God", is a theological/philosophical position that combines the rejection of revelation and authority as a source of religious knowledge with the conclusion that reason and observation of the natural world are sufficient to determine the existence of a single creator of the universe.
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Delphine de Girardin (24 January 1804 – 29 June 1855), pen name Vicomte Delaunay, was a French author.
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Dieu ("God", 1891) is a long religious epic by Victor Hugo, parts of which were written between 1855 and 1862.
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Dramaturgy is the study of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage.
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Ernani is an operatic dramma lirico in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave, based on the play Hernani by Victor Hugo.
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Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
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Euryanthe is a German "grand, heroic, romantic" opera by Carl Maria von Weber, first performed at the Theater am Kärntnertor, Vienna on 25 October 1823.
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Exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return and/or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.
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Faith in Christianity is a central notion taught by Jesus himself in reference to the Good News.
François-René, Vicomte de Chateaubriand (September 4, 1768 in Saint-Malo - July 4, 1848 in Paris) was a French writer, politician, diplomat, and historian, who is considered the founder of Romanticism in French literature.
François-Victor Hugo (28 October 1828 – 26 December 1873) was the fourth of five children of French novelist Victor Hugo and his wife Adèle Foucher.
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The franc (₣) is the name of several currency units.
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Franche-Comté (literally "Free County", Frainc-Comtou dialect: Fraintche-Comtè; Franche-Comtât) is an administrative region and a traditional province of eastern France.
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The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
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Franz Liszt (Hungarian Liszt Ferencz, in modern usage Liszt Ferenc;Liszt's Hungarian passport spelt his given name as "Ferencz". An orthographic reform of the Hungarian language in 1922 (which was 36 years after Liszt's death) changed the letter "cz" to simply "c" in all words except surnames; this has led to Liszt's given name being rendered in modern Hungarian usage as "Ferenc". From 1859 to 1867 he was officially Franz Ritter von Liszt; he was created a Ritter (knight) by Emperor Francis Joseph I in 1859, but never used this title of nobility in public. The title was necessary to marry the Princess Carolyne zu Sayn-Wittgenstein without her losing her privileges, but after the marriage fell through, Liszt transferred the title to his uncle Eduard in 1867. Eduard's son was Franz von Liszt. (October 22, 1811July 31, 1886) was a 19th-century Hungarian composer, virtuoso pianist, conductor, teacher and Franciscan tertiary. Liszt gained renown in Europe during the early nineteenth century for his virtuosic skill as a pianist. He was said by his contemporaries to have been the most technically advanced pianist of his age, and in the 1840s he was considered to be the greatest pianist of all time. Liszt was also a well-known and influential composer, piano teacher and conductor. He was a benefactor to other composers, including Richard Wagner, Hector Berlioz, Camille Saint-Saëns, Edvard Grieg and Alexander Borodin. As a composer, Liszt was one of the most prominent representatives of the New German School (Neudeutsche Schule). He left behind an extensive and diverse body of work in which he influenced his forward-looking contemporaries and anticipated some 20th-century ideas and trends. Some of his most notable contributions were the invention of the symphonic poem, developing the concept of thematic transformation as part of his experiments in musical form, and making radical departures in harmony. He also played an important role in popularizing a wide array of music by transcribing it for piano.
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Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials.
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Freethought (also formatted free thought) is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas.
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The French coup d'état of 2 December 1851 was a self-coup staged by Prince Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (at the time President of the French Second Republic).
In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
French nationality law is historically based on the principles of jus soli (Latin for "right of soil"), according to Ernest Renan's definition, in opposition to the German definition of nationality, Jus sanguinis (Latin for "right of blood"), formalized by Johann Gottlieb Fichte.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
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The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (a; 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881), sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.
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Gabriel Urbain Fauré (12 May 1845 – 4 November 1924) was a French composer, organist, pianist and teacher.
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Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer.
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Georges Bizet (25 October 18383 June 1875), registered at birth as Alexandre César Léopold Bizet, was a French composer of the romantic era.
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Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (c. 1525 – 2 February 1594) was an Italian Renaissance composer of sacred music and the best-known 16th-century representative of the Roman School of musical composition.
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian composer of operas.
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The Goncourt brothers were Edmond de Goncourt (1822–96) and Jules de Goncourt (1830–70), both French naturalism writers who as collaborative sibling authors, were inseparable in life.
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The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and an eagle's talons as its front feet.
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Guernsey (/ˈgɜ:nzi/), officially the Bailiwick of Guernsey (Bailliage de Guernesey), is a possession of the British Crown in right of Guernsey in the English Channel, off the coast of Normandy.
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Guillaume Connesson is a French composer born in 1970 in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
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Gustave Flaubert (12 December 1821 – 8 May 1880) was an influential French novelist who was perhaps the leading exponent of literary realism of his country.
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Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hauteville House is a house where Victor Hugo lived during his exile from France, located at 38 Rue Hauteville in St. Peter Port in Guernsey.
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Havana (Spanish: La Habana) is the capital city, largest city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba.
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Hector Berlioz (11 December 1803 – 8 March 1869) was a French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande messe des morts (Requiem).
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Hernani (Full title: Hernani, ou l'Honneur Castillan) is a drama by the French romantic author Victor Hugo.
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Hippolyte Adolphe Taine (21 April 1828 – 5 March 1893) was a French critic and historian.
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The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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Hugoton is a city in and the county seat of Stevens County, Kansas, United States.
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Hurst and Blackett was a publisher founded in 1852 by Henry Blackett (May 26, 1825 - March 7, 1871), the grandson of a London shipbuilder, and Daniel William Stow Hurst (February 17, 1802 - July 6, 1870).
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The Index Librorum Prohibitorum (List of Prohibited Books) was a list of publications deemed heretical, anti-clerical or lascivious, and therefore banned by the Catholic Church.
Jakin is a Basque cultural group, magazine, and publishing house.
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Jean Boucher (November 20, 1870, Cesson-Sévigné, Ille-et-Vilaine – June 17, 1939, Paris) was a French sculptor based in Brittany.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a possession of the Crown in right of Jersey, off the coast of Normandy, France.
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John Brown (May 9, 1800December 2, 1859) was a white American abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.
Joxe Azurmendi Otaegi (born 19 March 1941) is a Basque writer, philosopher, essayist and poet.
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Jules-Amédée Barbey d'Aurevilly (2 November 1808 – 23 April 1889) was a French novelist and short story writer.
Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (12 May 184213 August 1912) was a French composer best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty.
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Jules Michelet (21 August 1798 – 9 February 1874) was a French historian.
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Juliette Drouet, born Julienne Josephine Gauvain (10 April 1806 - 11 May 1883) was a French actress.
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Kuusankoski is a neighborhood of city of Kouvola, former industrial town and municipality of Finland, located in the region of Kymenlaakso in the province of Southern Finland.
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L'Année terrible is a series of poems written by Victor Hugo and published in 1872.
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L'Art d'être grand-père ("The Art of Being a Grandfather") is a substantial book of poems by Victor Hugo, published in 1877.
La Esmeralda is a grand opera in four acts composed by Louise Bertin.
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La Fin de Satan ("The End of Satan", 1886) is a long religious epic by Victor Hugo, of which 5700 lines were written between 1854 and 1862, but left unfinished and published after his death.
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La Gioconda is an opera in four acts by Amilcare Ponchielli set to an Italian libretto by Arrigo Boito (as Tobia Gorrio), based on Angelo, Tyrant of Padua, a play in prose by Victor Hugo, dating from 1835.
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La Légende des siècles (The Legend of the Ages) is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, conceived as an immense depiction of the history and evolution of humanity.
La Pitié suprême ("The Supreme Compassion") is a long poem in fifteen sections, by Victor Hugo, published in February 1879 but in fact written in 1857-8.
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A lapsed Catholic is a baptised Catholic who is non-practising.
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Léopoldine Hugo (Léopoldine Cécile Marie-Pierre Catherine Hugo; 28 August 1824 – 4 September 1843) was the eldest daughter of novelist, poet and dramatist Victor Hugo and his wife, Adèle Foucher.
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Le Pape ("The Pope") was a political tract in verse by Victor Hugo, supporting Christianity but attacking the rigid organization of the Catholic Church.
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Le Rhin is a 1842 travel guide written by Victor Hugo.
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Le roi s'amuse (literally, The King Amuses Himself or The King Has Fun is a French play in five acts written by Victor Hugo. First performed on 22 November 1832 but banned by the government after one evening, the play was used for Verdi's 1851 opera Rigoletto.
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Les Burgraves is a historical play by Victor Hugo, first performed by the Comédie-Française on 7 May 1843.
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Les Châtiments ("Castigations") is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo that fiercely attack the grandeur of Napoléon III's Second Empire.
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Les Contemplations (The Contemplations) is a collection of poetry by Victor Hugo, published in 1856.
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Les Misérables (pronounced or) is a French historical novel by Victor Hugo, first published in 1862, that is considered one of the greatest novels of the 19th century.
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Les Misérables (pronounced), colloquially known in Anglo-Saxon countries as Les Mis or Les Miz, is a sung-through musical based on the novel Les Misérables by French poet and novelist Victor Hugo.
Les Orientales is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo, inspired by the Greek War of Independence.
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Les Rayons et les Ombres ("Beams and shadows", 1840) is a collection of forty-four poems by Victor Hugo, the last collection to be published before his exile, and containing most of his poems from between 1837 and 1840.
Les Voix intérieures is a collection of poems by Victor Hugo published in 1837.
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The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.
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Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
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Louis Philippe I (6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850) was King of the French from 1830 to 1848 as the leader of the Orléanist party.
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Louis XVIII (Louis Stanislas Xavier; 17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824), known as "the Desired" (le Désiré), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824 except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days.
Louise-Angélique Bertin (Les Roches, Essonne, 15 January 1805Paris, 26 April 1877) was a French composer and poet.
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Lucrezia Borgia is a melodramatic opera in a prologue and two acts by Gaetano Donizetti.
Lucrezia Borgia (Lucrèce Borgia) is an 1833 play by the French writer Victor Hugo.
Ludwig van Beethoven (baptised 17 December 177026 March 1827) was a German composer and pianist.
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The manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a porcelain factory in Sèvres, France.
Marie Tudor is an 1833 play by the French writer Victor Hugo.
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Marion Delorme is a play in five acts by Victor Hugo that was written in 1828.
Maximilian (Spanish: Maximiliano; born Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
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Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
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Naples (Napoli, Neapolitan: nNapule; Neapolis; Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy, after Rome and Milan.
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Napoléon le Petit (literally, "Napoleon the Little") was an influential political pamphlet by Victor Hugo which condemned the reign of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.
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Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the only President (1848–52) of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor (1852–70) of the Second French Empire.
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The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic.
Naturalism was a literary movement or tendency from the 1880s to 1930s that used detailed realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had inescapable force in shaping human character.
Nguyễn Bỉnh Khiêm (阮秉謙; 1491 – 1585) was a Vietnamese administrator, educator, poet, sage and later a saint of the Cao Dai religion.
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Ninety-Three (Quatrevingt-treize) is the last novel by the French writer Victor Hugo.
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Notre-Dame de Paris ((French); French for "Our Lady of Paris"), also known as Notre-Dame Cathedral or simply Notre-Dame, is a historic Catholic cathedral on the eastern half of the Île de la Cité in the fourth arrondissement of Paris, France.
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Notre-Dame de Paris is a sung-through French and Québécois musical which debuted on 16 September 1998 in Paris.
Odes et Ballades, published in 1828, is the most complete version of a collection of poems by Victor Hugo written and published between 1822 and 1828.
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The Old Summer Palace, known in Chinese as Yuanmingyuan (lit. "Gardens of Perfect Brightness"), and originally called the Imperial Gardens, was a complex of palaces and gardens in Beijing.
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The Panthéon (Pantheon, from Greek Πάνθεον meaning "Every god") is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris.
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Paris (UK:; US:; French) is the capital and most-populous city of France.
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The Paris Métro or Métropolitain (Métro de Paris) is a rapid transit system in the Paris Metropolitan Area.
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The Peerage of France (Pairie de France) was a hereditary distinction within the French nobility which appeared in 1180 in the Middle Ages, and only a small number of noble individuals were peers.
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A pen (Latin: penna, feather) is a writing implement used to apply ink to a surface, such as paper, for writing or drawing.
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.
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The poems of Victor Hugo captured the spirit of the Romantic era.
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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
In epistemology, rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
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The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794), also known as The Terror (la Terreur), was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between two rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution".
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Religions et religion was an 1880 political tract by Victor Hugo supporting belief in God but attacking organized religion.
Religious fanaticism is uncritical zeal or with an obsessive enthusiasm related to one's own, or one's group's, devotion to a religion – a form of human fanaticism which could otherwise be expressed in one's other involvements and participation, including employment, role, and partisan affinities.
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Republicanism is one possible ideology of governing a society or state as a republic.
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Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is primarily known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
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Rigoletto is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi.
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Roberto Alagna (born 7 June 1963) is a French tenor.
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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.
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Ruy Blas is a tragic drama by Victor Hugo.
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A saint is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness, or likeness to God.
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Saint Peter Port is the capital of Guernsey as well as the main port.
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A séance or seance is an attempt to communicate with spirits.
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Self-governance, or Autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
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Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: Серге́й Васи́льевич Рахма́нинов;; – 28 March 1943), was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor.
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Shawinigan is a city located on the Saint-Maurice River in the Mauricie area in Quebec, Canada.
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The Siege of Paris, lasting from 19 September 1870 to 28 January 1871, and the consequent capture of the city by Prussian forces, led to French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War and the establishment of the German Empire as well as the Paris Commune.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist, now known as the father of psychoanalysis.
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Social justice is "justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within a society".
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Spiritism is a spiritualistic doctrine codified in the 19th century by the French educator Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, under the codename Allan Kardec, later called the Kardecist Spiritualism Doctrine, it proposed the study of "the nature, origin, and destiny of spirits, and their relation with the corporeal world".
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Spiritualism is a belief that spirits of the dead have both the ability and the inclination to communicate with the living.
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Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
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Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
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Tây Ninh, Vietnam is a provincial city in southwestern Vietnam.
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The History of a Crime (Histoire d'un crime, 1877) is an essay by Victor Hugo about Napoleon III's takeover of France.
The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris) is a French Romantic/Gothic novel by Victor Hugo published in 1831.
The Last Day of a Condemned Man (Le Dernier Jour d'un Condamné) is a short novel by Victor Hugo first published in 1829.
The Man Who Laughs (also published under the title By Order of the King) is a novel by Victor Hugo, originally published in April 1869 under the French title L'Homme qui rit.
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The Story of Adele H. (L'Histoire d'Adèle H.) is a 1975 French historical drama film directed by François Truffaut and starring Isabelle Adjani, Bruce Robinson, and Sylvia Marriott.
Thierry Escaich, born 8 May 1965 in Nogent-sur-Marne, is a French organist and composer.
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The oldest of the three United States Library of Congress buildings, the Thomas Jefferson Building was built between 1890 and 1897.
Toilers of the Sea (Les Travailleurs de la mer) is a novel by Victor Hugo published in 1866.
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Torquemada is an 1869 play by Victor Hugo about Tomás de Torquemada and the Inquisition in Spain.
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The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind that occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memory, affect, and motivation.
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University of Toronto Press (UTP) is Canada's leading scholarly publisher and one of the largest university presses in North America.
The Van Gogh Museum is an art museum in Amsterdam in the Netherlands dedicated to the works of Vincent van Gogh and his contemporaries.
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Vianden (Veianen) is a commune with city status in the Oesling, north-eastern Luxembourg, with over 1,800 inhabitants.
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Victor Hugo is a station on Paris Métro Line 2.
Victor Claude Alexandre Fanneau de Lahorie (Javron-les-Chapelles; 5 January 1766 - Paris; 29 October 1812) was a French general, conspirator against Napoleon, and godfather of Victor Hugo.
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Victor-Joseph Étienne called de Jouy (19 October 1764 – 4 September 1846), French dramatist, who abandoned an early military career for a successful literary one.
Vincent Willem van Gogh (The pronunciation of "Van Gogh" varies in both English and Dutch. Especially in British English it is or sometimes. U.S. dictionaries list, with a silent gh, as the most common pronunciation. In the dialect of Holland, it is, with a voiceless V. He grew up in Brabant (although his parents were not born there), and used Brabant dialect in his writing; it is therefore likely that he himself pronounced his name with a Brabant accent:, with a voiced V and palatalized G and gh. In France, where much of his work was produced, it is 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Post-Impressionist painter.
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François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
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The West End of London (more commonly referred to as simply the West End) is an area of Central London containing many of the city's major tourist attractions, shops, businesses, government buildings and entertainment venues (including the commercial:West End theatres).
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William Shakespeare is an 1864 work by Victor Hugo, written in his 13th year of exile.
The term Woodburytype refers to both a photomechanical process and the print produced by this process.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
The 16th arrondissement of Paris (also known as "Arrondissement de Passy") is one of the 20 arrondissements (administrative districts) of Paris, the capital city of France.