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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds, that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids, and beta-carotene. [1]

114 relations: Acne vulgaris, Alcohol, Aldehyde, Alpha-Carotene, Anorexia (symptom), Apoptosis, Apricot, Beta-Carotene, Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase, Bitot's spots, Broccoli, Burkina Faso, Butter, Canadian International Development Agency, Cantaloupe, Carbohydrate, Carotene, Carotenoid, Carotenosis, Carrot, Cheddar cheese, Child mortality, Cod liver oil, Collard greens, Color vision, Congenital disorder, Cryptoxanthin, David Adriaan van Dorp, Diet (nutrition), Dietary Reference Intake, Edible seaweed, Egg (food), Elmer McCollum, Epithelium, Ester, Fat, Food, François Magendie, Frederick Gowland Hopkins, Gamma-Carotene, Gram, Growth factor, Haematopoiesis, Harry Steenbock, Helen Keller International, Herbivore, Hormone, Hox gene, Hypervitaminosis A, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, ..., Immune system, Insomnia, International unit, Ionone, Isoprene, Isotretinoin, Kale, Keratomalacia, Keratosis pilaris, Kilogram, Lafayette Mendel, Liver (food), Low-fat diet, Mango, Microgram, Micronutrient Initiative, Milk, Millennium Development Goals, National Academy of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, Nuclear receptor, Nyctalopia, Opsin, Orange (colour), Organic compound, Papaya, Paul Karrer, Pea, Postpartum period, Protein, Provitamin, Pumpkin, Renal failure, Retina, Retinal, Retinoic acid, Retinoid, Retinol, Retinyl acetate, Retinyl palmitate, Rhodopsin, Scotopic vision, Small intestine, Spinach, Squamous metaplasia, Sweet potato, Taraxacum, Teratology, Thomas Burr Osborne (chemist), Tomato, Toxicity, UNICEF, United Nations, United States Agency for International Development, United States Department of Agriculture, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Veganism, Vegetarianism, World Bank, Xanthophyll, Xeroderma, Xerophthalmia, Yale University, Zinc. Expand index (64 more) »

Acne vulgaris

Acne vulgaris (or simply acne) is a long-term skin condition characterized by areas of blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, greasy skin, and possibly scarring.

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Alcohol

In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.

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Aldehyde

An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a formyl group.

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Alpha-Carotene

α-Carotene is a form of carotene with a β-ionone ring at one end and an α-ionone ring at the opposite end.

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Anorexia (symptom)

Anorexia is the decreased sensation of appetite.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

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Apricot

An apricot is a fruit or the tree that bears the fruit of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Beta-Carotene

β-Carotene is a strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.

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Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase

Beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (blh (gene)) is an enzyme with system name beta-carotene:oxygen 15,15'-dioxygenase (bond-cleaving).

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Bitot's spots

Bitot's spots are the buildup of keratin located superficially in the conjunctiva, which are oval, triangular or irregular in shape.

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Broccoli

Broccoli is an edible green plant in the cabbage family whose large flowerhead is eaten as a vegetable.

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa around in size.

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Butter

Butter is a solid dairy product made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk, to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk.

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Canadian International Development Agency

The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) was an organization that administered foreign aid programs in developing countries, and operated in partnership with other Canadian organizations in the public and private sectors as well as other international organizations.

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Cantaloupe

Cantaloupe (also cantelope, cantaloup, muskmelon (India and the United States), mushmelon, rockmelon, sweet melon, honeydew, Persian melon, or spanspek (South Africa)) refers to a variety of Cucumis melo, a species in the family Cucurbitaceae.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biological molecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m could be different from n).

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Carotene

The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the sole known exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthetic genes from fungi).

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Carotenoid

Carotenoids are organic pigments that are found in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms, including some bacteria and some fungi.

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Carotenosis

Carotenemia or carotenaemia (xanthaemia) is the presence of the orange pigment carotene in blood from excessive intake of carrots or other vegetables containing the pigment resulting in increased serum carotenoids.

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Carrot

The carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus) is a root vegetable, usually orange in colour, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist.

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Cheddar cheese

Cheddar cheese is a relatively hard, off-white (or orange if spices such as annatto are added), sometimes "sharp" (i.e., acidic)-tasting, natural cheese.

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Child mortality

Child mortality, also known as under-5 mortality or child death, refers to the death of infants and children under the age of five or between the age of one month to four years depending on the definition.

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Cod liver oil

Cod liver oil is a nutritional supplement derived from liver of cod fish.

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Collard greens

Collard greens (collards) are various loose-leafed cultivars of Brassica oleracea, part of the Acephala group, which also contains cabbage and broccoli.

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Color vision

Color vision is the ability of an organism or machine to distinguish objects based on the wavelengths (or frequencies) of the light they reflect, emit, or transmit.

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Congenital disorder

Congenital disorder, also known as congenital disease, birth defect or anomaly, is a condition existing at or before birth regardless of cause.

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Cryptoxanthin

Cryptoxanthin is a natural carotenoid pigment.

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David Adriaan van Dorp

David 'Davy' Adriaan van Dorp (April 27, 1915 in Amsterdam – February 19, 1995 in Vlaardingen) was a Dutch chemist.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary Reference Intake

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).

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Edible seaweed

Edible seaweed are algae that can be eaten and used in the preparation of food.

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Egg (food)

Eggs are laid by female animals of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by humans for thousands of years.

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Elmer McCollum

Elmer Verner McCollum ForMemRS (March 3, 1879 – November 15, 1967) was an American biochemist known for his work on the influence of diet on health.

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Epithelium

Epithelium (''epi-'' + ''thele'' + ''-ium'') is one of the four basic types of animal tissue.

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Ester

In chemistry, esters are chemical compounds derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one -OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an -O-alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Fat

Fat is one of the three main macronutrients: fat, carbohydrate, and protein. Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body.

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François Magendie

François Magendie (6 October 1783 – 7 October 1855) was a French physiologist, considered a pioneer of experimental physiology.

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Frederick Gowland Hopkins

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins OM FRS (20 June 1861 – 16 May 1947) was an English biochemist who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1929, with Christiaan Eijkman, for the discovery of vitamins.

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Gamma-Carotene

γ-Carotene is a carotenoid, and is a biosynthetic intermediate for cyclized carotenoid synthesis in plants.

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Gram

The gram (alternative British English spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Greek/Latin root grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.

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Growth factor

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.

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Haematopoiesis

Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.

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Harry Steenbock

Harry Steenbock (August 16, 1886, Charlestown, Wisconsin – December 25, 1967, Madison, Wisconsin) was a Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

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Helen Keller International

Helen Keller International (HKI) combats the causes and consequences of blindness and malnutrition by establishing programs based on evidence and research in vision, health and nutrition.

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Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Hormone

A hormone (from Greek ὁρμή, "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Hox gene

Hox genes (also known as homeotic genes) are a group of related genes that control the body plan of an embryo along the anterior-posterior (head-tail) axis.

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Hypervitaminosis A

Hypervitaminosis A refers to the toxic effects of ingesting too much preformed vitamin A. Symptoms arise as a result of altered bone metabolism and altered metabolism of other fat-soluble vitamins.

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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), sometimes called by the older names benign intracranial hypertension (BIH) or pseudotumor cerebri (PTC), is a neurological disorder that is characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) in the absence of a tumor or other diseases.

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Immune system

The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Insomnia

Insomnia, or trouble sleeping, is a sleep disorder in which there is an inability to fall asleep or to stay asleep as long as desired.

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International unit

In pharmacology, the international unit is a unit of measurement for the amount of a substance; the mass or volume that constitutes one international unit varies based on which substance is being measured, and the variance is based on the biological activity or effect, for the purpose of easier comparison across substances.

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Ionone

The ionones are a series of closely related chemical substances that are part of a group of compounds known as rose ketones, which also includes damascones and damascenones.

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Isoprene

Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.

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Isotretinoin

Isotretinoin (INN) (etymology and pronunciation), also known as 13-cis retinoic acid and first marketed as Accutane by Hoffmann-La Roche, is an oral pharmaceutical drug primarily used to treat cystic acne.

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Kale

Kale or boerenkool is a vegetable of the plant species Brassica oleracea with green or purple leaves, in which the central leaves do not form a head.

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Keratomalacia

Keratomalacia is an eye disorder that results from vitamin A deficiency.

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Keratosis pilaris

Keratosis pilaris (KP) (also follicular keratosis, lichen pilaris, or colloquially "chicken skin") is a common, autosomal dominant, genetic follicular condition characterized by the appearance of rough, slightly red, bumps on the skin.

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Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg), is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) (the Metric system) and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK).

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Lafayette Mendel

Lafayette Benedict Mendel (February 5, 1872 – December 9, 1935) was an American biochemist known for his work in nutrition including the study of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, lysine and tryptophan.

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Liver (food)

The liver of mammals, fowl, and fish is commonly eaten as food by humans.

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Low-fat diet

A low-fat diet is one that restricts fat and often saturated fat and cholesterol as well.

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Mango

The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit.

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Microgram

In the metric system, a microgram (µg; in the U.S. recommended when communicating medical information: mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth of a kilogram, one millionth of a gram, or one thousandth of a milligram.

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Micronutrient Initiative

The Micronutrient Initiative (MI) is an international not for profit agency based in Canada that works to eliminate vitamin and mineral deficiencies in developing countries.

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Milk

Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the eight international development goals that were established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

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National Academy of Medicine

The National Academy of Medicine, known as the Institute of Medicine (IOM) until June 30, 2015, is an American non-profit, non-governmental organization founded in 1970, under the congressional charter of the National Academy of Sciences.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a private non-profit organization in the United States.

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Nuclear receptor

In the field of molecular biology, nuclear receptors are a class of proteins found within cells that are responsible for sensing steroid and thyroid hormones and certain other molecules.

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Nyctalopia

Nyctalopia (from Greek νύκτ-, nykt- "night"; αλαός, alaos "blind, not seeing", and ὄψ, ops "eye"), also called night-blindness, is a condition making it difficult or impossible to see in relatively low light.

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Opsin

Opsins are a group of light-sensitive proteins found in photoreceptor cells of the retina.

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Orange (colour)

Orange is the colour between red and yellow on the spectrum of light, and in the traditional colour wheel used by painters.

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Organic compound

An organic compound is any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon.

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Papaya

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw (is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, and is one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighbouring Central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into large fruit - long and in diameter. The fruit is a type of berry. It is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.

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Paul Karrer

Paul Karrer (21 April 1889 – 18 June 1971) was a Swiss organic chemist best known for his research on vitamins.

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Pea

The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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Postpartum period

A postpartum period or postnatal period is the period beginning immediately after the birth of a child and extending for about six weeks.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Provitamin

A provitamin is a substance that may be converted within the body to a vitamin.

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Pumpkin

A pumpkin is a cultivar of the squash plant, most commonly of Cucurbita pepo, that is round, with smooth, slightly ribbed skin, and deep yellow to orange coloration.

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Renal failure

Renal failure, also known as kidney failure or renal insufficiency, is a medical condition in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste products from the blood.

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Retina

The retina (pl. retinae,; from Latin rēte, meaning "net") is the third and inner coat of the eye which is a light-sensitive layer of tissue.

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Retinal

Retinal, also called retinaldehyde or vitamin A aldehyde, is one of the many forms of vitamin A (the number of which varies from species to species).

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Retinoic acid

Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A (retinol) that mediates the functions of vitamin A required for growth and development.

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Retinoid

The retinoids are a class of chemical compounds that are vitamers of vitamin A or are chemically related to it.

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Retinol

Retinol is one of the animal forms of vitamin A. It is a diterpenoid and an alcohol.

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Retinyl acetate

Retinyl acetate (retinol acetate, vitamin A acetate) is a natural form of vitamin A which is the acetate ester of retinol.

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Retinyl palmitate

Retinyl palmitate, or vitamin A palmitate, is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) and palmitic acid, with formula C36H60O2.

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Rhodopsin

Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon, “rose”), due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis, “sight”), is a light-sensitive receptor protein.

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Scotopic vision

Scotopic vision is the vision of the eye under low light conditions.

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Small intestine

The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where much of the digestion and absorption of food takes place.

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Spinach

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is an edible flowering plant in the family Amaranthaceae native to central and western Asia.

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Squamous metaplasia

Squamous metaplasia refers to benign non-cancerous change (metaplasia) of (non-squamous) surfacing lining cells (epithelium) to a squamous morphology.

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Sweet potato

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae.

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Taraxacum

Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae and consists of species commonly known as dandelion.

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Teratology

Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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Thomas Burr Osborne (chemist)

Thomas Burr Osborne (August 5, 1859 – January 29, 1929) was a biochemist and co-discoverer of Vitamin A. He is known for his work isolating and characterizing seed proteins, and for determining protein nutritional requirements.

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Tomato

The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red berry-type fruit of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.

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Toxicity

Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage an organism.

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UNICEF

No description.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United States Agency for International Development

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is the United States Government agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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University of Wisconsin–Madison

The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, "UW", or regionally as, UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university located in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.

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Veganism

Veganism is both the practice of abstaining from the use of animal products, particularly in diet, and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals.

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Vegetarianism

Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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Xanthophyll

Xanthophylls (originally phylloxanthins) are yellow pigments that occur widely in nature and form one of two major divisions of the carotenoid group; the other division is formed by the carotenes.

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Xeroderma

Xeroderma or xerodermia (also known as xerosis cutis), derived from the Greek words for "dry skin", is a condition involving the integumentary system, which in most cases can safely be treated with emollients or moisturizers.

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Xerophthalmia

Xerophthalmia (Greek for dry eyes, from Ξηροφθαλμία.

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Yale University

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Zinc

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vitamin_A

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