106 relations: Affricate consonant, Albanian alphabet, Albanian language, Aspirated consonant, Australian English, Australian English phonology, Auvergnat dialect, Balearic dialect, Banat Bulgarian dialect, Basque alphabet, Basque language, Blackfoot language, Bulgarian language, Caryocar brasiliense, Catalan language, Catalan orthography, Catalan phonology, Chinese language, Consonant, Corsican alphabet, Corsican language, Czech language, Czech orthography, Czech phonology, Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române, Dinka alphabet, Dinka language, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Ega language, English language, English orthography, English phonology, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Friulian language, Front vowel, Gallurese dialect, Gheg Albanian, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Gweno language, Hungarian language, Hungarian orthography, Hungarian phonology, Icelandic language, Icelandic orthography, Icelandic phonology, Index of phonetics articles, ..., International Phonetic Alphabet, Interrogative word, Irish language, Irish orthography, Irish phonology, Italian language, Italian orthography, Italian phonology, Khmer alphabet, Khmer language, Kinyarwanda, Languages of India, Latvian language, Latvian orthography, Limousin dialect, Low German, Luganda, Macedonian alphabet, Macedonian language, Macedonian phonology, Makedon (mythology), Modern Greek phonology, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Norwegian phonology, Occitan language, Plautdietsch language, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Portuguese phonology, Rio de Janeiro (state), Romanian alphabet, Romanian language, Romanian phonology, Romansh language, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, Stop consonant, Surmiran dialect, Sursilvan dialects (Romansh), Tadaksahak, Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese Romanization System, Tosk Albanian, Turkish alphabet, Turkish language, Turkish phonology, Upper Arrernte language, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese phonology, Voiceless palato-alveolar affricate, West Frisian language, Western Desert language, X-SAMPA. Expand index (56 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
The modern Albanian alphabet is a Latin alphabet, and consists of 36 letters: Note: The vowels are shown in bold.
Albanian (shqip or gjuha shqipe, meaning Albanian language) is an Indo-European language spoken by five million people, primarily in Albania, Kosovo, the Republic of Macedonia, and Greece, but also in other areas of Southeastern Europe in which there is an Albanian population, including Montenegro and the Preševo Valley of Serbia.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.
Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.
Auvergnat (French name) or Auvernhat (native name) is one of several varieties of the Occitan language spoken in Auvergne, which is a historical province in the northern part of Occitania.
Balearic (balear) is the collective name for the dialects of Catalan spoken in the Balearic Islands: mallorquí in Majorca, eivissenc in Ibiza, and menorquí in Minorca.
The Banat Bulgarian (Banat Bulgarian: Palćena balgarsćija jázić, Banátsća balgarsćija jázić; банатски български език, Banatski balgarski ezik; Banater Bulgarische Sprache; Bánsági bolgár nyelv; Limba bulgarilor bănăţeni; Банатски бугарски језик, Banatski bugarski jezik) is the outermost dialect of the Bulgarian language with standardized writing and an old literary tradition.
The Basque alphabet is a Latin alphabet used to write the Basque language.
Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
Blackfoot, also known as Siksika (ᓱᖽᐧᖿ) – the language's denomination in ISO 639-3 – Pikanii, Pied Noir, and Blackfeet, is the Algonquian language spoken by the Blackfoot tribes of Native Americans, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America.
Caryocar brasiliense, known as Pequi or "souari nut", like its congeners, is an edible fruit popular in some areas of Brazil, especially in Brazil's central-west region.
Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
The phonology of Catalan, a Romance language, has a certain degree of dialectal variation.
Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
New!!: Voiceless palatal stop and Consonant ·
The modern Corsican alphabet (Corsican u santacroce or u salteriu) uses 22 basic letters taken from the Latin alphabet with some changes, plus some multigraphs.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance language spoken and written on the islands of Corsica (France) and northern Sardinia (Italy).
Czech (čeština), formerly known as Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language spoken by over 10 million people.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
This article discusses the phonological system of the Czech language.
Dicționarul explicativ al limbii române ("The Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language", known under the abbreviation of DEX) is the most important dictionary of the Romanian language, published by the Institute of Linguistics of the Romanian Academy (Institutul de Lingvistică "Iorgu Iordan – Al. Rosetti").
The Dinka alphabet as used by South Sudanese Dinka people writing the Dinka language is Latin, adding some letters adapted from the International Phonetic Alphabet to the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Dinka, or, is a Nilotic dialect cluster spoken by the Dinka people, the major ethnic group of South Sudan.
Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet according to a system which has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Ega, also known as Egwa and Diés, is a language of uncertain affiliation within the Niger–Congo language family spoken in Ivory Coast.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English orthography is the orthography used in writing the English language, including English spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
Like many languages, English has wide variation in pronunciation, both historically and from dialect to dialect.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
This article mainly discusses the phonological system of standard French based on the Parisian dialect.
Friulian or Friulan (or affectionately marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian), is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance idiom spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia.
Gheg (or Geg) (Gegë) is one of the two major varieties of Albanian.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the 8th century BC.
Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
Gweno is a Bantu language spoken in the North Pare Mountains in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania.
Hungarian is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Hungarian orthography (Hungarian: helyesírás, lit. ‘correct writing’) consists of rules defining the standard written form of the Hungarian language.
The phonology of the Hungarian language is notable for its process of vowel harmony, the frequent use of geminate consonants and the presence of otherwise uncommon palatal stops.
Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelt and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
Unlike many languages, Icelandic has only very minor dialectal differences in sounds, due to the relatively small number of speakers and the concentration of these speakers in mostly one area.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, why and how.
Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
The phonology of the Irish language varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of Irish.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
The phonology of Italian describes the sound system—the phonology and phonetics—of Standard Italian and its geographical variants.
The Khmer alphabet or Khmer script (អក្សរខ្មែរ) Huffman, Franklin.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ, or more formally ខេមរភាសា) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Kinyarwanda, also known as Rwanda (Ruanda) or Rwandan, or in Uganda as Fumbira, is the official language of Rwanda and a dialect of the Rwanda-Rundi language spoken by 12 million people in Burundi and adjacent parts of southern Uganda.
There are several languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 75% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by most of the rest of Indians.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is the official state language of Latvia.
Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.
Limousin (Lemosin) is a dialect of the Occitan language, spoken in the three departments of Limousin, parts of Charente and the Dordogne in the southwest of France.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Luganda (Oluganda) is the major language of Uganda, spoken by over five million Baganda and other people mainly in Southern Uganda, including the capital Kampala.
New!!: Voiceless palatal stop and Luganda ·
The orthography of Macedonian includes an alphabet (Македонска азбука, Makedonska azbuka), which is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script, as well as language-specific conventions of spelling and punctuation.
Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
This article discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect.
Makedon, also Macedon (Μακεδών) or Makednos (Μακεδνός), was the eponymous mythological ancestor of the ancient Macedonians according to various ancient Greek fragmentary narratives.
This article deals with the phonology and phonetics of Standard Modern Greek.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, Northern Norwegian (nordnorsk), Central Norwegian (trøndersk), Western Norwegian (vestlandsk), and Eastern Norwegian (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
The sound system of Norwegian resembles that of Swedish.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, was originally a Low Prussian variety of East Low German, with Dutch influence, that developed in the 16th and 17th centuries in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.
The Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet, and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla, to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
The phonology of Portuguese can vary considerably between dialects, in extreme cases leading to difficulties in intelligibility.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the 27 states of Brazil.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
In the phonology of the Romanian language, the phoneme inventory consists of seven vowels, two or four semivowels (different views exist), and twenty consonants.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian and is used as the medium of instruction of schools in Romansh-speaking areas.
Slovak (slovenský jazyk,; slovenčina; not to be confused with slovenski jezik or slovenščina, the native names of the Slovene language) is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, Silesian, Kashubian, and Sorbian).
Slovak orthography uses the Latin script with small modifications that include the four diacritics (ˇ, ´, ¨, ˆ) placed above certain letters.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Surmiran is a group of dialects of the Romansh language.
Sursilvan is a group of dialects of the Romansh language spoken in the Surselva, on the western bank of the Rhine.
The Dawsahak language, Tadaksahak (also Daoussahak, Dausahaq, and other spellings) is a Songhay language spoken by the pastoralist Idaksahak of the Ménaka area of Mali.
Taiwanese Hokkien (Tâi-lô: Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gí / Tâi-uân Bân-lâm-gú), commonly known as Taiwanese (Tâi-oân-oē or Tâi-gí / Tâi-gú 臺語), is a variant of Hokkien spoken by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
The Taiwanese Romanization System (Taiwanese Romanization: Tâi-uân Lô-má-jī Phing-im Hong-àn,; often referred to as Tâi-lô) is a transcription system for Taiwanese Hokkien.
Tosk is the southern dialect group of the Albanian language, spoken by the ethnographic group known as Tosks.
The Turkish alphabet is an alphabet derived from the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.
A notable feature of Turkish phonology is a system of vowel harmony that causes vowels in most words to be either front or back and either rounded or unrounded.
Arrernte or Aranda, or more specifically Upper Arrernte (Upper Aranda), is a dialect cluster spoken in and around Alice Springs (Mparntwe in Arrernte) in the Northern Territory, Australia.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally national language script) is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.
This article is a technical description of the sound system of the Vietnamese language, including phonetics and phonology.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
West Frisian, or simply Frisian (Frysk; Fries) is a language spoken mostly in the province of Friesland (Fryslân) in the north of the Netherlands, mostly by those of Frisian ancestry.
The Western Desert language, or Wati, is a dialect cluster of Australian Aboriginal languages in the Pama–Nyungan family.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at the University of London.
New!!: Voiceless palatal stop and X-SAMPA ·