752 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Abertay University, Acts of the Apostles, Adam Weisweiler, Adolf Loos, Adriaen Brouwer, Adriaen de Vries, Aeschylus, Aestheticism, Agostino Busti, Agostino Carlini, Agostino di Duccio, Agra, AL A, Albert Memorial, Albert, Prince Consort, Albertopolis, Albrecht Dürer, Aldwych tube station, Alessandro Algardi, Alessandro Vittoria, Alexander Cooper, Alexander Dyce, Alexandra of Denmark, Alfred Drury, Alfred Gilbert, Alfred Stevens (sculptor), Alfred Waterhouse, Alhambra, Alick Horsnell, Alonso Berruguete, Alphonse Legros, Ancient Egypt, Ando Cloisonné Company, André Charles Boulle, Andrea Brustolon, Andrea del Verrocchio, Andrea della Robbia, Andrea Palladio, Andrea Riccio, Angelica Kauffman, Anglicanism, Anglo-Saxons, Anthony van Dyck, Anton Raphael Mengs, Antonio Calcagni, Antonio Canova, Antonio Corradini, Antonio Lombardo (sculptor), Antonio Rossellino, ..., Antonio Stradivari, Antonio Verrio, Antonio Visentini, Antwerp City Hall, Apsley House, Architectural drawing, Ardabil Carpet, Aristotle, Art Nouveau, Arts and Crafts movement, Aston Webb, Aubrey Beardsley, Audrey Hepburn, Auguste Rodin, Augustus Pugin, Automaton, Émile Gallé, İznik, Baillie Scott, Baltimore Museum of Art, Baroque, Bartolomeo Ammannati, Bartolomeo Bellano, Bartolomeo Bon, Bashaw (Matthew Cotes Wyatt), Basilica of St Denis, Beatrix Potter, Beauvais tapestry, Becket Casket, Benjamin Brecknell Turner, Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy, Benjamin West, Benvenuto Cellini, Bernard Leach, Bernard Palissy, Bernardino Fungai, Bernardo Buontalenti, Bess of Hardwick, Bethnal Green, Bill Brandt, Bishopsgate, Blackpool, Blythe House, Board of Trade, Bohemian glass, Bologna, Book of hours, Brian Clarke (artist), Brick, Britain Can Make It, British Museum, Brompton, London, Bruges, Brussels tapestry, Bryan Davies, Baron Davies of Oldham, Buddhism, Burghley Nef, Bust of Thomas Baker, Byzantine Empire, Cairo, Caius Gabriel Cibber, Calligraphy, Canaletto, Canterbury, Carlo Crivelli, 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's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc) is a city and municipality in the southern Netherlands.
Abertay University, is one of two public universities in the city of Dundee, Scotland.
The Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Āctūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman empire.
Adam Weisweiler (c.1750 — after 1810) was a pre-eminent French master cabinetmaker (ébéniste) in the Louis XVI period, working in Paris.
Adolf Franz Karl Viktor Maria Loos (10 December 1870 – 23 August 1933) was an Austrian and Czechoslovak architect and influential European theorist of Modern architecture.
Adriaen Brouwer (1605 – January 1638) was a Flemish genre painter active in Flanders and the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century.
Adriaen de Vries (c.1556–1626) was a Northern Mannerist sculptor born in the Netherlands, whose international style crossed the threshold to the Baroque; he excelled in refined modelling and bronze casting and in the manipulation of patina and became the most famous European sculptor of his generation.
Aeschylus (or; Αἰσχύλος Aiskhulos;; c. 525/524 – c. 456/455 BC) was an ancient Greek tragedian.
Aestheticism (also the Aesthetic Movement) is an art movement supporting the emphasis of aesthetic values more than social-political themes for literature, fine art, music and other arts.
Agostino Busti (or Bambaia) (c. 1483 – 11 June 1548) was a High Renaissance Italian sculptor.
Augostino Carlini or Agostino Carlini RA (1718? - 15 August 1790) was an Italian sculptor and painter, who was born in Genoa but settled in England.
Agostino di Duccio (1418 &ndash) was an early Renaissance Italian sculptor.
Agra (Āgrā) is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, Northwestern India.
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AL_A, formerly known as Amanda Levete Architects, is a London-based practice formed in 2009 by award-winning architect Amanda Levete.
New!!: Victoria and Albert Museum and AL A ·
The Albert Memorial is situated in Kensington Gardens, London, directly to the north of the Royal Albert Hall.
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; later The Prince Consort; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband of Queen Victoria.
Albertopolis is the area centred on Exhibition Road in London, England, named after Prince Albert, spouse of Queen Victoria.
Albrecht Dürer (21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528)Müller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers, Walter de Gruyter.
Aldwych is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in Central London.
Alessandro Algardi (31 July 1598 – 10 June 1654) was an Italian high-Baroque sculptor active almost exclusively in Rome, where for the latter decades of his life, he was, along with Francesco Borromini and Pietro da Cortona, one of the major rivals of Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
Alessandro Vittoria funerary monument - San Zaccaria, Venice Alessandro Vittoria (1525–1608) was an Italian Mannerist sculptor of the Venetian school, "one of the main representatives of the Venetian classical style" and rivalling Giambologna as the foremost sculptors of the late 16th century in Italy.
Alexander Cooper (11 December 1609 – 1660) was an English Baroque miniature painter.
Alexander Dyce (30 June 1798 – 15 May 1869) was a Scottish dramatic editor and literary historian.
Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen consort of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress consort of India as the wife of King-Emperor Edward VII.
(Edward) Alfred Briscoe Drury (11 November 1856 – 24 December 1944) was an English architectural sculptor and figure in the New Sculpture movement.
Sir Alfred Gilbert (12 August 1854 – 4 November 1934) was an English sculptor and goldsmith who enthusiastically experimented with metallurgical innovations.
Alfred George Stevens (December 31, 1817 – May 1, 1875), was a British sculptor.
Alfred Waterhouse (19 July 1830 – 22 August 1905) was a British architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture.
Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء,, Al-Ḥamrā', lit. "the red one"), the complete form of which was Calat Alhamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.
Alick Horsnell (1882–1916) was an architect, draughtsmen and artist working in London during the early years of the 20th Century.
Alonso González de Berruguete (Alonso Berruguete) (c. 1488 – 1561) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and architect.
Alphonse Legros (Dijon 8 May 1837 – 8 December 1911 Watford), was a French painter, etcher, sculptor, and medallist.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt.
Ando Cloisonné Company is a Japanese cloisonné making company located in Nagoya.
André-Charles Boulle (11 November 1642 – 28 February 1732) was the French cabinetmaker who is generally considered to be the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry, even "the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers." His fame in marquetry led to his name being given to the fashion he perfected of inlaying brass and tortoiseshell, known as Boulle (or, in 19th-century Britain, Buhl work).
Andrea Brustolon (20 July 1662 – 25 October 1732) was an Italian sculptor in wood.
Andrea del Verrocchio (1435 – 1488), born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de' Cioni, was an Italian painter, sculptor, and goldsmith who was master of an important workshop in Florence.
Andrea della Robbia (October 24, 1435 – August 4, 1525) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, especially in ceramics.
Andrea Palladio (30 November 1508 – 19 August 1580) was an Italian architect active in the Republic of Venice.
Andrea Riccio (c. 1470 – 1532) was an Italian sculptor and occasional architect, whose real name was Andrea Briosco, but is usually known by his sobriquet meaning "curly"; he is also known as Il Riccio and Andrea Crispus ("curly" in Latin).
Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann RA (30 October 1741 – 5 November 1807), usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman, was an Austrian Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome.
Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Sir Anthony van Dyck (many variant spellings; 22 March 1599 – 9 December 1641) was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England, after enjoying great success in Italy and Flanders.
Anton Raphael Mengs (March 22, 1728 – June 29, 1779) was a German Bohemian painter, active in Rome, Madrid and Saxony, who became one of the precursors to Neoclassical painting.
Antonio Calcagni (Recanati, 1538–1593) is an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance period.
Antonio Canova (1 November 1757 – 13 October 1822) was an Italian sculptor from the Republic of Venice who became famous for his marble sculptures that delicately rendered nude flesh.
Antonio Corradini (19 October 1688, Venice – 12 August 1752, Naples) was a Venetian Rococo sculptor.
Antonio Lombardo (c.1458–1516) was an Italian Renaissance sculptor.
Antonio Gamberelli (1427 – 1479),Janson, H.W. (1995) History of Art.
Antonio Stradivari (1644 – 18 December 1737) was an Italian luthier and a crafter of string instruments such as violins, cellos, guitars, violas, and harps.
The Italian-born Antonio Verrio (c1636 – 15 June 1707) was responsible for introducing Baroque mural painting into England and served the Crown over a thirty-year period.
View of Piazza San Marco in Venice, by Antonio Visentini (1742). Antonio Visentini (21 November 1688 – 26 June 1782) was an Italian architectural designer, painter and engraver, known for his architectural fantasies and ''capricci'', the author of treatises on perspective and a professor at the Venetian Academy.
The Antwerp City Hall (Stadhuis van Antwerpen) of Antwerp, Belgium, stands on the western side of Antwerp's Grote Markt (Great Market Square).
Apsley House, also known as Number One, London, is the London townhouse of the Dukes of Wellington.
An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building (or building project) that falls within the definition of architecture.
The Ardabil Carpets (Ardebil Carpets) are a pair of famous Iranian carpets in the collections of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London and the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.
Art Nouveau (Anglicised to; at. Sezession, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern Style, Ger.. Jugendstil, Slovak. Secesia) or Jugendstil is an international philosophyDuncan (1994), 7.
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that flourished in Europe and North America between 1880 and 1910, emerging in Japan in the 1920s.
Sir Aston Webb, GCVO, CB, PRA, FRIBA (22 May 1849 – 21 August 1930) was an English architect, active in the late 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (21 August 1872 – 16 March 1898) was an English illustrator and author.
Audrey Hepburn (born Audrey Kathleen Ruston; 4 May 1929 – 20 January 1993) was a British actress and humanitarian.
François Auguste René Rodin (12 November 1840 – 17 November 1917), known as Auguste Rodin, was a French sculptor.
Augustus Welby Northmore Pugin (1 May 1812 – 14 September 1852) was an English architect, designer, artist and critic, chiefly remembered for his pioneering role in the Gothic Revival style; his work culminated in the interior design of the Palace of Westminster.
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to follow automatically a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
Émile Gallé (Nancy, 8 May 1846 – Nancy, 23 September 1904) was a French artist who worked in glass, and is considered to be one of the major forces in the French Art Nouveau movement.
İznik is a town and an administrative district in the Province of Bursa, Turkey.
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Mackay Hugh Baillie Scott (23 October 1865 – 10 February 1945), son of a wealthy Scottish landowner, was a British architect and artist.
The Baltimore Museum of Art, located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States, is an art museum that was founded in 1914.
The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
Bartolomeo Ammannati (18 June 1511 – 13 April 1592) was an Italian architect and sculptor, born at Settignano, near Florence.
Bartolomeo Bellano, also known as Bartolomeo Vellano, was an Italian renaissance sculptor and architect who was born in Padua in 1437 or 1438.
Bartolomeo Bon (also spelled Buon; died after 1464) was an Italian sculptor and architect from Campione d'Italia.
Bashaw, a Newfoundland dog, sat some fifty times for his portrait.
The Basilica of Saint Denis (known as Basilique royale de Saint-Denis, or simply Basilique Saint-Denis) is a large medieval abbey church in the city of Saint-Denis, now a northern suburb of Paris.
Helen Beatrix Potter (British English, North American English, 28 July 186622 December 1943) was an English author, illustrator, natural scientist, and conservationist best known for her imaginative children's books featuring animals such as those in The Tale of Peter Rabbit, which celebrated the British landscape and country life.
The Beauvais tapestry manufacture was the second in importance, after the Gobelins tapestry, of French tapestry workshops that were established under the general direction of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the finance minister of Louis XIV.
The Becket Casket is a reliquary in the V&A Museum of gilt-copper round a wooden core, decorated with champlevé enamel, and of a shape called a "chasse".
Benjamin Brecknell Turner (1815–1894) was one of Britain's first photographers and a founding-member of the Photographic Society of London which was formed in 1853.
Benjamin Lewis Vulliamy (25 January 1780 – 8 January 1854) was a clockmaker, active in 18th and 19th century Britain.
Benjamin West (October 10, 1738 – March 11, 1820) was an Anglo-American painter of historical scenes around and after the time of the American War of Independence.
Benvenuto Cellini (3 November 1500 – 13 February 1571) was an Italian goldsmith, sculptor, draftsman, soldier, musician, and artist who also wrote a famous autobiography and poetry.
Bernard Howell Leach, CH, CBE (5 January 1887 – 6 May 1979), was a British studio potter and art teacher.
Bernard Palissy (c. 1510 – c. 1590) was a French Huguenot potter, hydraulics engineer and craftsman, famous for having struggled for sixteen years to imitate Chinese porcelain.
Bernardino Fungai (1460–1516) was an Italian painter.
Bernardo Buontalenti, byname of Bernardo Delle Girandole (c.'' 1531 – 25 or 26 June 1608) was an Italian stage designer, architect, theatrical designer, military engineer and artist.
Elizabeth Talbot, Countess of Shrewsbury (c. 1527-1608), known as Bess of Hardwick, was a notable figure of 16th century Elizabethan English society.
Bethnal Green is a town in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets.
Bill Brandt (born Hermann Wilhelm Brandt, 2 May 1904 – 20 December 1983Paul Delany,.), was a British photographer and photojournalist.
Bishopsgate is one of the 25 wards of the City of London and also the name of a major road (part of the A10) between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate in the northeast corner of London's main financial district.
Blackpool is a major seaside resort and borough of Lancashire, North West England.
Blythe House is a listed building located at 23 Blythe Road, West Kensington, London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, UK.
The Board of Trade, originally the Lords of Trade or Lords of Trade and Plantations is a committee of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, first established as a temporary committee of inquiry in the 17th century that evolved gradually into a government department with a diverse range of functions.
Bohemian glass, sometimes referred to as Bohemia crystal, is glass produced in the regions of Bohemia and Silesia, now parts of the Czech Republic.
Bologna (Emilian: Bulåggna pronounced; Bononia) is the largest city (and the capital) of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Italy.
The book of hours is a Christian devotional book popular in the Middle Ages.
Brian Clarke (born 2 July 1953), Debrett's is a British artist; a painter and architectural stained glass designer who has, most notably,worked in stained glass.
A brick is a block or a single unit of a kneaded clay-bearing soil, sand and lime, or concrete material, fire-hardened or air-dried, used in masonry construction.
New!!: Victoria and Albert Museum and Brick ·
Britain Can Make It was an exhibition of industrial and product design held in London in 1946.
The British Museum is a museum dedicated to human history, art, and culture, located in the Bloomsbury area of London.
Brompton is a district in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea.
Bruges (in English; Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brussels tapestry workshops produced tapestry from at least the 15th century, but the city's early production in the Late Gothic International style was eclipsed by the more prominent tapestry-weaving workshops based in Arras and Tournai.
Bryan Davies, Baron Davies of Oldham, PC (born 9 November 1939) is a Labour member of the House of Lords.
Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
The Burghley Nef is a silver-gilt salt cellar made in Paris in 1527–28 (or possibly earlier).
The Bust of Thomas Baker is a 1638 marble portrait sculpture created by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini, with much of the bust undertaken by a pupil of Bernini, probably Andrea Bolgi.
The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Cairo (القاهرة; Ⲕⲁϩⲓⲣⲏ) is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Middle-East and second-largest in Africa after Lagos.
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Caius Gabriel Cibber (1630–1700) was a Danish sculptor, who enjoyed great success in England, and was the father of the actor, author and poet laureate Colley Cibber.
Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (17 or 18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of landscapes, or vedute, of Venice.
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city and UNESCO World Heritage Site, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a local government district of Kent in the United Kingdom.
Carlo Crivelli (Venice 1430? – Ascoli Piceno 1495) was an Italian Renaissance painter of conservative Late Gothic decorative sensibility, who spent his early years in the Veneto, where he absorbed influences from the Vivarini, Squarcione and Mantegna.
Baron Carlo (Charles) Marochetti (4 January 1805 – 29 December 1867) was an Italian-born French sculptor.
A cassone (plural cassoni) or marriage chest is a rich and showy Italian type of chest, which may be inlaid or carved, prepared with gesso ground then painted and gilded.
. The Cast Courts (originally called the Architectural CourtsWilliamson 1996, p. 182.) of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, England, comprise two large halls.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Yekaterina Alexeyevna (Екатерина Алексеевна) or Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; –), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
Sir Cecil Walter Hardy Beaton CBE (14 January 1904 – 18 January 1980) was an English fashion, portrait and war photographer, diarist, painter, interior designer and an Academy Award–winning stage and costume designer for films and the theatre.
Censers are any type of vessels made for burning incense.
A Centennial is a 100th year anniversary, or otherwise relates to a century, a period of 100 years.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials (including clay), which may take forms including art ware, tile, figurines, sculpture, and tableware.
The chambered nautilus, Nautilus pompilius, is the best-known species of nautilus.
Charles Ormond Eames, Jr (1907–1978) and Bernice Alexandra "Ray" (née Kaiser) Eames (1912–1988) were American designers who worked in and made major contributions to modern architecture and furniture.
Sir Charles Barry (23 May 1795 – 12 May 1860) was an English architect, best known for his role in the rebuilding of the Palace of Westminster (also known as the Houses of Parliament) in London during the mid-19th century, but also responsible for numerous other buildings and gardens.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
Charles Heathcote Tatham (8 February 1772 in Westminster, London – 10 April 1842 in London), was an English architect of the early nineteenth century.
Charles Henry Holden Litt.D, FRIBA, MRTPI, RDI (12 May 1875 – 1 May 1960) was a Bolton-born English architect best known for designing many London Underground stations during the 1920s and 1930s, for Bristol Central Library, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London's headquarters at 55 Broadway and for the University of London's Senate House.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (7 June 1868 – 10 December 1928) was a Scottish architect, designer, water colourist and artist.
Charles Robert Ashbee (17 May 1863 – 23 May 1942) was an English designer and entrepreneur who was a prime mover of the Arts and Crafts movement that took its craft ethic from the works of John Ruskin and its co-operative structure from the socialism of William Morris.
Charles Robert Cockerell (27 April 1788 – 17 September 1863) was an English architect, archaeologist, and writer.
Charles Francis Annesley Voysey (1857–1941) was an English architect and furniture and textile designer.
Chauncy Hare Townshend, born Chauncy Hare Townsend (10 April 1798, Godalming, Surrey – 25 February 1868), was a 19th-century English poet, clergyman, mesmerist, collector, dilettante and hypochondriac.
The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England; its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745.
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures.
This lacquerware table is from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
Chinoiserie (pronounced, French for "Chinese-esque") is a recurring theme in European artistic styles since the seventeenth century, which reflect Chinese artistic influences.
Chintz (from the plural of chint) was originally glazed calico textiles, initially specifically those imported from India, printed with designs featuring flowers and other patterns in different colours, typically on a light plain background.
Christopher Robert Smith, Baron Smith of Finsbury, PC (born 24 July 1951) is a British politician and a peer; a former Member of Parliament (MP) and Cabinet Minister; and former chairman of the Environment Agency.
For the company see Christian Dior S.A. Christian Dior (21 January 1905 – 23 October 1957) was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, also called Christian Dior, but now owned by Groupe Arnault.
Christian Friedrich Zincke (1683-5 – 24 March 1767) was a German miniature painter active in England in the 18th century.
Christian Marie Marc Lacroix (born 16 May 1951) is a French fashion designer.
Sir Christopher Michael Wren PRS (20 October 1632 – 25 February 1723) is one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas is based upon cultural regions, geography, and linguistics.
Claude Michel (December 20, 1738 – March 29, 1814), known as Clodion, was a French sculptor in the Rococo style, especially noted for his works in terracotta.
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux (21 March 1736 – 18 November 1806) was one of the earliest exponents of French Neoclassical architecture.
Clementina Maude, Viscountess Hawarden, née Clementina Elphinstone Fleeming (1 June 1822 – 19 January 1865), commonly known as Lady Clementina Hawarden, was a noted portrait photographer of the Victorian Era, producing over 800 photographs mostly of her adolescent daughters.
Cloisonné is an ancient technique for decorating metalwork objects, in recent centuries using vitreous enamel, and in older periods also inlays of cut gemstones, glass, and other materials.
The Cloth of St Gereon is a mural tapestry of a repeat pattern with a decorative motif of a bull being attacked by a griffin, a fantastic creature with the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle.
Gabrielle Bonheur Chanel (19 August 1883 – 10 January 1971) was a French fashion designer and founder of the Chanel brand.
A commode, commode with legs, or commode on legs is any of several pieces of furniture.
Constantine Alexander Ionides (14 May 1833 in Manchester – 29 June 1900 in Brighton, Κωνσταντίνος Αλέξανδρος Ιωνίδης) was a British art patron and collector, of Greek ancestry.
The cornett, cornetto, or zink is an early wind instrument that dates from the Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque periods, popular from 1500–1650.
Costume or fancy dress is the distinctive style of dress of a particular people, class, or period.
Covent Garden is a district in London on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane.
Cristóbal Balenciaga Eizaguirre (January 21, 1895, Spain – March 23, 1972, Spain) was a Spanish Basque fashion designer and the founder of the Balenciaga fashion house.
Cromwell Gardens is a short but major road in South Kensington, within the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London, England.
The culture of Egypt has thousands of years of recorded history.
The people of the Maghreb and the Sahara speak various dialects of Berber and Arabic, and almost exclusively follow Islam.
Edwin Curtis Moffat (October 11, 1887 – 1949), better known as Curtis Moffat, was a London-based American abstract photographer, painter and modernist interior designer.
Dale Chihuly (born September 20, 1941), is an American glass sculptor and entrepreneur.
Daniel Libeskind (born May 12, 1946) is a Polish-American architect, artist, professor and set designer of Polish Jewish descent.
Daniel Marot (1661–1752) was a French Protestant, an architect, furniture designer and engraver at the forefront of the classicizing Late Baroque "Louis XIV" style.
Danny Lane (born 1955) is an American sculptor associated with public art in the United Kingdom.
Durante degli Alighieri, simply called Dante (c. 1265–1321), was a major Italian poet of the late Middle Ages.
Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator.
David (ISO 259-3 Dawid; داوُود; ܕܘܝܕ Dawid; Δαυίδ; Strong's: Daveed) was, according to the Books of Samuel, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel, and according to the New Testament, an ancestor of Jesus.
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David is the title of two statues of the biblical hero by the Italian early Renaissance sculptor Donatello, an early work in marble of a clothed figure (1408-09), and a far more famous bronze figure that is nude between its helmet and boots, and dates to the 1430s or later.
David is a masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture created between 1501 and 1504, by Michelangelo.
Andrea del Verrocchio's bronze statue of David was most likely made between 1473 and 1475.
David Royston Bailey, CBE (born 2 January 1938) is an English fashion and portrait photographer.
David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draughtsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.
David Roentgen (1743 in Herrnhaag – February 12, 1807), was a famous German cabinetmaker of the eighteenth century, famed throughout Europe for his marquetry and his secret drawers and mechanical fittings.
Sir David Wilkie (18 November 1785 – 1 June 1841) was a Scottish painter.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
Delft is a city and a municipality in the Netherlands.
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Delftware or Delft pottery, also known as Delft Blue (Delfts blauw), is blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.
The Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS) is a department of the United Kingdom government, with responsibility for culture and sport in England, and some aspects of the media throughout the whole UK, such as broadcasting and internet.
The Design Council, formerly the Council of Industrial Design, is a United Kingdom charity incorporated by Royal Charter.
A desk or bureau is a piece of furniture and a type of table often used in a school, office setting or home for various academic, professional or domestic activities such as reading, writing, or using technology such as a computer.
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Devonshire House in Piccadilly was the London residence of the Dukes of Devonshire in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Devonshire Hunting Tapestries are a group of four magnificent Flemish tapestries dating from the mid-fifteenth century.
The Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum is the head of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, a post currently held by Martin Roth.
Domenico di Pace Beccafumi (1486 – May 18, 1551) was an Italian Renaissance-Mannerist painter active predominantly in Siena.
Donald "Don" McCullin, CBE Hon FRPS (9 October 1935) is an internationally known British photojournalist, particularly recognized for his war photography and images of urban strife.
Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi (c. 1386 – December 13, 1466), better known as Donatello, was the most important early Renaissance sculptor from Florence.
Donato Bramante (1444 – 11 April 1514) was an Italian architect, who introduced Renaissance architecture to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his plan for St. Peter's Basilica formed the basis of design executed by Michelangelo.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
Dundee (Dùn Dé), officially the City of Dundee, is Scotland's fourth largest city and the 51st most populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.
Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.
East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe.
Edgar Degas (or;; born Hilaire-Germain-Edgar De Gas; 19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet (28 August 1833 – 17 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris on a wide range of decorative arts as a founding partner in Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
Edward Hodges Baily (18 March 1788 in Bristol – 22 May 1867 in London) - (sometimes misspelled Bailey) was an English sculptor who was born in Downend in Bristol.
Edward Lear (12 or 13 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator, musician, author and poet, and is known now mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks, a form he popularised.
Sir Edward Brantwood Maufe KBE, R.A, F.R.I.B.A. (12 December 1882 – 12 December 1974) was an English architect and designer.
Sir Edward John Poynter, 1st Baronet (20 March 1836 in Paris – 26 July 1919 in London) was an English painter, designer, and draughtsman who served as President of the Royal Academy.
Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death.
Edward William Godwin (Bristol 26 May 1833 – 6 October 1886 London) was a progressive English architect-designer, who began his career working in the strongly polychromatic "Ruskinian Gothic" style of mid-Victorian Britain, inspired by The Stones of Venice, then moved on to provide designs in the "Anglo-Japanese taste" of the Aesthetic Movement and Whistler's circle in the 1870s.
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer (7 March 1802 – 1 October 1873) was an English painter, well known for his paintings of animals—particularly horses, dogs and stags.
Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens, OM KCIE PRA FRIBA (29 March 1869 – 1 January 1944), was a British architect who is known for imaginatively adapting traditional architectural styles to the requirements of his era.
Kathleen Eileen Moray Gray (9 August 1878 – 31 October 1976) was an Irish furniture designer and architect and a pioneer of the Modern Movement in architecture.
Eleanor Coade (3 June 1733 – 16 November 1821), Oxford National Dictionary of Biography was a British businesswoman known for manufacturing Neoclassical statues, architectural decorations and garden ornaments made of "Lithodipyra" (Coade stone) for over 50 years from 1769 until her death.
Dame Elizabeth Esteve-Coll, DBE, FRSA (born 14 October 1938) is a British academic and former museum director.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Elizabethan era is the epoch in English history marked by the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603).
Embroidery is the handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn.
Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.
Ernest William Gimson (pronounced 'Jimson') (21 December 1864 in Leicester – 12 August 1919 in Sapperton) was an English furniture designer and architect.
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.
Eva Jiřičná CBE RA (born 3 March 1939 in Zlín) is a Czech architect and designer, active in London and Prague.
Exhibition Road is a street in South Kensington, London which is home to several major museums and academic establishments.
The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 15 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.
Fatimid art refers to Islamic artifacts and architecture from the Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171), principally in Egypt and North Africa.
The Festival of Britain was a national exhibition held throughout the United Kingdom in the summer of 1951.
The Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, comprising the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in Golden Gate Park and the Legion of Honor in Lincoln Park, is the largest public arts institution in the city of San Francisco and one of the largest art museums in California, USA.
Florence (Firenze, alternative obsolete form: Fiorenza; Latin: Florentia) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence.
Floriano or Fioravante Ferramola (c. 1478 - 3 July 1528) was an Italian painter of the Renaissance period, active mainly in Brescia.
Fontignano is a frazione of the comune of Perugia, Italy, located near Lake Trasimeno.
François Boucher (29 September 1703 – 30 May 1770) was a French painter in the Rococo style.
François Clouet (c. 1510 – 22 December 1572), son of Jean Clouet, was a French Renaissance miniaturist and painter, particularly known for his detailed portraits of the French ruling family.
François Girardon (March 17, 1628 – September 1, 1715) was a French sculptor.
François Rabelais (between 1483 and 1494 – 9 April 1553) was a major French Renaissance writer, doctor, Renaissance humanist, monk and Greek scholar.
Francesco Fanelli (c. 1590–1653) was an Italian sculptor, born in Florence, who spent most of his career in England.
Francesco I Sforza (July 23, 1401 – March 8, 1466) was an Italian condottiero, the founder of the Sforza dynasty in Milan, Italy.
Francis Danby (16 November 1793 – 9 February 1861) was an Irish painter of the Romantic era.
Francis Fowke RE (7 July 1823 – 4 December 1865) was a British engineer and architect, and a Captain in the Corps of Royal Engineers.
Francis Hayman (1708 – 2 February 1776) was an English painter and illustrator who became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768, and later its first librarian.
Sir Francis Leg(g)att Chantrey (7 April 1781 – 25 November 1841) was an English sculptor.
Francis, Duke of Anjou and Alençon (Hercule François; 18 March 1555 – 10 June 1584), was the youngest son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici.
Harold Frank Hoar, FRIBA (13 September 1907 – 3 October 1976), was a British architect, artist, academic and architectural historian.
Frank Lloyd Wright (born Frank Lincoln Wright, June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures, 532 of which were completed.
Frederic Leighton, 1st Baron Leighton (3 December 1830 – 25 January 1896), known as Sir Frederic Leighton between 1878 and 1896, was an English painter and sculptor.
Frederick Hollyer (17 June 1838 – 21 November 1933) was an English photographer and engraver known for his photographic reproductions of paintings and drawings, particularly those of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and for portraits of literary and artistic figures of late Victorian and Edwardian London.
In architecture the frieze is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be plain in the Ionic or Doric order, or decorated with bas-reliefs.
Furniture is the mass noun for the movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating (e.g., chairs, stools and sofas) and sleeping (e.g., beds).
Gaspard Dughet (15 June 1615 – 27 May 1675), also known as Gaspard Poussin, was a French painter born in Rome.
Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gebrüder Thonet or the Thonet Brothers was a European furniture manufacturer.
George Edmund Street (20 June 1824 – 18 December 1881) was an English architect, born at Woodford in Essex.
George Engleheart (1750–1829) was one of the greatest English painters of portrait miniatures, and a contemporary of Richard Cosway, John Smart, William Wood, and Richard Crosse.
Sir George James Frampton, RA (18 June 1860 – 21 May 1928) was a notable British sculptor and leading member of the New Sculpture movement.
This sculpture of composer George Frideric Handel (1685–1759) is by Louis-François Roubiliac (1702–1762).
Sir George Gilbert Scott (13 July 1811 – 27 March 1878), styled Sir Gilbert Scott, was an English Gothic revival architect, chiefly associated with the design, building and renovation of churches and cathedrals, although he started his career as a leading designer of workhouses.
George Wallis (1811–1891) was an artist, museum curator and art educator.
The Georgian era of British history is a period which takes its name from, and is normally defined as spanning the reigns of the first four Hanoverian kings of Great Britain who were all named George: George I, George II, George III and George IV.
Gesso ("chalk", from the gypsum, from γύψος) is a white paint mixture consisting of a binder mixed with chalk, gypsum, pigment, or any combination of these.
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Giacomo della Porta (c. 1533 – 1602) was an Italian architect and sculptor, who worked on many important buildings in Rome, including St. Peter's Basilica.
Giambologna (1529 – 13 August 1608) — born Jean Boulogne (and incorrectly known as Giovanni da Bologna or Giovanni Bologna) — was a Flemish sculptor, celebrated for his marble and bronze statuary in a late Renaissance or Mannerist style.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (also Gianlorenzo or Giovanni Lorenzo; 7 December 1598 – 28 November 1680) was an Italian artist and a prominent architect who worked principally in Rome.
Giovanni "Giò" Ponti (18 November 1891 – 16 September 1979) was an Italian architect, industrial designer, furniture designer, artist, and publisher.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.
Gijs Bakker (Amersfoort, 1942) is a Dutch jewellery and industrial-designer, educated at the Gerrit Rietveld Academie in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and the Konstfackskolan in Stockholm, Sweden.
Gilbert William Bayes RA (4 April 1872 – 1953) was a British sculptor.
Gilles Joubert (1689–1775) was a Parisian ébéniste who worked for the Garde-Meuble of Louis XV for two and a half decades, beginning in 1748, earning the title ébéniste ordinaire du Garde-Meuble in 1758, and finally that of ébéniste du roi ("royal cabinet-maker") on the death of Jean-François Oeben in 1763.
Gioachino Antonio Rossini (29 February 179213 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as sacred music, chamber music, songs, and some instrumental and piano pieces.
Giovanni Battista Borra (27 December 1713 - November 1770) was an Italian architect, engineer and architectural draughtsman.
Tomb of Galileo Galilei in Santa Croce, Florence. Giovanni Battista Foggini (25 April 1652 – 12 April 1725) was an Italian sculptor active in Florence, renowned mainly for small bronze statuary.
Giovanni Battista (also Giambattista) Piranesi (4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Carceri d'Invenzione).
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (March 5, 1696 – March 27, 1770), also known as Gianbattista or Giambattista Tiepolo, was an Italian painter and printmaker from the Republic of Venice.
Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione (baptized 23 March 1609 – 5 May 1664) was an Italian Baroque artist, painter, printmaker and draftsman, of the Genoese school.
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo (August 30, 1727March 3, 1804) was an Italian painter and printmaker in etching.
Giovanni Pisano (c. 1250 – c. 1315) was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect, who worked in the cities of Pisa, Siena and Pistoia.
Giudecca is an island in the Venetian Lagoon, in northern Italy.
Giuliano da Sangallo (1445–1516) was an Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance.
Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid which is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in things like window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
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Gloria Guinness (born Gloria Rubio Alatorre; August 27, 1913 – November 9, 1980) was a socialite and fashion icon, as well as a contributing editor to Harper's Bazaar from 1963 until 1971. She was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1964.
The Gloucester Candlestick is an elaborately decorated English Romanesque gilt-bronze candlestick, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
The Manufacture des Gobelins is a tapestry factory located in Paris, France, at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near the Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement.
Godfrey Sykes (born Malton, North Yorkshire, 1824 – died London 28 February 1866) was an English designer and painter.
A gospel is an account describing the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period.
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, Neo-Gothic or Jigsaw Gothic, and when used for school, college, and university buildings as Collegiate Gothic) is an architectural movement that began in the late 1740s in England.
Gottfried Semper (November 29, 1803 – May 15, 1879) was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841.
Graham Vivian Sutherland OM (24 August 1903 – 17 February 1980) was an English artist, notable for glass, fabrics, prints and portraits.
The Grand Tour was the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means, or those of more humble origin who could find a sponsor.
The Great Bed of Ware is an extremely large oak four poster bed, carved with marquetry, that was originally housed in the White Hart Inn in Ware, England.
The Great Fire of London was a major conflagration that swept through the central parts of the English city of London, from Sunday, 2 September to Wednesday, 5 September 1666.
The name Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Ἑλληνορθόδοξη Ἑκκλησία, Ellinorthódoxi Ekklisía) is a term referring to the body of several Churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity, whose liturgy is or was traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament, and whose history, traditions, and theology are rooted in the early Church Fathers and the Byzantine Empire.
Grinling Gibbons (4 April 1648 – 3 August 1721) was a Dutch-British sculptor and wood carver known for his work in England, including Windsor Castle and Hampton Court Palace, St.
Gryphon are a British progressive rock band formed in the 1970s, best known for their unusual medieval and Renaissance sound and instrumentation.
Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting.
Jean-Baptiste Gustave Le Gray (August 30, 1820 – July 30, 1884)Le Corre, Florence.
Guy Laroche was a French fashion designer (16 July 1921 in La Rochelle, France – 17 February 1989 in Paris) and founder of the eponymous company.
Hans Daucher (1486, Augsburg – 1538, Stuttgart) was a German Renaissance wood carver, sculptor and medal designer.
Hans Holbein the Younger (– between 7 October and 29 November 1543) was a German and Swiss artist and printmaker who worked in a Northern Renaissance style.
Hans Vredeman de Vries (1527 – c. 1607) was a Dutch Renaissance architect, painter, and engineer.
Sir Edwin Hardy Amies, KCVO (17 July 1909 – 5 March 2003), known as Hardy Amies, was an English fashion designer, founder of the Hardy Amies label and best known for his official title as dressmaker for Queen Elizabeth II, from her accession to the throne 1952 until his retirement in 1989.
Harrods is an upmarket department store located on Brompton Road in Knightsbridge, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, London.
Harry Clarke (17 March 1889 – 6 January 1931) was an Irish stained-glass artist and book illustrator.
Helen Clare Chadwick (18 May 1953 – 15 March 1996)Buck, Louisa,, The Independent, 18 March 1996.
Hemmerle is a German jewellery house based in Munich founded in 1893.
Hendrick de Keyser (15 May 1565 – 15 May 1621) was a Dutch sculptor and architect born in Utrecht, Netherlands, who was instrumental in establishing a late Renaissance form of Mannerism in Amsterdam.
Henri Cartier-Bresson (August 22, 1908 – August 3, 2004) was a French photographer considered the master of candid photography, and an early user of 35 mm film.
Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship.
Sir Henry Cole (15 July 1808 – 18 April 1882) was an English civil servant and inventor who facilitated many innovations in commerce and education in 19th century Britain.
Henry Flitcroft (30 August 1697 – 25 February 1769) was a major English architect in the second generation of Palladianism.
William Henry Fox Talbot (11 February 180017 September 1877) was a British scientist, inventor and photography pioneer who invented the salted paper and calotype processes, precursors to photographic processes of the later 19th and 20th centuries.
Henry Fuseli (German: Johann Heinrich Füssli) (7 February 1741 – 17 April 1825) was a Swiss painter, draughtsman and writer on art who spent much of his life in Britain.
Henry Holland (20 July 1745 – 17 June 1806) was an architect to the English nobility.
Henry Spencer Moore (30 July 1898 – 31 August 1986) was an English sculptor and artist.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England, ruled the Principality of Wales (until 29 November 1489) and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.
Henry VIII's writing desk is a portable writing desk, made in about 1525-6 for Henry VIII.
Henry Young Darracott Scott RE (1822–1883) was an English Major-General in the Corps of Royal Engineers, best known for the construction of London's Royal Albert Hall.
Heraldry is the profession, study, or art of creating, granting, and blazoning arms and ruling on questions of rank or protocol, as exercised by an officer of arms.
The current Hereford Cathedral, located at Hereford in England, dates from 1079.
The Hereford Screen is a great choir screen designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott (1811–1878) and made by Coventry metalworking firm Skidmore & Co.
The Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) was established in the United Kingdom under the National Lottery etc. Act 1993.
The Himalayas or Himalaya (or; हिमालय, Nepali: हिमालय, Hindi: हिमालय, ہمالیہ; from Sanskrit hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally meaning "abode of snow") is a mountain range in South Asia and East Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.
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Utagawa Hiroshige (歌川 広重), also Andō Hiroshige (安藤 広重; 1797 – 12 October 1858) was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting the European continent from after prehistoric times to the present.
The history of wood carving has from the remotest ages the decoration of wood as a foremost art.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.
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Horatio Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford (24 September 1717 – 2 March 1797), also known as Horace Walpole, was an English art historian, man of letters, antiquarian and Whig politician.
The Horniman Museum is a British museum in Forest Hill, London, England.
Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte (née de Beauharnais) (10 April 1783 – 5 October 1837), Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais.
The House of Stuart is a European royal house.
Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy (pronounced; born 21 February 1927) is a French aristocrat and fashion designer who founded The House of Givenchy in 1952.
Hubert Le Sueur (c. 1580 – 1658) was a French sculptor with the contemporaneous reputation of having trained in Giambologna's Florentine workshop.
Hugh Douglas Hamilton (c. 1740 – 10 February 1808) was an Irish portrait-painter.
Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
Ilse Bing (23 March 1899 – 10 March 1998) was a German avant-garde and commercial photographer who produced pioneering monochrome images during the inter-war era.
Imari porcelain (伊万里焼) is the name for Japanese porcelain wares made in the town of Arita, in the former Hizen Province, northwestern Kyūshū.
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.
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Indian Art consists of a variety of art forms, including plastic arts (e.g., pottery and sculpture), visual arts (e.g., cave paintings), and textile arts (e.g., woven silk).
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to June 1858.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inigo Jones (15 July 1573 – 21 June 1652) was the first significant English architect of the early modern period, and the first to employ Vitruvian rules of proportion and symmetry in his buildings.
Innocenzo Spinazzi (1726–1798) was an Italian sculptor of the Rococo period active in Rome and Florence.
An is a traditional Japanese case for holding small objects, suspended from the obi.
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The Ionic order (Ιωνικός ρυθμός) forms one of the three orders of classical architecture, the other two canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian.
Princess Irene Galitzine (ირინა გალიცინი; Ирен Голицына; 22 July 1916 in Tbilisi, Georgia – 20 October 2006 in Rome, Italy) was a Russian-Georgian fashion designer whose most renowned creation was the "palazzo pyjama".
Ironwork is any weapon, artwork, utensil or architectural feature made of iron especially used for decoration.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 164220 March 1726/7) was an English physicist and mathematician (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Isaac Oliver (c. 1565 – bur. 2 October 1617) or Olivier was a French-born English portrait miniature painter.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
Istanbul (İstanbul), once known as Constantinople, is the most populous city in Turkey, and the country's economic, cultural, and historical center.
The Italian Renaissance (Rinascimento) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe.
Joseph Mallord William Turner, RA (baptised 14 May 177519 December 1851) was an English Romanticist landscape painter.
Sir Jacob Epstein (10 November 1880 – 19 August 1959) was a British sculptor who helped pioneer modern sculpture.
Jacopo della Quercia (c. 1374 – October 20, 1438) was an Italian sculptor of the Italian Renaissance, a contemporary of Brunelleschi, Ghiberti and Donatello.
Jacopo d'Antonio Sansovino (2 July 1486 – 27 November 1570) was an Italian sculptor and architect, known best for his works around the Piazza San Marco in Venice.
Jade is an ornamental rock.
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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.
A jali or jaali, (Hindi:जाली jālī, meaning "net") is the term for a perforated stone or latticed screen, usually with an ornamental pattern constructed through the use of calligraphy and geometry.
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James Abbott McNeill Whistler (ˈdʒeɪmz ˈæbət məkˈniːl ˈwɪslɚ) (July 10, 1834 – July 17, 1903) was an American-born, British-based artist active during the American Gilded Age.
James Barry (11 October 1741 – 22 February 1806), Irish painter, best remembered for his six part series of paintings entitled The Progress of Human Culture in the Great Room of the Royal Society of Arts.
James Gibbs (23 December 1682 – 5 August 1754) was one of Britain's most influential architects.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James Lafayette was the pseudonym of James Stack Lauder (1853-1923).
James "Athenian" Stuart (1713 – 2 February 1788) was an English archaeologist, architect and artist, best known for his central role in pioneering Neoclassicism.
Sir James Thornhill (25 July 1675 or 1676 – 4 May 1734) was an English painter of historical subjects working in the Italian baroque tradition.
James Watt, FRS, FRSE (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer whose Watt steam engine, an improvement of the Newcomen steam engine, was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
James William Wild (9 March 1814 – 7 November 1892) was a British architect.
James Wyatt (3 August 1746 – 4 September 1813), was an English architect, a rival of Robert Adam in the neoclassical style and neo-Gothic style.
Jan Brueghel the Elder (also Breughel;; 1568 – 13 January 1625) was a Flemish painter, son of Pieter Bruegel the Elder and father of Jan Brueghel the Younger.
Japanese art covers a wide range of art styles and media, including ancient pottery, sculpture, ink painting and calligraphy on silk and paper, ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints, kiri-e, kirigami, origami, and more recently manga—modern Japanese cartooning and comics—along with a myriad of other types of works of art.
Japanning is a type of finish, usually based on lacquer, that originated as a European imitation of Asian lacquerwork.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jean Bourdichon (1457 or 1459 - 1521) was a miniature painter and manuscript illuminator at the court of France between the end of the 15th century and the start of the 16th century, in the reigns of Louis XI of France, Charles VIII of France, Louis XII of France and Francis I of France.
Jean François de Troy (January 27, 1679, Paris – January 26, 1752, Rome) was a French Rococo painter and tapestry designer.
Jean-Henri Riesener (Johann Heinrich Riesener) (4 July 1734 – 6 January 1806) was the French royal ébéniste, working in Paris, whose work exemplified the early neoclassical "Louis XVI style".
Jean Elizabeth Muir, CBE, FCSD (17 July 1928 – 28 May 1995) was a British fashion designer (though she herself preferred to be called a dressmakerLiz Jones for The Daily Mail, 12 June 2006).
Jean Petitot (July 12, 1607 – April 3, 1691) was a French-Swiss enamel painter.
Jean Racine, baptismal name Jean-Baptiste Racine (22 December 163921 April 1699), was a French dramatist, one of the three great playwrights of 17th-century France (along with Molière and Corneille), and an important literary figure in the Western tradition.
Jean Michel Schlumberger (June 24, 1907 – August 29, 1987) was a French jewelry designer especially well known for his work at Tiffany & Co.
Jean Simeon Rousseau de la Rottière (1747–1820) was a French decorative painter.
Jean Tijou was a French Huguenot ironworker.
Jean-Antoine Houdon (25 March 1741 – 15 July 1828) was a French neoclassical sculptor.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (29 August 1780 – 14 January 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter.
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux (11 May 1827 – 12 October 1875) was a French sculptor and painter during the Second Empire under Napoleon III.
Jean-Baptiste Pater (December 29, 1695 – July 25, 1736) was a French rococo painter.
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (July 16, 1796 – February 22, 1875) was a French landscape and portrait painter as well as a printmaker in etching.
Jean-François Millet (October 4, 1814 – January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon school in rural France.
Jean-François Oeben, or Johann Franz Oeben (9 October 1721 Heinsberg near Aachen – Paris 21 January 1763) was a French ébéniste (cabinetmaker) whose career was spent in Paris.
Jeffrey "Jeff" Koons (born January 21, 1955) is an American artist known for his reproductions of banal objects—such as balloon animals produced in stainless steel with mirror-finish surfaces.
Jewellery or jewelrysee American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.
The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Jim Lee (born 20 November 1945) is a London-based photographer and film director.
Dame Joan Evans, DBE (22 June 1893 – 14 July 1977) was a British historian of French and English mediaeval art, especially Early Modern and medieval jewellery; her notable collection was bequeathed to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc,; c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boullainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans) is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War, and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
Joe Colombo, born Cesare Colombo (30 July 1930 – 30 July 1971) was an Italian industrial designer.
Johann Joachim Kändler (June 15, 1706 – May 18, 1775) was the most important modelleur of the Meissen porcelain manufacture.
John Constable, RA (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter.
John Evelyn's cabinet is a highly decorated portable storage box housed at the Victoria & Albert Museum in London.
Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (8 June 1829 – 13 August 1896) was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.
John Flaxman R.A. (6 July 1755 – 7 December 1826) was a British sculptor and draughtsman, and a leading figure in British and European Neoclassicism.
John Forster (2 April 1812 – 2 February 1876), was an English biographer and critic and a friend of author Charles Dickens.
John Gibson (19 June 1790 – 27 January 1866) was a Welsh Neoclassical sculptor who studied in Rome under Canova.
John Loughborough Pearson (15 July 1817 – 11 December 1897) was a Gothic Revival architect renowned for his work on churches and cathedrals.
Sir John Robert Madejski, (born Robert John Hurst; 28 April 1941) is an English businessman, with commercial interests spanning property, broadcast media, hotels, restaurants, publishing and football.
John Martin (19 July 1789 – 17 February 1854) was an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator.
Johannes Michel or John Michael Rysbrack, original name Jan Michiel Rijsbrack (27 June 1694 – 8 January 1770), was an 18th-century Flemish sculptor.
John Nash (18 January 1752 – 13 May 1835) was a British architect responsible for much of the layout of Regency London under the patronage of the Prince Regent, and during his reign as George IV.
John Egerton Christmas Piper CH (13 December 1903 – 28 June 1992) was an English painter, printmaker and designer of stained-glass windows and theatre sets.
John Ruskin (8 February 1819 – 20 January 1900) was the leading English art critic of the Victorian era, also an art patron, draughtsman, watercolourist, a prominent social thinker and philanthropist.
John Russell RA (March 29, 1745 – April 20, 1806) was an English painter renowned for his portrait work in oils and pastels, and as a writer and teacher of painting techniques.
John Sell Cotman (16 May 1782 – 24 July 1842) was an English marine and landscape painter, etcher, illustrator and author, a leading member of the Norwich school of artists.
John Sheepshanks (1787–1863), British manufacturer and art collector, was born in Leeds, and became a partner in his father's business as a cloth manufacturer.
John Smart (c. 1740–1811), was an English painter of portrait miniatures.
Sir John Soane (born John Soan; 10 September 1753 – 20 January 1837) was an English architect who specialised in the Neo-Classical style.
Sir John Taylor, KCB, FRIBA (15 November 1833 in Warkworth, Northumberland – 30 April 1912 in Surbiton Hill, Surrey) was a British architect.
John the Baptist (Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής Ioannēs ho baptistēs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων Ioannēs ho baptizōn Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub ISBN 9004172548 Page 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" was an itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3, article "John the Baptist, St" and a major religious figureFunk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus. San Francisco: Harper; "John the Baptist" cameo, p. 268 in Christianity, Islam, the Bahá'í Faith, and Mandaeism. John is described as having the unique practice of baptism for the forgiveness of sins.Crossan, John Dominic (1998). The Essential Jesus. Edison: Castle Books; p. 146 Most scholars agree that John baptized Jesus. Scholars generally believe Jesus was a follower or disciple of JohnSanders, E.P. (1985) Jesus and Judaism. Philadelphia: Fortress Press; p. 91 and several New Testament accounts report that some of Jesus' early followers had previously been followers of John.Harris, Stephen L. (1985) Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield John the Baptist is also mentioned by the Jewish historian Josephus. Some scholars maintain that John was influenced by the semi-ascetic Essenes, who expected an apocalypse and practiced rituals corresponding strongly with baptism, although no direct evidence substantiates this. According to the New Testament, John anticipated a messianic figure greater than himself,Funk, Robert W. & the Jesus Seminar (1998). The Acts of Jesus: the search for the authentic deeds of Jesus.San Francisco: Harper; "Mark," pp. 51–161. and Jesus was the one whose coming John foretold. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus' coming. John is also identified with the prophet Elijah.Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. ISBN 1-55934-655-8.
John Thomson (14 June 1837 – 29 September 1921) was a pioneering Scottish photographer, geographer and traveller.
Sir John Vanbrugh (24 January 1664 (baptised) – 26 March 1726) was an English architect and dramatist, perhaps best known as the designer of Blenheim Palace and Castle Howard.
John Ward (1798–1849)Harbron, Dudley.
Joseph Baumhauer (died 22 March 1772) was a prominent Parisian ébéniste, one of several of German extraction.
Joseph Nollekens R.A. (11 August 1737 – 23 April 1823) was a sculptor from London generally considered to be the finest British sculptor of the late 18th century.
Joseph Wilton (16 July 1722 – 25 November 1803) was an English sculptor.
Josiah Wedgwood (12 July 17303 January 1795) was an English potter who founded the Wedgwood company and is credited with the industrialisation of the manufacture of pottery.
Aimé-Jules Dalou (31 December 1838, in Paris – 15 April 1902, in Paris) was a French sculptor, recognized as one of the most brilliant virtuosos of nineteenth-century France, admired for his perceptiveness, execution, and unpretentious realism.
Julia Margaret Cameron (née Pattle; 11 June 1815 in Calcutta – 26 January 1879) was a British photographer.
Kakiemon (Japanese:柿右衛門) is a style of Japanese enameled ceramics, traditionally produced at the factories of Arita, in Japan's Hizen province (today, Saga Prefecture) from the mid-17th century onwards.
Karl Friedrich Schinkel (13 March 1781 – 9 October 1841) was a Prussian architect, city planner, and painter who also designed furniture and stage sets.
Historically, were one of the traditionally made that were used by the samurai of feudal Japan.
The is a Japanese traditional garment.
, formerly known as Meaco, is a city located in the central part of the island of Honshu, Japan.
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Lace is a delicate fabric made of yarn or thread in an open weblike pattern, made by machine or by hand.
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Lacquer is a clear or coloured wood finish that dries by solvent evaporation or a curing process that produces a hard, durable finish.
Lahore (ALA-LC:; لہور, لاہور ALA-LC) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, the second largest metropolitan area in the country and 16th most populous city in the world.
Laurus nobilis is an aromatic evergreen tree or large shrub with green, glossy leaves, native to the Mediterranean region.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who was better known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer, and one of the pioneers of what is now called modern architecture.
Caroline Lee Bouvier (born March 3, 1933) is an American socialite, public relations executive, interior decorator, and former actress.
The Leighton Frescoes were commissioned in 1868 as the central feature of the elaborate decorations of the Victoria and Albert Museum's South Court.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, more commonly Leonardo da Vinci, (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and the administrative capital of the Limousin région in west-central France.
Linoleum, also called Lino, is a floor covering made from materials such as solidified linseed oil (linoxyn), pine rosin, ground cork dust, wood flour, and mineral fillers such as calcium carbonate, most commonly on a burlap or canvas backing; pigments are often added to the materials.
Liquidambar styraciflua, commonly called American sweetgum, sweetgum, sweet gum, sweet-gum (sweet gum in the UK), hazel pine, American-storax, bilsted, red-gum, satin-walnut, star-leaved gum, or alligator-wood is a deciduous tree in the genus Liquidambar native to warm temperate areas of eastern North America and tropical montane regions of Mexico and Central America.
This article lists the most visited art museums in the world (significant museums where art is the major focus; i.e., some museums that contain art are not included such as the Natural History Museum) based on an attendance survey for 2014 compiled by The Art Newspaper.
This article lists the most visited museums in the United Kingdom (including art galleries).
Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 17)—known as Livy in English—was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.
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A loggia is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level.
A longcase clock, also tall-case clock, floor clock, or grandfather clock, is a tall, freestanding, weight-driven pendulum clock with the pendulum held inside the tower, or waist of the case.
Lost-wax casting (also called "investment casting", "precision casting", or cire perdue in French) is the process by which a duplicate metal sculpture (often silver, gold, brass or bronze) is cast from an original sculpture.
Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass.
Louis Laguerre (1663 – April 20, 1721), was a French decorative painter mainly working in England.
Louis XV (15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774), known as Louis the Beloved (Louis le bien aimé), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death.
Louis-François Roubiliac (more correctly Roubillac) (1702/1705 – 11 January 1762) was a French sculptor who worked in England, one of the four most prominent sculptors in London working in the rococo style, He was described by Margaret Whinney as "probably the most accomplished sculptor ever to work in England".
Luca Carlevarijs or Carlevaris (20 January 1663 – 12 February 1730) was an Italian painter and engraver of landscapes (vedutista).
Luca della Robbia (1399/1400–1482) was an Italian sculptor from Florence, noted for his glazed terracotta roundels, in a technique he apparently developed himself.
Lucas Horenbout, often called Hornebolte in England (c.1490/1495–1544), was a Flemish artist who moved to England in the mid-1520s and worked there as "King's Painter" and court miniaturist to King Henry VIII from 1525 until his death.
Lucian Michael Freud, OM, CH (8 December 1922 – 20 July 2011) was a German-born British painter.
The "Luck of Edenhall" is a glass beaker that was made in Syria or Egypt in the middle of the 14th century, elegantly decorated with arabesques in blue, green, red and white enamel with gilding.
Ludovico (or Lodovico) Carracci (21 April 1555 – 13 November 1619) was an Italian, early-Baroque painter, etcher, and printmaker born in Bologna.
Ludovico Maria Sforza (also known as Ludovico il Moro; 27 July 1452 – 27 May 1508), was Duke of Milan from 1494 until 1499, following the death of his nephew Gian Galeazzo Sforza.
Luisa Ignacia Roldán (8 September 1652 – 10 January 1706), called La Roldana, was a Spanish sculptor of the Baroque Era.
Sir Samuel Luke Fildes, KCVO, RA (3 October 1843 – 28 February 1927) was an English painter and illustrator born at Liverpool and trained in the South Kensington and Royal Academy schools.
Lusterware or Lustreware (respectively the US and all other English spellings) is a type of pottery or porcelain with a metallic glaze that gives the effect of iridescence, produced by metallic oxides in an overglaze finish, which is given a second firing at a lower temperature in a "muffle kiln", reduction kiln, which excludes oxygen.
Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, Marquise de Pompadour, also known as Madame de Pompadour (29 December 1721 – 15 April 1764), was a member of the French court and was the official chief mistress of Louis XV from 1745 to her death.
Maiolica is Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Italian Renaissance.
Man Ray (born Emmanuel Radnitzky, August 27, 1890November 18, 1976) was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France.
The manufacture nationale de Sèvres is a porcelain factory in Sèvres, France.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818.
Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.
Marcel Lajos Breuer (pronounced;22 May 1902 – 1 July 1981), was a Hungarian-born modernist, architect and furniture designer.
Marcus Gheeraerts (also written as Gerards or Geerards) (Bruges, c. 1561/62 – 19 January 1636) was a Flemish artist working at the Tudor court, described as "the most important artist of quality to work in England in large-scale between Eworth and Van Dyck"Strong 1969, p. 22 He was brought to England as a child by his father Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder, also a painter.
Marie Antoinette (or;; baptised Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna; 2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793), born an Archduchess of Austria, was Dauphine of France from 1770 to 1774 and Queen of France and Navarre from 1774 to 1792.
Marion Victoria Dorn also known as Marion Dorn Kauffer (born in Menlo Park, California on December 25, 1896—died in Tangier, Morocco on January 28, 1964) was a textile designer primarily in the form of wall hangings, carpeting and rugs, however she is also known to have produced wallpaper, graphics, and illustrations.
Marlborough House is a Grade I listed mansion in the City of Westminster, central London, in The Mall, London, east of St James's Palace.
Marquetry (also spelled as marqueterie) is the art and craft of applying pieces of veneer to a structure to form decorative patterns, designs or pictures.
Martin Carlin (ca 1730 – 1785) was a Parisian ébéniste, born at Freiburg, who was received master at Paris in 1766.
Martin Roth (born 16 January 1955, Stuttgart) is a German museum director.
Dame Barbara Mary Quant, Mrs Plunket Greene, DBE, FCSD, RDI (born 11 February 1934) is a Welsh fashion designer and British fashion icon.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I of Scotland, was Queen of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567 and Queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.
Massimiliano Soldani-Benzi or Massimiliano Soldani (15 July 1656 – 23 February 1740) was an Italian sculptor and medallist, mainly active in Florence.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
Matthew Brettingham (1699 – 19 August 1769), sometimes called Matthew Brettingham the Elder, was an 18th-century Englishman who rose from humble origins to supervise the construction of Holkham Hall, and become one of the country's best-known architects of his generation.
Matthias Lock was an English 18th century furniture designer and cabinet-maker.
The Möllendorff Dinner Service of Meissen porcelain was designed in about 1762 by Frederick II the Great, King of Prussia (1712–86), in collaboration with Karl Jacob Christian Klipfel, a Meissen artist and musician.
In Greek mythology Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as having the face of a hideous human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.
Meissen porcelain or Meissen china is the first European hard-paste porcelain that was developed from 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Metaphor is a London-based, global design firm that was founded in 2000 by Stephen Greenberg and Rachel Morris.
Sir Michael Hintze,, (born 27 July 1953) is a British-Australian businessman, philanthropist and Conservative Party patron, based in the United Kingdom.
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564), was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art.
Palazzo Medici in Florence. Michelozzo di Bartolomeo Michelozzi (1396–1472) was an Italian architect and sculptor.
In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Egypt (Misr al-Wista) is the section of land between Lower Egypt (the Nile Delta) and Upper Egypt, stretching upstream from Asyut in the south to Memphis, Egypt in the north.
Mila Schön (1916 or 1917Her New York Times obituary states, "Though Ms. Schön's age was confirmed to be 91, her birth year has been reported as both 1916 and 1917." – September 5, 2008) was an Italian-born fashion designer.
Millefleur, millefleurs or mille-fleur (French mille-fleurs, literally "thousand flowers") refers to a background style of many different small flowers and plants, usually shown on a green ground, as though growing in grass.
The Millennium Gallery is an art gallery and museum in the centre of Sheffield, England.
A minbar (also romanized as mimbar or mimber) is a pulpit in the mosque where the imam (prayer leader) stands to deliver sermons (خطبة, khutbah) or in the Hussainia where the speaker sits and lectures the congregation.
The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Minton's Ltd, was a major ceramics manufacturing company, originated with Thomas Minton (1765–1836) the founder of "Thomas Minton and Sons", who established his pottery factory in Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire, England, in 1793, producing earthenware.
A missal is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year.
Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (1622–1673), was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature.
Montacute House is a late Elizabethan mansion with garden in Montacute, South Somerset.
Mortlake is a suburban district of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames on the south bank of the River Thames between Kew and Barnes.
Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
A mosque (مسجد and مسجد masjid, plural مساجد masājid) is a place of worship for followers of Islam.
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.
A museum (/mjuˈziːəm/; ''myoo-'''zee'''-um'') is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance and makes them available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary.
The Museum of Fine Arts (or MFA) in Boston, Massachusetts, is one of the largest museums in the United States.
The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston (MFAH), located in the Houston Museum District, Houston, is one of the largest museums in the United States.
Museum With No Frontiers (MWNF, www.museumwnf.org) is an international non-profit organisation founded on the initiative of Eva Schubert in 1995 in the context of the Barcelona Process Euro-Mediterranean Partnership relaunched as the Union for the Meditarranean). MWNF provides a platform that enables all partners to interact productively and contribute to a transnational presentation of history, art and culture based on equal voices and the equal visibility of all concerned. For that purpose, MWNF develops exhibition formats that do not require moving the artworks, but instead, artefacts in museums, monuments and archaeological sites are presented in situ (Exhibition Trails) trail exhibit (photos by: Sherif Sonbol) or in a virtual environment (the MWNF Virtual Museum). The MWNF Virtual Museum, so far the largest online museum, was launched in 2005. It enables partners from different countries to present a joint theme taking into consideration the perspectives of all concerned and to create virtual ensembles that otherwise could not exist. The first thematic section, www.discoverislamicart.org, was completed in cooperation with partners from 14 countries. Discover Islamic Art presents the heritage of Islam not only in southern Mediterranean countries but also in Europe. Its Database comprises 850 artefacts and 385 monuments and archaeological sites relating to almost 1,300 years of history, from the Umayyad caliphate (AH 41–132 / AD 661–750) until the end of the Ottoman Empire (AH 1340 / AD 1922). 18 Virtual Exhibitions present the history, art and cultural legacy of the great Islamic dynasties of the Mediterranean. Descriptions are available in Arabic, English, French and Spanish; for the Virtual Exhibitions also in German, Italian, Portuguese, Turkish and Swedish. The Virtual Museum's second thematic section, www.discoverbaroqueart.org, was inaugurated in 2010. The newest section, sharinghistory.org, has been online since April 2015. Exhibition Trail is the name of another exhibition format set up by MWNF as a pioneering method to promote cultural tourism. The selected items – artefacts in museums, monuments and archaeological sites – are presented in situ, where the visitor discovers them in their natural environment. Each Exhibition Trail has an accompanying travel book, designed and written by local experts of each country, to be used as a thematic guide during the visit. So far 18 Exhibition Trails have been launched in 11 countries offering a total of 164 thematic itineraries and turning 2,070 local museums, monuments and archaeological sites – to a large extent unknown to non-experts – into key elements of local development. The registered MWNF office is based in Vienna but a small multilingual and highly flexible MWNF team operates around the globe. MWNF is supported by the members of its Board and Honorary Committee and by a committed network of Partners, Friends and Supporters.
The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.
Muslin is a cotton fabric of plain weave.
Mysore, officially renamed as Mysuru, is the third largest city in terms of population in the state of Karnataka, India, which served as the capital city of Mysore Princely Kingdom (Kingdom of Mysore) for nearly six centuries, from 1399 until 1947.
Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act.
National Galleries of Scotland (Gailearaidhean Nàiseanta na h-Alba) is the executive non-departmental public body that controls the three national galleries of Scotland and two partner galleries, forming one of the National Collections of Scotland.
The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London.
The Nativity of Jesus, also called simply The Nativity, refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus in the gospels of Luke and Matthew, and secondarily on some apocryphal texts.
The Natural History Museum in London is a museum exhibiting a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.
The natural horn is a musical instrument that is the ancestor of the modern-day horn, and is differentiated by its lack of valves.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos and κλασσικός klassikòs classicus) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
Neptune and Triton is an early sculpture by the Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini.
are miniature sculptures that were invented in 17th-century Japan to serve a practical function (the two Japanese characters ne+tsuke mean "root" and "to attach").
Sir Nicholas Grimshaw, CBE, PPRA (born 9 October 1939) is a prominent English architect, particularly noted for several modernist buildings, including London's Waterloo International railway station and the Eden Project in Cornwall.
Nicholas Hawksmoor (probably 1661 – 25 March 1736) was an English architect.
Nicholas Hilliard (c. 1547 – 7 January 1619) was an English goldsmith and limner best known for his portrait miniatures of members of the courts of Elizabeth I and James I of England.
Nicholas Stone (1586/87 – 24 August 1647) was an English sculptor and architect.
Nicolas Lancret (22 January 1690 – 14 September 1743), French painter, was born in Paris, and became a brilliant depicter of light comedy which reflected the tastes and manners of French society under the regent Orleans.
In the United Kingdom, non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a classification applied by the Cabinet Office, Treasury, the Scottish Government and the Northern Ireland Executive to quangos (quasi-autonomous non-governmental organisations).
Norfolk House, at 31 St James's Square, London, was built in 1722 for the Duke of Norfolk.
Norman Robert Foster, Baron Foster of Thames Bank, OM, HonFREng (born 1 June 1935) is a British architect whose company, Foster + Partners, maintains an international design practice famous for high-tech architecture.
Sir Norman Bishop Hartnell, KCVO (12 June 1901 – 8 June 1979) was a leading British fashion designer, best known for his work for the ladies of the Royal Family.
Norman Norell (born Norman David Levinson on April 20, 1900 in Noblesville, Indiana; died October 25, 1972 in New York City) was an American fashion designer known for his elegant suits and tailored silhouettes.
Northumberland House (also known as Suffolk House when owned by the Earls of Suffolk) was a large Jacobean townhouse in London, which was so called because for most of its history it was the London residence of the Percy family, who were the Earls and later Dukes of Northumberland, and one of England's richest and most prominent aristocratic dynasties for many centuries.
Nottingham alabaster is a term used to refer to the English sculpture industry, mostly of relatively small religious carvings, which flourished from the fourteenth century until the early sixteenth century.
Oboes are a family of double reed woodwind musical instruments.
New!!: Victoria and Albert Museum and Oboe ·
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are binded with a medium of drying oil.
An old master print is a work of art produced by a printing process within the Western tradition.
An online petition (or Internet petition, or e-petition) is a form of petition which is signed online, usually through a form on a website.
Opus Anglicanum or English work is fine needlework of Medieval England done for ecclesiastical or secular use on clothing, hangings or other textiles, often using gold and silver threads on rich velvet or linen grounds.
Ormolu (from French or moulu, signifying ground or pounded gold) is an English term, used since the 18th century for the technique of applying finely ground, high-carat gold–mercury amalgam to an object of bronze, and for objects finished in this way.
Otto Koloman Wagner (13 July 1841 – 11 April 1918) was an Austro-Hungarian architect and urban planner, known for his lasting impact on the appearance of his home town Vienna, to which he contributed many landmarks.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – AD 17/18), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
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Owen Jones (15 February 1809 – 19 April 1874) was an English-born Welsh architect.
Oxburgh Hall is a moated country house in Oxborough, Norfolk, England, today in the hands of the National Trust.
The Oxburgh Hangings are needlework hangings that are held in Oxburgh Hall, made by Mary, Queen of Scots and Bess of Hardwick.
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio (1508–1580).
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.
A Pastel (UK:; US) is an art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.
Patrick Reyntiens, OBE, (born 1925) is an English stained glass artist, described as the "leading practitioner of stained glass in this country." Andrew Lambirth (14 December 2013), The Spectator.
Paul Cézanne (or;; 1839–1906) was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
Paul de Lamerie (9 April 1688 – 1 August 1751) was a London-based silversmith.
Paul Delaroche"," in the Encyclopædia Britannica,.
Paul Nash (11 May 1889 – 11 July 1946) was a British surrealist painter and war artist, as well as a photographer, writer and designer of applied art.
Sir Paul Pindar (1565–1650) was a merchant and, from 1611 to 1620, was Ambassador of King James I of England to the Ottoman Empire.
Paul Sandby (1731 – 9 November 1809) was an English map-maker turned landscape painter in watercolours, who, along with his older brother Thomas, became one of the founding members of the Royal Academy in 1768.
Paul Storr (1771 London – 4 March 1844 London) was an English goldsmith and silversmith working in the Neoclassical style during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
Paul the Apostle (Paulos; c. 5 – c. 67), originally known as Saul of Tarsus (שאול התרסי; Saulos Tarseus), was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.
A pediment is an element in classical, neoclassical and baroque architecture, and derivatives therefrom, consisting of a gable, originally of a triangular shape, placed above the horizontal structure of the entablature, typically supported by columns.
Percival Ball (17 February 1845 – 4 April 1900) was an English sculptor active in Australia.
A Persian carpet (bōb, فرش farsh, meaning "to spread"; sometimes قالی qālī)Savory, R., Carpets,(Encyclopaedia Iranica); accessed January 30, 2007.
Perugia ((Perusia) is the capital city of the region of Umbria in central Italy, crossed by the river Tiber. The city is also the capital of the province of Perugia. Perugia is located about north of Rome, and south-east of Florence. It covers a high hilltop and part of the valleys around the area. The region of Umbria is bordered by Tuscany, Lazio and Marche. The history of Perugia goes back to the Etruscan period. Perugia was one of the main Etruscan cities. The city is also known as the universities town, with the University of Perugia founded in 1308 (about 34,000 students), the University for Foreigners (5,000 students), and some smaller colleges such the Academy of Fine Arts "Pietro Vannucci" (Accademia di Belle Arti "Pietro Vannucci") public athenaeum founded on 1573, the Perugia University Institute of Linguistic Mediation for translators and interpreters, the Music Conservatory of Perugia, founded on 1788, and others Institutes. There are annual festivals and events: the Eurochocolate Festival (October), the Umbria Jazz Festival (July), and the International Journalism Festival (in April). Perugia is a well-known cultural and artistic centre of Italy. The famous painter Pietro Vannucci, nicknamed Perugino, was a native of Città della Pieve near Perugia. He decorated the local Sala del Cambio with a beautiful series of frescoes; eight of his pictures can also be admired in the National Gallery of Umbria. Perugino was the teacher of Raphael, the great Renaissance artist who produced five paintings in Perugia (today no longer in the city) and one fresco. Another famous painter, Pinturicchio, lived in Perugia. Galeazzo Alessi is the most famous architect from Perugia. The city symbol is the griffin, which can be seen in the form of plaques and statues on buildings around the city.
Peter Carl Fabergé, also known as "Karl Gustavovich Fabergé" (Карл Густавович Фаберже Karl Gustavovich Faberzhe, (30 May 1846 – 24 September 1920), was a Russian jeweller, best known for the famous Fabergé eggs, made in the style of genuine Easter eggs, but using precious metals and gemstones rather than more mundane materials.
Peter Chang is a British artist who works in silicone and molding to produce mastermind.
Peter De Wint (21 January 1784 – 30 January 1849) was an English landscape painter.
Peter Flötner, also Flatner, Flettner, or Floetner (born around 1490 in Thurgau, died 23 October 1546 in Nuremberg) was a German designer, sculptor, and printmaker.
Peter Oliver (1594 – December 1648) was an English miniaturist.
Peter Scheemakers or Pieter Scheemaeckers II or the Younger (16 January 1691 – 12 September 1781) was a Flemish sculptor who worked for most of his life in London, Great Britain where his public and church sculptures in a classicist style had an important influence on the development of sculpture.
Philip James de Loutherbourg (31 October 1740 – 11 March 1812), whose name is sometimes given in the French form of Philippe-Jacques, the German form of Philipp Jakob, or with the English-language epithet of the Younger, was a Franco-British painter who became known for his large naval works, his elaborate set designs for London theatres, and his invention of a mechanical theatre called the "Eidophusikon".
Philip Speakman Webb (12 January 1831 – 17 April 1915) was an English architect sometimes called the Father of Arts and Crafts Architecture.
A photogram is a photographic image made without a camera by placing objects directly onto the surface of a light-sensitive material such as photographic paper and then exposing it to light.
A photograph or photo is an image created by light falling on a light-sensitive surface, usually photographic film or an electronic medium such as a CCD or a CMOS chip.
Photography is the science, art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.
Pier Jacopo Alari Bonacolsi (c. 1460–1528), called "L'Antico" by his contemporaries for the refined interpretation of the Antique they recognized in his work, was a 16th-century North Italian sculptor, known for his finely detailed small bronzes all'Antica—coolly classicizing, often with gilded details, and silver-inlaid eyes, a refinement that is found in some classical and Hellenistic Greek bronzes.
Pierre Camille Cartier (March 10, 1878October 27, 1964) was a French jeweler.
Pierre Cardin, born Pietro Cardin, is an Italian-born French fashion designer who was born on 2 July 1922, in San Biagio di Callalta near Treviso.
Pietro Perugino (c. 1446/1450 – 1523), born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance.
Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus) (c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.
A plaster cast is a copy made in plaster of another 3-dimensional form.
Politics in the Dundee City (Mòr-bhaile Dhùn Dèagh in Gaelic) council area are evident in the deliberations and decisions of Dundee City Council, in elections to the council, and in elections to the Scottish Parliament (Holyrood) and the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom (Westminster).
Pompeo Girolamo Batoni (25 January 1708 – 4 February 1787) was an Italian painter who displayed a solid technical knowledge in his portrait work and in his numerous allegorical and mythological pictures.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
Portland stone is a limestone from the Tithonian stage of the Jurassic period quarried on the Isle of Portland, Dorset.
A portrait miniature is a miniature portrait painting, usually executed in gouache, watercolour, or enamel.
The Portrait of Smeralda Brandini is a tempera on panel painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Sandro Botticelli of about 1475, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, London (museum no. CAI.100).
Printmaking is the process of making artworks by printing, normally on paper.
A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms, often with other devotional material bound in as well, such as a liturgical calendar and litany of the Saints.
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Quilting is the process of sewing of two or more layers of material together to make a thicker padded material, usually to create a quilt or quilted garments.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (الله, Allah).
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Raffaele Monti (1818–1881) was an Italian sculptor, author and poet born in Milan.
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483April 6, 1520), known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance.
The Raphael Cartoons are seven large cartoons for tapestries, belonging to the British Royal Collection but since 1865 on loan to the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, designed by the High Renaissance painter Raphael in 1515–16 and showing scenes from the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles.
Raymond Sackler KBE is a physician, an entrepreneur and philanthropist.
The Red Fort was the residence of the Mughal emperor of India for nearly 200 years, until 1857.
The Regency in the United Kingdom is the period from 1811 to 1820, when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son, the Prince of Wales, ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.
Reims (also spelt Rheims), a city in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
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Relief, or relievo rilievo, is a sculptural technique.
Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 – 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher.
René Jules Lalique (6 April 1860, Ay, Marne1 May 1945, Paris) was a French glass designer known for his creations of glass art, perfume bottles, vases, jewellry, chandeliers, clocks and automobile hood ornaments.
Repoussé or repoussage (respectively) is a metalworking technique in which a malleable metal is ornamented or shaped by hammering from the reverse side to create a design in low relief.
The Restoration of the English monarchy began in 1660 when the English, Scottish and Irish monarchies were all restored under Charles II after the Interregnum that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms.
A retable is a framed altarpiece, raised slightly above the back of the altar or communion table, on which are placed the cross, ceremonial candlesticks and other ornaments.
Richard Cosway RA (5 November 1742 – 4 July 1821) was a leading English portrait painter of the Regency era, noted for his miniatures.
Richard Norman Shaw (7 May 1831 – 17 November 1912) was a British architect who worked from the 1870s to the 1900s, known for his country houses and for commercial buildings.
Richard Parkes Bonington (25 October 1802 – 23 September 1828) was an English Romantic landscape painter, who moved to France at the age of 14 and can also be considered as a French artist, and an intermediary bringing aspects of English style to France.
Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside, CH, Kt, FRIBA, FCSD, HonFREng (born 23 July 1933) is a British architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture.
Richard Wilson (1 August 1714 – 15 May 1782) was an influential British landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy.
Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer.
Robin Day, OBE, FCSD (25 May 1915 – 9 November 2010): Lesley Jackson, ‘Robin Day: Designer best known for his Polypropylene stacking chair’, The Independent, Friday, 19 November 2010 was one of the most significant British furniture designers of the 20th century, enjoying a long career spanning seven decades.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.
The Rococo Revival style emerged in Second Empire France and then was adapted in England.
Roger Fenton (28 March 1819 – 8 August 1869) was a pioneering British photographer, one of the first war photographers.
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
Ron Arad (Hebrew: רון ארד; born 24 April 1951) is an Israeli industrial designer, artist, and architect.
A rood or rood cross, sometimes known as a triumphal cross, is a cross or crucifix, especially the large Crucifixion set above the entrance to the chancel of a medieval church.
New!!: Victoria and Albert Museum and Rood ·
Rosalba Zuanna Carriera (12 January 1673 – 15 April 1757) was a Venetian Rococo painter.
Rouen is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
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Sir Roy Colin Strong FRSL (born 23 August 1935) is an English art historian, museum curator, writer, broadcaster and landscape designer.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royal Albert Hall is a concert hall on the northern edge of South Kensington, London, best known for holding the Proms concerts annually each summer since 1941.
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (often abbreviated to RBKC) is an inner London borough of Royal borough status, to the west of the centre.
The Royal College of Art or RCA is a public research university in London, in the United Kingdom.
The Royal College of Science was a higher education institution located in South Kensington; it was a constituent college of Imperial College London from 1907 until it was wholly absorbed by Imperial in 2002.
Royal Doulton was an English company producing tableware and collectables, dating from 1815.
The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army.
The Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA) is a professional body for architects primarily in the United Kingdom, but also internationally, founded for the advancement of architecture under its charter granted in 1837 and Supplemental Charter granted in 1971.
The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM, Musée royal de l'Ontario) is a museum of art, world culture and natural history in Toronto, Canada.
Royal Worcester is believed to be the oldest or second oldest remaining English porcelain brand still in existence today (disputed by Royal Crown Derby 1750 year of establishment).
Ruth Ford (July 7, 1911, Brookhaven, Mississippi – August 12, 2009, New York City) was an American model and stage and film actress.
Saint Peter (Petrus, Petros, Syriac/Aramaic: ܫܸܡܥܘܿܢ ܟܹ݁ܐܦ݂ܵܐ, Shemayon Keppa, שמעון בר יונה; died 64 AD), also known as Simon Peter, Simeon, or Simōn, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Church.
The Sainte-Chapelle (Holy Chapel) is a royal medieval Gothic chapel, located near the Palais de la Cité, on the Île de la Cité in the heart of Paris, France.
Salisbury Cathedral, formally known as the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary, is an Anglican cathedral in Salisbury, England, and one of the leading examples of Early English architecture.
A salt cellar (also called a salt) is an article of tableware for holding and dispensing salt.
Samarkand (Samarqand; Самарқанд; سمرقند; Cyrillic/Самарканд from Sogdian: "Stone Fort" or "Rock Town"), alternatively Samarqand or Samarcand, traditionally was the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Region.
The sculpture of Samson Slaying a Philistine is the earliest of the great marble groups by Giambologna (1529-1608), sculptor to the Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, and the only substantial work by the artist to have left Italy.
Samuel Bourne (30 October 1834 – 24 April 1912) was a British photographer known for his prolific seven years' work in India, from 1863 to 1870.
Samuel Cooper (1609 – 5 May 1672), sometimes spelt as Samuel Cowper, was an English miniature painter, and younger brother of Alexander Cooper.
Samuel Palmer (27 January 1805 – 24 May 1881) was a British landscape painter, etcher and printmaker.
The Basilica of San Petronio is the main church of Bologna, Emilia Romagna, northern Italy.
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445Patrick, Renaissance and Reformation vol 1, 2007. Other sources give 1446, 1447 or 1444–45. – May 17, 1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance.
The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela (Catedral de Santiago de Compostela), a cathedral of the archdiocese is in the World Heritage Site of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in Spain.
Sébastien Slodtz (1655–1726) was a French sculptor, the father of a trio of brothers who helped shape official French sculpture between the Baroque and the Rococo.
The Science Museum is a major museum on Exhibition Road in South Kensington, London.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba, Scots Government) is the executive branch of the devolved government of Scotland.
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions.
Serge Ivan Chermayeff (birth name: Sergius Ivanovich Issakovitch; Серге́й Иссако́вич; 8 October 1900 – 8 May 1996) was a Russian born, British architect, industrial designer, writer, and co-founder of several architectural societies, including the American Society of Planners and Architects.
The serpent is the bass wind instrument, descended from the cornett, and a distant ancestor of the tuba, with a mouthpiece like a brass instrument but side holes like a woodwind.
Sgraffito (plural: sgraffiti; sometimes spelled scraffito) is a technique either of wall decor, produced by applying layers of plaster tinted in contrasting colours to a moistened surface, or in ceramics, by applying to an unfired ceramic body two successive layers of contrasting slip, and then in either case scratching so as to produce an outline drawing.
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.
Sheffield Galleries and Museums Trust, known as Museums Sheffield is a charity created in 1998 to run Sheffield City Council’s non-industrial museums and galleries.
Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.
This sideboard was designed by Edward William Godwin (1833–86), who was one of the most important exponents of Victorian Japonisme, the appreciation and appropriation of Japanese artistic styles.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
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Simon Marmion (born c. 1425 at Amiens, France, died 24 or 25 December 1489, Valenciennes) was a French or Burgundian Early Netherlandish painter of panels and illuminated manuscripts.
The Sistine Chapel (Sacellum Sixtinum; Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in Vatican City.
Somerset is a county in South West England which borders Gloucestershire and Bristol to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east and Devon to the south-west.
Somerset House is a large Neoclassical building situated on the south side of the Strand in central London, overlooking the River Thames, just east of Waterloo Bridge.
Sophocles (Σοφοκλῆς, Sophoklēs,; 497/6 – winter 406/5 BC)Sommerstein (2002), p. 41.
South Kensington is in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London.
South Kensington is a London Underground station in Kensington, west London.
A spinet is a smaller type of harpsichord or other keyboard instrument, such as a piano or organ.
The term stained glass can refer to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it.
Sir Stanley Spencer KCB CBE RA (30 June 1891 – 14 December 1959) was an English painter.
Strasbourg (Lower Alsatian: Strossburi) is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in north eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Survey of London is a research project to produce a comprehensive architectural survey of the former County of London.
Talbot Hughes (1869–1942) was a British painter (of genre, history and landscape), a collector of historical costumes and miniature portraits, and writer on fine art and costume design.
The Tang dynasty, was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tapestry is a form of textile art, traditionally woven on a vertical loom.
Tate Britain (known from 1897 to 1932 as the National Gallery of British Art and from 1932 to 2000 as the Tate Gallery) is an art gallery situated on Millbank in London.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub native to Asia.
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Terracotta, terra cotta or terra-cotta (Italian: "baked earth", from the Latin terra cocta), a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic, where the fired body is porous.
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres often referred to as thread or yarn.
Étienne Pierre Théodore Rousseau (April 15, 1812 – December 22, 1867) was a French painter of the Barbizon school.
The Art Fund (formerly the National Art Collections Fund) is an independent membership-based British charity, which raises funds to aid the acquisition of artworks for the nation.
The Art Newspaper is a monthly newspaper about the visual arts based in London established in 1983 and published by the Italian publishing house Umberto Allemandi.
The Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, sometimes referred to as the Crystal Palace Exhibition in reference to the temporary structure in which it was held, was an international exhibition that took place in Hyde Park, London, from 1 May to 11 October 1851.
The Hay Wain is a painting by John Constable, finished in 1821, which depicts a rural scene on the River Stour between the English counties of Suffolk and Essex.
The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
The School of Athens, or Scuola di Atene in Italian, is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance artist Raphael.
Antonio Canova’s statue The Three Graces is a Neoclassical sculpture, in marble, of the mythological three charites, daughters of Zeus – identified on some engravings of the statue as, from left to right, Euphrosyne, Aglaea and Thalia - who were said to represent beauty, charm and joy.
The Theatre Museum in the Covent Garden district of London, England, was the United Kingdom's national museum of the performing arts.
Thomas Banks (December 29, 1735 – February 2, 1805) was an important 18th-century English sculptor.
Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; 21 December c. 1118 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170.
Sir Thomas Brock (Worcester 1 March 1847 – 22 August 1922) was an English sculptor, whose works include the monument to Queen Victoria in front of Buckingham Palace.
Thomas Chippendale (probably born at Otley, West Riding of Yorkshire, baptised at Otley – November 1779) was a London cabinet-maker and furniture designer in the mid-Georgian, English Rococo, and Neoclassical styles.
Thomas Flatman (21 February 1635 – 8 December 1688) was an English poet and miniature painter.
Thomas Gainsborough FRSA (christened 14 May 1727, died 2 August 1788) was an English portrait and landscape painter, draughtsman, and printmaker.
Thomas Girtin (18 February 1775 – 9 November 1802) was an English painter and etcher.
Thomas Hope (30 August 1769 – 3 February 1830/1831), was a Dutch and British merchant banker, author, philosopher and art collector, best known for his novel Anastasius a work which many experts considered a rival to the writings of Lord Byron.
Thomas Hopper (1776–1856) was an English architect of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, much favoured by King George IV, and particularly notable for his work on country houses across southern England, with occasional forays further afield, into Wales and Northern Ireland.
Sir Thomas Lawrence PRA FRS (13 April 1769 – 7 January 1830) was a leading English portrait painter and president of the Royal Academy. Lawrence was a child prodigy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper. At the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. At eighteen he went to London and soon established his reputation as a portrait painter in oils, receiving his first royal commission, a portrait of Queen Charlotte, in 1790. He stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, in 1830. Self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint. He became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1791, a full member in 1794, and president in 1820. In 1810 he acquired the generous patronage of the Prince Regent, was sent abroad to paint portraits of allied leaders for the Waterloo chamber at Windsor Castle, and is particularly remembered as the Romantic portraitist of the Regency. Lawrence's love affairs were not happy (his tortuous relationships with Sally and Maria Siddons became the subject of several books) and, in spite of his success, he spent most of life deep in debt. He never married. At his death, Lawrence was the most fashionable portrait painter in Europe. His reputation waned during Victorian times, but has since been partially restored.
Thomas Rowlandson (13 July 1756 – 21 April 1827) was an English artist and caricaturist.
Thomas Tompion (1639–1713) was an English clock maker, watchmaker and mechanician who is still regarded to this day as the Father of English Clockmaking.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to over curves and exceptionally weighing up to in the wild.
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Tilman Riemenschneider (c. 1460 – 7 July 1531) was a German sculptor and woodcarver active in Würzburg from 1483.
Tintoretto (born Jacopo Comin, late September or early October, 1518 – May 31, 1594) was an Italian painter and a notable exponent of the Renaissance school.
Tipu Sultan (Urdu:ٹیپو سلطان, Kannada: ಟಿಪ್ಪು ಸುಲ್ತಾನ್) (20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tiger of Mysore, Dipu Sultan and Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tipu's Tiger or Tippu's Tiger is an 18th-century automaton or mechanical toy created for Tipu Sultan, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore in India.
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (1488/1490 – 27 August 1576), known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school.
Tiziano Aspetti (1557/1559 - 1606) was an Italian sculptor of the Renaissance.
A tomb (from τύμβος tumbos) is a repository for the remains of the dead.
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(commonly referred to as Toshiba, stylized as TOSHIBA) is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum), known in Dutch as Doornik, is a Walloon city and municipality of Belgium located west-southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt, in the province of Hainaut.
Trajan's Column (Colonna Traiana, COLVMNA·TRAIANI) is a Roman triumphal column in Rome, Italy, that commemorates Roman emperor Trajan's victory in the Dacian Wars.
The Tristan Quilt, sometimes called the Tristan and Isolde Quilt or the Guicciardini Quilt, is one of the earliest surviving quilts in the world.
The Tudor period is the period between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales. It coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (14571509).
The University of Dundee (abbreviated as Dund. for post-nominals) is a public research university based in the city and Royal burgh of Dundee on the east coast of the central Lowlands of Scotland, United Kingdom.
Urbino is a walled city in the Marche region of Italy, south-west of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site notable for a remarkable historical legacy of independent Renaissance culture, especially under the patronage of Federico da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino from 1444 to 1482.
The V&A Museum of Childhood in Bethnal Green in the East End of London is a branch of the Victoria and Albert Museum (the "V&A"), which is the United Kingdom's national museum of applied arts.
The V&A Rotunda Chandelier (often known as V&A Chandelier and originally called Ice Blue and Spring Green Chandelier) is a glass sculpture by Dale Chihuly.
The V&A Village Fete is an annual event held at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.
Valencia, or València, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Valentino Clemente Ludovico Garavani (born 11 May 1932 in Voghera, Italy), best known as Valentino, is an Italian fashion designer and founder of the Valentino SpA brand and company.
Veit Stoss (also: Veit Stoß; Wit Stwosz; before 1450 - about 20 September 1533) was a leading German sculptor, mostly in wood, whose career covered the transition between the late Gothic and the Northern Renaissance.
Venetian glass is a type of glass object made in Venice, Italy, primarily on the island of Murano.
Verner Panton (13 February 1926 – 5 September 1998) is considered one of Denmark's most influential 20th-century furniture and interior designers.
Veronica Whall (1887–1967 or 1970) was an English illustrator, painter and successful stained glass artist.
Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religion, especially among the Eastern Orthodox, Catholics (Latin Rite and others), Anglicans, and Lutherans.
The Victoria and Albert Museum Spiral (or V&A Spiral, or The Spiral) was a proposed extension to a 19th-century London building that is home to the world's largest museum of decorative arts.
The Victorian era of British history (and that of the British Empire) was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death, on 22 January 1901.
The Vincennes porcelain manufactory was established in 1740 in the disused royal Château de Vincennes, in Vincennes, east of Paris, which was from the start the main market for its wares.
Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.
The virginals or virginal (the plural does not necessarily denote more than one instrument) is a keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
Dame Vivienne Westwood, DBE, RDI (born Vivienne Isabel Swire on 8 April 1941) is an English fashion designer and businesswoman, largely responsible for bringing modern punk and new wave fashions into the mainstream.
Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (Commonwealth and Ireland), also aquarelle from French, is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-soluble vehicle.
Wells Wintemute Coates OBE (December 17, 1895 – June 17, 1958) was an architect, designer and writer.
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
William Blake (28 November 1757 – 12 August 1827) was an English poet, painter, and printmaker.
William Burges (2 December 1827 – 20 April 1881) was an English architect and designer.
Sir William Chambers (23 February 1723 – 10 March 1796) was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London.
Sir William Charles Ross (3 June 1794 – 20 Jan 1860) was an English portrait and portrait miniature painter of Scottish descent; early in his career, he was known for historical paintings.
William Frend De Morgan (16 November 1839 – 15 January 1917) was an English potter and tile designer.
William Etty (10 March 1787 – 13 November 1849) was an English artist best known for his history paintings containing nude figures.
William Gilpin (4 June 1724 – 1804) was an English artist, Anglican cleric, schoolmaster and author, best known as one of the originators of the idea of the picturesque.
William Hogarth (10 November 1697 – 26 October 1764) was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited with pioneering western sequential art.
William Kent (c. 1685 – 12 April 1748) was an eminent English architect, landscape architect and furniture designer of the early 18th century.
William Kilburn (1745–1818) was an illustrator for William Curtis' Flora Londinensis, as well as a leading designer and printer of calico.
William Morris (24 March 1834 – 3 October 1896) was an English textile designer, poet, novelist, translator, and socialist activist.
William Mulready (1 April 1786 – 7 July 1863) was an Irish genre painter living in London.
Sir William Newzam Prior Nicholson (5 February 1872 – 16 May 1949) was an English painter of still-life, landscape and portraits, also known for his work as a wood-engraver, illustrator, author of children's books and designer for the theatre.
William Powell Frith (19 January 1819 – 9 November 1909) was an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era.
William Thomas Beckford (1 October 1760 – 2 May 1844), usually known as William Beckford, was an English novelist, a profligate and consummately knowledgeable art collector and patron of works of decorative art, a critic, travel writer and sometime politician, reputed at one stage in his life to be the richest commoner in England.
Wiltshire is a county in South West England with an area of.
The wine cup of Shah Jahan is a wine cup of white nephrite jade that was made for the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
puddled iron, a form of wrought iron Wrought iron is an iron alloy with a very low carbon (less than 0.08%) content in contrast to cast iron (2.1% to 4%), and has fibrous inclusions known as slag up to 2% by weight.
Percy Wyndham Lewis (18 November 1882 – 7 March 1957) was an English painter and author (he dropped the name 'Percy', which he disliked).
The Xuande Emperor (16 March 1399 31 January 1435), personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty of China, ruling from 1425 to 1435.
Yves Henri Donat Mathieu-Saint-Laurent (1 August 1936 – 1 June 2008), known as Yves Saint Laurent, was a French fashion designer, and is regarded as one of the greatest names in fashion history.
Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid, DBE (زها حديد Zahā Ḥadīd; born 31 October 1950) is an Iraqi-British architect.
Dame Zandra Lindsey Rhodes, (born 19 September 1940), is an English fashion designer.
National Museum of Applied Arts, South Kensington Museum, The Victoria and Albert Museum, V & A, V & A Museum, V & A Publications, V & A Publishing, V and A Museum, V&A, V&A Museum, V&A Publishing, V+A Museum, Victoria & Albert Museum, Victoria Albert Museum, Victoria and Albert museum.