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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south. [1]

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Expand index (904 more) »

A. H. Dodd

Professor Arthur Herbert Dodd (1891 - 21 May 1975) was an academic historian who taught and published widely, specialising in the politics of the Tudor and Stuart periods, Welsh history, and the history of the Industrial Revolution.

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A470 road

The A470, also known as the Cardiff to Glan Conwy Trunk Road, is the major long-distance road in Wales, from Cardiff on the south coast to Llandudno on the north coast.

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A55 road

The A55, also known as the North Wales Expressway (Welsh: Gwibffordd Gogledd Cymru) and the Chester to Bangor Trunk Road, is a major road in Britain.

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ABC-CLIO

ABC-CLIO, or ABC-Clio, is a publisher of reference works for the study of history and social studies in academic, secondary school, and public library settings.

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Aberdare

Aberdare (Aberdâr) is a town in the Cynon Valley area of Rhondda Cynon Taf, Wales, at the confluence of the Rivers Dare (Dâr) and Cynon.

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Aberdyfi

Aberdyfi (Mouth of the River Dyfi), or Aberdovey (the Anglicised spelling is in common use) is a village and community on the north side of the estuary of the River Dyfi in Gwynedd, on the west coast of Wales.

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Aberffraw

Aberffraw (Aberffro) is a small village and community on the south west coast of the Isle of Anglesey (Ynys Môn), in Wales, by the west bank of the Afon Ffraw.

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Aberystwyth

Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales.

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Aberystwyth University

Aberystwyth University (Prifysgol Aberystwyth) is a public research university located in Aberystwyth, Wales.

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Act of Parliament

An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament.

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Act of the National Assembly for Wales

In Wales, an Act of the National Assembly for Wales (Deddf Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) (informally, an Act of the Assembly) is primary legislation that can be made by the National Assembly for Wales under part 4 of the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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Adam Sedgwick

Adam Sedgwick (22 March 1785 – 27 January 1873) was one of the founders of modern geology.

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Additional Member System

The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system which uses semi-proportional representation in order that the makeup of the elected group more closely resembles the share of votes cast between different political parties than under non-proportional systems such as first past the post voting.

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Aden

Aden (عدن Yemeni pronunciation) is a seaport city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Al-Manar Centre

The al-Manar Centre (sometimes referred to as 2 Glynrhondda Street) is a mosque in the Cathays district of Cardiff, Wales.

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Alexander Cordell

Alexander Cordell (9 September 1914 – 13 November 1997) was the pen-name of George Alexander Graber, a prolific Welsh novelist and author of thirty acclaimed works including Rape of the Fair Country, The Hosts of Rebecca and Song of the Earth.

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Alfred Janes

Alfred George Janes (30 June 1911 – 3 February 1999) was a Welsh artist, who worked in Swansea and Croydon.

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Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great (849 – 26 October 899) (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf") was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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All Saints' Church, Gresford

All Saints' Church stands in the former coal mining village of Gresford in Wrexham County Borough, Wales.

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Alosinae

The Alosinae, or the shads, ITIS are a subfamily of fishes in the herring family Clupeidae.

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Alpine climate

Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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Alun Owen

Alun Owen (24 November 1925 – 6 December 1994) was a British screenwriter, predominantly active in television, but best remembered by a wider audience for writing the screenplay of The Beatles' debut feature film A Hard Day's Night (1964).

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Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales

Amgueddfa Cymru – National Museum Wales, formerly the National Museums and Galleries of Wales, is a Welsh Government sponsored body that comprises seven museums in Wales.

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Analog television

Analog television or analogue television is the original television technology that used analog signals to transmit video and audio.

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Anarawd ap Rhodri

Anarawd ap Rhodri (died) was a King of Gwynedd and referenced as "King of the Britons" in the Annales Cambriae.

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Anatomically modern human

The term anatomically modern humans (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.

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Andrew Vicari

Andrew Vicari (born 20 April 1938) is a Welsh painter working in France who has established a career painting portraits of the rich and famous.

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Aneirin

Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.

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Angharad

Angharad is a Welsh name, having a long association with Welsh royalty, history and myth.

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Anglesey

Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island off the north-west coast of Wales.

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Anglican Communion

The Anglican Communion is an international association of churches consisting of the Church of England and of national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Anglo-Welsh Cup

The Anglo-Welsh Cup, known for sponsorship reasons as the LV Cup (styled as the LV.

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Annales Cambriae

Annales Cambriae (Latin for The Annals of Wales) is the name given to a complex of Cambro-Latin chronicles compiled or derived from diverse sources at St David's in Dyfed, Wales.

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Anne Evans

Dame Anne Elizabeth Jane Evans DBE (born 20 August 1941) is an international British operatic soprano.

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Anthony Hopkins

Sir Philip Anthony Hopkins, CBE (born 31 December 1937) is a Welsh actor of film, stage, and television, and a composer and painter.

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Apostolic Church (denomination)

The Apostolic Church is a Pentecostal Christian denomination which can trace its origins back to the 1904–1905 Welsh Revival.

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Appellate court

An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.

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Aran Fawddwy

Aran Fawddwy is a mountain in southern Snowdonia, Wales, United Kingdom.

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Arctic char

Arctic char or Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a cold-water fish in the family Salmonidae, native to alpine lakes and arctic and subarctic coastal waters.

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Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty

An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is an area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland which has been designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value.

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Armes Prydein

Armes Prydein (The Prophesy of Britain) is an early 10th-century Welsh prophetic poem from the Book of Taliesin.

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Ashmolean Museum

The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum.

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Atlantic Bronze Age

The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, Armorica and the British Isles.

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Augustus John

Augustus Edwin John (4 January 1878 – 31 October 1961) was a Welsh painter, draughtsman, and etcher.

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Æthelbald of Mercia

Æthelbald (also spelled Ethelbald, or Aethelbald) (died 757) was the King of Mercia, in what is now the English Midlands from 716 until he was killed in 757.

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Badfinger

Badfinger were a British rock band that, in their most prolific lineup, consisted of Pete Ham, Mike Gibbins, Tom Evans and Joey Molland.

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Bala Lake

Bala Lake (Llyn Tegid) is a large lake in Gwynedd, Wales.

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Bangor University

Bangor University (Prifysgol Bangor) is a Welsh university in the city of Bangor in the county of Gwynedd in North Wales.

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Bangor, Gwynedd

Bangor is a city in Gwynedd unitary authority, north west Wales, and one of the smallest cities in Britain.

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Bank of England

The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.

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Bank of Scotland

The Bank of Scotland plc, (Banca na h-Alba), is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Bank of Wales

The Bank of Wales (Welsh: Banc Cymru) is a trading division of Bank of Scotland plc which provides savings products through life insurance intermediaries.

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Bara brith

Bara brith, sometimes known as "speckled bread" (the literal meaning of the original Welsh-language name), can be either a yeast bread enriched with dried fruit (similar to the Irish barmbrack) or something more like a fruitcake made with self-raising flour (no yeast).

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Bardic name

A bardic name is a pseudonym used in Wales, Cornwall or Brittany by poets and other artists, especially those involved in the eisteddfod movement.

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Barn (Welsh magazine)

Barn (Welsh for 'Opinion') is a monthly Welsh language current affairs magazine.

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Basking shark

The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second largest living fish, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating sharks besides the whale shark and megamouth shark.

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Battle of Badon

The Battle of Badon (Bellum Badonis; Modern Mynydd Baddon) or Badon Hill (Bellum in Monte Badonis), also less often known as the Siege of Mount Badon (Obsessio Montis Badonici), was a battle thought to have occurred between a force of Britons and an Anglo-Saxon war band in the late 5th or early 6th century.

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Battle of Bosworth Field

The Battle of Bosworth (or Bosworth Field) was the last significant battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the Houses of Lancaster and York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century.

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Battle of Hastings

The Battle of Hastings was fought on 14 October 1066 between the Norman-French army of Duke William II of Normandy and an English army under the Anglo-Saxon King Harold Godwinson, beginning the Norman conquest of England.

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Battle of Passchendaele

The Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC Cymru Wales

BBC Cymru Wales (an amalgamation of the BBC Wales and the BBC Cymru) is a division of the BBC, and the national broadcaster for Wales.

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BBC National Orchestra of Wales

The BBC National Orchestra of Wales (BBC NOW) (Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Gymreig y BBC) is a Welsh symphony orchestra and one of the BBC's five professional orchestras.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BBC One Wales

BBC One Wales is a television channel operated by BBC Cymru Wales.

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BBC Radio Cymru

BBC Radio Cymru is BBC Cymru Wales's Welsh-language radio station, broadcasting throughout Wales from studios in Cardiff, Bangor, Aberystwyth and Carmarthen on FM since 1977.

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BBC Radio Wales

BBC Radio Wales is BBC Wales's national English language radio station.

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BBC Sport

BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online.

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BBC Two

BBC Two is the second television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands.

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Beaufort scale

The Beaufort scale is an empirical measure that relates wind speed to observed conditions at sea or on land.

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Beaumaris Castle

Beaumaris Castle, located in the town of the same name on the Isle of Anglesey in Wales, was built as part of Edward I's campaign to conquer the north of Wales after 1282.

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Beeching cuts

The Beeching cuts (also Beeching Axe) refer to the reduction of route network and restructuring of the Railways in Great Britain outlined in two reports, The Reshaping of British Railways (1963) and The Development of the Major Railway Trunk Routes (1965), written by Dr Richard Beeching and published by the British Railways Board.

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Before Present

Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred.

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Bengali language

Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.

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Bersham

Bersham (Y Bers) is a small Welsh village in the suburbs of the county borough of Wrexham that lies next to the River Clywedog.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.

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Berwick-upon-Tweed

Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland and is the northernmost town in England, on the east coast at the mouth of the River Tweed.

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Berwyn range

The Berwyn range (Welsh: Y Berwyn or Mynydd y Berwyn) is an isolated and sparsely populated area of moorland located in the northeast of Wales, roughly bounded by Llangollen in the northeast, Corwen in the northwest, Bala in the southwest, and Oswestry in the southeast.

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Betws-y-Coed

Betws-y-Coed ("Prayer house in the wood") is a village and community in the Conwy valley in Conwy County Borough, Wales.

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Bevin Boys

Bevin Boys were young British men conscripted to work in the coal mines of the United Kingdom, from December 1943 until 1948.

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Bible translations into Welsh

Bible translations into Welsh have existed since at least the 15th century, but the most widely used translation of the Bible into Welsh for several centuries was the 1588 translation by William Morgan, as revised in 1620.

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Big Pit National Coal Museum

Big Pit: National Coal Museum (Pwll Mawr: Amgueddfa Lofaol Genedlaethol) is an industrial heritage museum in Blaenavon, Torfaen, South Wales.

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Bird of prey

Birds of prey, also known as raptors, hunt and feed on other animals.

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Birmingham

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.

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Black Book of Carmarthen

The Black Book of Carmarthen (Welsh: Llyfr Du Caerfyrddin) is thought to be the earliest surviving manuscript written solely in Welsh.

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Blaenau Ffestiniog

Blaenau Ffestiniog is a historic mining town in Gwynedd, Wales.

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Blaenau Gwent

Blaenau Gwent (pronounced) is a county borough in South Wales, sharing its name with a parliamentary constituency.

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Blaenavon

Blaenavon (Blaenafon) is a town and World Heritage Site in south eastern Wales, lying at the source of the Afon Lwyd north of Pontypool, within the boundaries of the historic county of Monmouthshire and the preserved county of Gwent.

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Blue Flag beach

The Blue Flag is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) that a beach or marina meets its stringent standards.

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Bonnie Tyler

Bonnie Tyler (born Gaynor Hopkins; 8 June 1951) is a Welsh singer.

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Book of Aneirin

The Book of Aneirin (Llyfr Aneirin) is a late 13th century Welsh manuscript containing Old and Middle Welsh poetry attributed to the late 6th century Northern Brythonic poet, Aneirin.

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Book of Taliesin

The Book of Taliesin (Llyfr Taliesin) is one of the most famous of Middle Welsh manuscripts, dating from the first half of the 14th century though many of the fifty-six poems it preserves are taken to originate in the 10th century or before.

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Bottlenose dolphin

Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common and well-known members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.

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Brecknockshire

Brecknockshire (Sir Frycheiniog), also known as the County of Brecknock, Breconshire, or the County of Brecon is one of thirteen historic counties of Wales, and a former administrative county.

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Brecon Beacons

The Brecon Beacons (Bannau Brycheiniog) is a mountain range in South Wales. In a narrow sense, the name refers to the range of Old Red Sandstone peaks popular with walkers which lie to the south of Brecon. Sometimes referred to as "the central Beacons" they include South Wales' highest mountain, Pen y Fan. The range forms the central section of the Brecon Beacons National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Bannau Brycheiniog), a designation which also encompasses ranges both to the east and the west of "the central Beacons". This much wider area is also commonly referred to as "the Brecon Beacons", and it includes the Black Mountains, Wales to the east as well as the Black Mountain (range) to the west. They share the same basic geology as the central range, and so exhibit many similar features, such the north-facing escarpment and glacial features such as lakes and cwms below the escarpment. They all fall within the border of the Brecon Beacons National Park.

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Breton language

Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.

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Bretons

The Bretons are an ethnic group located in the region of Brittany in France.

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Bridgend

Bridgend (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr, meaning "The main bridge on the River Ogmore" or alternatively "Bridgehead on the River Ogmore" (suggesting a battle), is a town in Bridgend County Borough in Wales, west of the capital Cardiff and east of Swansea. The river crossed by the original bridge, which gave the town its name, is the River Ogmore, but the River Ewenny also passes to the south of the town. Historically a part of Glamorgan, Bridgend has greatly expanded in size since the early 1980s - the 2001 census recorded a population of 39,429 for the town and the 2011 census reports that the Bridgend Local Authority had a population of 139,200 up from 128,700 in 2001. This 8.2% rise was the largest rise in Wales except for Cardiff. The town is undergoing a redevelopment project, with the town centre mainly pedestrianised and ongoing works including Brackla Street Centre redevelopment to Bridgend Shopping Centre, Rhiw Car Park redevelopment, ongoing public realm improvements and the upgrade of the Bridgend Life Centre and demolition of Sunnyside offices to accommodate a large retirement complex.

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Bridgend County Borough

Bridgend (Pen-y-bont ar Ogwr) is a county borough in the historic county of Glamorgan, south Wales.

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Bristol Channel

The Bristol Channel (Môr Hafren, meaning 'Severn Sea') is a major inlet in the island of Great Britain, separating South Wales from Devon and Somerset in South West England.

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British Army

The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.

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British Asian

British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons), are persons of Asian descent who resides in the United Kingdom.

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British Cartographic Society

The British Cartographic Society (BCS) is an association of individuals and organisations dedicated to exploring and developing the world of maps. It is a registered charity. Membership includes mapping companies, publishers, designers, academics, researchers, map curators, individual cartographers, GIS specialists and ordinary members of the public with an interest in maps. The BCS is regarded as one of the world's leading cartographic societies and its main publication, The Cartographic Journal, is recognised internationally. Membership of the group can be useful for making contacts and keeping up with developments. The BCS promotes all aspects of cartography to a wide range of potential users.

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British Isles

The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles.

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Brittany

Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the north-west of France.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig, yethow brythonek/predennek, yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bryn Celli Ddu

Bryn Celli Ddu is a prehistoric site on the Welsh island of Anglesey located near Llanddaniel Fab.

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Bryn Terfel

Bryn Terfel Jones CBE (born 9 November 1965) is a Welsh bass-baritone opera and concert singer.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Budgie (band)

Budgie are a Welsh hard rock/heavy metal band from Cardiff.

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Bullet for My Valentine

Bullet for My Valentine are a Welsh heavy metal band from Bridgend, formed in 1998.

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Cabinet of the United Kingdom

The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and some 21 Cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.

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Cad Goddeu

Cad Goddeu (The Battle of the Trees) is a medieval Welsh poem preserved in the 14th-century manuscript known as the Book of Taliesin.

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Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd

Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd (c. 1096 – 1172) was the second son of Gruffudd ap Cynan, King of Gwynedd, and brother of Owain Gwynedd.

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Cadwallon ap Cadfan

Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after the Battle of Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle.

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Caernarfon

Caernarfon is a royal town, community, and port in Gwynedd, Wales, with a population of 9,615 (this figure does not include nearby Bontnewydd or Caeathro, as they are in separate communities).

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Caernarfon Castle

Caernarfon Castle (Castell Caernarfon) is a medieval fortress in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, north-west Wales cared for by Cadw, the Welsh Government's historic environment service.

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Caerphilly County Borough

Caerphilly (Caerffili) is a county borough in southern Wales, straddling the ancient county boundary between Glamorgan and Monmouthshire.

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Caerwent

Caerwent is a village and community in Monmouthshire, Wales.

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Calan Gaeaf

Calan Gaeaf is the name of the first day of winter in Wales, observed on 1 November.

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Calan Mai

Calan Mai ("Calend (first day) of May") or Calan Haf ("Calend of Summer") is a May Day holiday of Wales held on 1 May.

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Camber (legendary king)

Camber, also Kamber, was the legendary first king of Cambria, according to the Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his influential 12th-century pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae.

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Cambria

Cambria is a name for Wales, being the Latinised form of the Welsh name Cymru (Wales).

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Cambrian

The Cambrian is the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, lasting from to million years ago (mya) and is succeeded by the Ordovician.

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Cambrian Airways

Cambrian Airways was an airline based in the United Kingdom which ran operations from Cardiff Airport and Liverpool Airport between 1935 and 1974.

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Cambrian Archaeological Association

The Cambrian Archaeological Association (Cymdeithas Hynafiaethau Cymru) was founded in 1846 to examine, preserve and illustrate the ancient monuments and remains of the history, language, manners, customs, arts and industries of Wales and the Welsh Marches and to educate the public in such matters.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion, or less commonly Cambrian radiation, was the relatively short evolutionary event, beginning around in the Cambrian Period, during which most major animal phyla appeared, as indicated by the fossil record.

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Cambrian Mountains

The Cambrian Mountains (Mynyddoedd Cambria, in a narrower sense: Elenydd) are a series of mountain ranges in Wales.

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Cambrian News

The Cambrian News is a weekly newspaper distributed in Wales.

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Cambrian Pottery

The Cambrian Pottery was founded in 1764 by William Coles in Swansea, Glamorganshire, Wales.

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Cambrian Railways

Cambrian Railways owned of track over a large area of mid-Wales.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cantonese

Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.

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Cantre'r Gwaelod

Cantre'r Gwaelod, also known as Cantref Gwaelod or Cantref y Gwaelod (The Lowland Hundred), is a legendary ancient sunken kingdom said to have occupied a tract of fertile land lying between Ramsey Island and Bardsey Island in what is now Cardigan Bay to the west of Wales.

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Capel Celyn

Capel Celyn was a rural community to the north west of Bala in Gwynedd, north Wales, in the Afon Tryweryn valley.

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Capital Cymru

Capital Cymru is a local, bilingual radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Capital radio network.

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Cardiff

Cardiff (Caerdydd) is the capital and largest city in Wales and the tenth largest city in the United Kingdom.

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Cardiff Airport

Cardiff Airport (Maes Awyr Caerdydd) is an international airport owned by the Welsh Government, serving Cardiff and the rest of South, Mid and West Wales.

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Cardiff Bay

Cardiff Bay (Bae Caerdydd) is the area created by the Cardiff Barrage in South Cardiff, the capital of Wales.

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Cardiff Blitz

The Cardiff Blitz refers to the bombing of Cardiff, Wales during World War II.

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Cardiff Blues

Cardiff Blues (Gleision Caerdydd) is one of the four professional Welsh regional rugby union teams.

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Cardiff Central railway station

Cardiff Central railway station (Caerdydd Canolog) is a major railway station on the South Wales Main Line in Cardiff, United Kingdom and one of two hubs of the city's urban rail network.

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Cardiff city centre

Cardiff city centre (Canol Dinas Caerdydd) is the city centre and central business district of Cardiff, Wales.

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Cardiff City F.C.

Cardiff City Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Caerdydd) is a professional football club based in Cardiff, Wales that competes in the English football league system.

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Cardiff Docks

Cardiff Docks is a port in southern Cardiff, Wales.

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Cardiff Metropolitan University

Cardiff Metropolitan University (Prifysgol Fetropolitan Caerdydd), formerly University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC), is a university situated in Cardiff.

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Cardiff University

Cardiff University (Prifysgol Caerdydd) is a public research university located in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.

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Carmarthen

Carmarthen (Caerfyrddin) is a community in, and the county town of, Carmarthenshire, Wales.

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Carmarthen (UK Parliament constituency)

Carmarthen (Welsh: Caerfyrddin) was the name of a parliamentary constituency in Wales which returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom between 1542 and 1997.

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Carmarthenshire

Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin or Sir Gâr) is a unitary authority in the south west of Wales and the largest of the thirteen historic counties.

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Carreg Lafar

Carreg Lafar is a contemporary traditional Welsh folk band.

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Carwyn Jones

Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician and the First Minister of Wales.

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Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd

The Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd is a UNESCO-designated World Heritage Site located in Gwynedd, Wales.

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Catatonia (band)

Catatonia were an alternative rock band from Wales who gained popularity in the mid to late 1990s.

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Cathays

Cathays (Cathays) is a district in the centre of Cardiff, capital of Wales.

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Catherine Zeta-Jones

Catherine Zeta-Jones, (born Catherine Zeta Jones; 25 September 1969) is a Welsh actress.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Cawl

Cawl is a Welsh dish.

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Celtic art

Celtic art is the art associated with the peoples known as Celts; those who spoke the Celtic languages in Europe from pre-history through to the modern period, as well as the art of ancient peoples whose language is uncertain, but have cultural and stylistic similarities with speakers of Celtic languages.

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Celtic Britons

The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.

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Celtic Christianity

Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were practiced across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Celtic law

A number of law codes have in the past been in use in the various Celtic nations since the Middle Ages.

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Celtic nations

The Celtic nations are territories in Northern and Western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.

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Celtic Revival

Celtic Revival covers a variety of movements and trends, mostly in the 19th and 20th centuries, which drew on the traditions of Celtic literature and Celtic art, or in fact more often what art historians call Insular art, the Early Medieval style of Ireland and Britain.

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Celtic Sea

The Celtic Sea (An Mhuir Cheilteach; Y Môr Celtaidd; An Mor Keltek; Ar Mor Keltiek; La mer Celtique) is the area of the Atlantic Ocean off the south coast of Ireland bounded to the east by Saint George's Channel; other limits include the Bristol Channel, the English Channel, and the Bay of Biscay, as well as adjacent portions of Wales, Cornwall, Devon, and Brittany.

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Celts

The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Europe

Central Europe (archaically "Middle Europe") is a region lying between the variously defined areas of the Eastern and Western parts of the European continent.

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Cerdd Dant

Cerdd Dant (string music) is the art of vocal improvisation over a given melody in Welsh musical tradition.

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Ceredigion

Ceredigion is a county in Mid Wales.

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Ceri Richards

Ceri Geraldus Richards, CBE (6 June 1903 – 9 November 1971) was a British painter, print-maker and maker of reliefs.

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Channel 4

Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began transmission on 2 November 1982.

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Charles, Prince of Wales

Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948), is the eldest child and heir apparent of Queen Elizabeth II.

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Charlotte Church

Charlotte Maria Church (born Charlotte Maria Reed; 21 February 1986) is a Welsh singer-songwriter, actress and television presenter.

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Chester

Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England.

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Chicken tikka masala

Chicken tikka masala is a dish of roasted chunks of chicken (chicken tikka) in a spicy sauce.

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Chinese cuisine

Chinese cuisine includes styles originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.

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Christopher Williams (Welsh artist)

Christopher David Williams (1873 – 1934) was a Welsh artist.

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Chronicle

A chronicle (chronica, from Greek χρονικά, from χρόνος, chronos, "time") is a historical account of facts and events ranged in chronological order, as in a time line.

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Church in Wales

The Church in Wales (Yr Eglwys yng Nghymru) is the Anglican church in Wales, composed of six dioceses.

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Church of England

The Church of England is the officially-established Christian church in England, and the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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City and County of Swansea Council

The City and County of Swansea Council (Cyngor Dinas a Sir Abertawe) is the governing body for one of the Principal Areas of Wales covering Swansea, Gower and the surrounding area.

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City status in the United Kingdom

City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.

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Civitas

In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).

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Clogging

Clogging is a type of folk dance in which the dancer's footwear is used musically by striking the heel, the toe, or both against a floor or each other to create audible percussive rhythms, usually to the downbeat with the heel keeping the rhythm.

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Clough Williams-Ellis

Sir Bertram Clough Williams-Ellis, CBE, MC (28 May 1883 – 9 April 1978) was an English-born Welsh architect known chiefly as the creator of the Italianate village of Portmeirion in North Wales.

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Clwydian Range

The Clwydian Range (Bryniau Clwyd) is a series of hills and mountains in north east Wales that runs from Llandegla in the south to Prestatyn in the north, with the highest point being the popular Moel Famau.

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Clywedog Reservoir

The Clywedog reservoir (Llyn Clywedog) is a reservoir near Llanidloes, Wales.

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Coalition

A coalition is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest, joining forces together for a common cause.

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Cockle (bivalve)

A cockle is a small, edible, saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc.

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Code-switching

In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.

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Codification (law)

In law, codification is the process of collecting and restating the law of a jurisdiction in certain areas, usually by subject, forming a legal code, i.e. a codex (book) of law.

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Coins of the pound sterling

The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom is denominated in pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and, since the introduction of the two-pound coin in 1994 (to celebrate the 300th Anniversary of the Bank of England 1694-1994), ranges in value from one penny to two pounds.

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Colin Jackson

Colin Ray Jackson, CBE (born 18 February 1967) is a Welsh former sprint and hurdling athlete who specialised in the 110 metres hurdles.

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Colwyn Bay F.C.

Colwyn Bay Football Club (Welsh: Clwb Pel-Droed Bae Colwyn) is a Welsh football club based in Old Colwyn, North Wales.

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Comedian

A comedian (sometimes comedienne for a female) or comic, is a person who seeks to entertain an audience, primarily by making them laugh.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Common law

Common law (also known as case law or precedent) is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals that decide individual cases, as opposed to statutes adopted through the legislative process or regulations issued by the executive branch.

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Common periwinkle

The common periwinkle or winkle (Littorina littorea) is a species of small edible sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc that has gills and an operculum, and is classified within the family Littorinidae, the periwinkles.

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Commonwealth Games

The Commonwealth Games (known as the British Empire Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974) is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Conquest of Wales by Edward I

The Conquest of Wales by Edward I, sometimes referred to as the Edwardian Conquest of WalesExamples of historians using the term include Professor J.E. Lloyd, regarded as the founder of the modern academic study of Welsh history, in his History of Wales from the Earliest Times to the Edwardian Conquest, first published in 1911, and Professor R.R. Davies, the leading modern scholar of the period, in his works including The Age of Conquest: Wales, 1063–1415, published 2000.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constituent country

Constituent country is a term sometimes used in contexts in which a country makes up a part of a larger political entity, such as a sovereign state.

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Constitutio Antoniniana

The Constitutio Antoniniana (Latin for: "Constitution of Antoninus") (also called the Edict of Caracalla or the Antonine Constitution) was an edict issued in 212, by the Roman Emperor Caracalla declaring that all free men in the Roman Empire were to be given theoretical Roman citizenship and that all free women in the Empire were to be given the same rights as Roman women.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.

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Contemporary dance

Contemporary dance is a dance performance genre that developed during the mid twentieth century and has since grown to become one of the dominant genres for formally trained dancers throughout the world, with particularly strong popularity in the U.S. and Europe.

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Continental Celtic languages

The Continental Celtic languages are the Celtic languages, now extinct, that were spoken on the continent of Europe, as distinguished from the Insular Celtic languages of the British Isles and Brittany.

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Continental Europe

Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent (particularly by Britons, Azores and Madeira Portuguese, Balearic and Canary Spaniards, Icelanders and other European island nations, and peninsular Scandinavians), is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding the islands of Europe.

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Conwy

Conwy is a walled market town and community in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales.

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Conwy Castle

Conwy Castle (Castell Conwy, Conway Castle) is a medieval fortification in Conwy, on the north coast of Wales.

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Conwy County Borough

Conwy County Borough (Welsh: Bwrdeistref Sirol Conwy) is a unitary authority area in the north of Wales.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cork (city)

Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in Ireland.

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Cormorant

Phalacrocoracidae is a family of some 40 species of aquatic birds commonly known as cormorants and shags.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.

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Cornish people

Cornish people or Cornish (Kernowyon) are an ethnic group associated with Cornwall,: in the south west of Great Britain, administered as part of England, and a recognised national minority in the United Kingdom.

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Cornovii (Midlands)

The Cornovii were a Celtic people of Iron Age and Roman Britain, who lived principally in the modern English counties of Cheshire, Shropshire, north Staffordshire, north Herefordshire and eastern parts of the Welsh counties of Flintshire, Powys and Wrexham.

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Cornwall

Cornwall (or; Kernow) is a ceremonial county and unitary authority area of England within the United Kingdom.

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Countries of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

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Country

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct entity in political geography.

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County court

A county court is a court based in or with a jurisdiction covering one or more counties, which are administrative divisions (subnational entities) within a country, not to be confused with the medieval system of county courts held by the High Sheriff of each county.

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County Durham

County Durham (locally), archaically known as the County Palatine of Durham or Bishopric of Durham, is a county and (smaller) unitary district in North East England.

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Court of Appeal of England and Wales

Her Majesty's Court of Appeal in England, commonly known as the Court of Appeal of England and Wales or, simply, the Court of Appeal, is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom above it.

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Courts of England and Wales

Her Majesty's Courts of Justice of England and Wales are the civil and criminal courts responsible for the administration of justice in England and Wales; they apply English law, the law of England and Wales, and are established under Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Crib Goch

Crib Goch is described as a "knife-edged" arête in the Snowdonia National Park in Gwynedd, Wales.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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Cromlech

Cromlech (from Welsh crom, feminine form of crym "bent, curved" and llech "slab, flagstone") is a term used to describe prehistoric megalithic structures.

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Crown Court

The Crown Court of England and Wales is, together with the High Court of Justice and the Court of Appeal, one of the constituent parts of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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Crwth

The crwth, also called a crowd or rote, is an archaic stringed instrument, associated particularly with Welsh music, once widely played in Europe.

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Cuisine of the United States

The cuisine of the United States reflects its history.

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Culture of Wales

Wales has a distinctive culture including its own language, customs, holidays and music.

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Culverhouse Cross

Culverhouse Cross (Croes Cwrlwys) is a district straddling the boundary between Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales The district is centred on a major traffic roundabout that links West Cardiff to the M4 motorway and is home to a number of different retail outlets, and formerly ITV Wales's headquarters.

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Cumbria

Cumbria (locally) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England.

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Cumbric language

Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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Curator

A curator (from curare meaning "take care") is a manager or overseer.

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Cyfarthfa Ironworks

The Cyfarthfa Ironworks was a major 18th century and 19th century ironworks located in Cyfarthfa, on the north-western edge of Merthyr Tydfil, in South Wales.

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Cyfraith Hywel

Cyfraith Hywel (Laws of Hywel), also known as Welsh law (Leges Walliæ), was the system of law practised in medieval Wales before its final conquest by England.

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Cyril Fox

Sir Cyril Fred Fox (16 December 1882 – 15 January 1967), born, Chippenham, Wiltshire, was an English archaeologist.

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Cywydd

The cywydd (plural cywyddau) is one of the most important metrical forms in Welsh traditional poetry (cerdd dafod).

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D'Hondt method

The D'Hondt method (mathematically but not operationally equivalent to Jefferson's method) is a highest averages method for allocating seats in party-list proportional representation.

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Dafydd ap Gruffydd

Dafydd ap Gruffydd (or Dafydd ap Gruffudd, angl. David, son of Gruffydd) (11 July (?) 1238 – 3 October 1283) was Prince of Wales from 11 December 1282 until his execution on 3 October 1283 by King Edward I of England.

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Dafydd ap Gwilym

Dafydd ap Gwilym (c. 1315/1320 – c. 1350/1370), is regarded as one of the leading Welsh poets and amongst the great poets of Europe in the Middle Ages.

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Daily News (Perth, Western Australia)

The Daily News was an afternoon daily newspaper published in Perth, Western Australia from 1882 to 1990, though its origin is traceable from 1840.

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Dale Fort

Dale Fort is a battery site to the West of Milford Haven, Wales.

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Dance move

Dance moves or dance steps (more complex dance moves are called dance patterns, dance figures, dance movements, or dance variations) are usually isolated, defined, and organized so that beginning dancers can learn and use them independently of each other.

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Daniel Owen

Daniel Owen (20 October 1836 – 22 October 1895) was a Welsh novelist, generally regarded as the foremost Welsh-language novelist of the 19th century, and as the first significant novelist to write in Welsh.

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David Cameron

David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who has served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 2010, as Leader of the Conservative Party since 2005 and as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Witney since 2001.

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David Jones (artist-poet)

David Jones CH (1 November 1895 – 28 October 1974) was both a painter and one of the first-generation British modernist poets.

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David Jones (Clwyd West MP)

David Ian Jones (born 22 March 1952) is a British Conservative Party politician and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Clwyd West.

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David Lloyd George

David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British Liberal politician and statesman.

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De jure

De jure (Classical Latin: de iúre) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"), as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact").

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Deceangli

The Deceangli or Deceangi (Welsh: Tegeingl) were one of the Celtic tribes living in Britain, prior to the Roman invasion of the island.

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Decimalisation

Decimalisation is the process of converting a currency from its previous non-decimal denominations to a decimal system, i.e., a system based on one basic unit of currency and one or more sub-units, such that the number of sub-units in one basic unit is a power of 10, most commonly 100.

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Deheubarth

Deheubarth (lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Norwallia).

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Delegated legislation

In the United Kingdom, delegated legislation (also referred to as secondary legislation or subordinate legislation or subsidiary legislation) is law made by an executive authority under powers delegated from a legislature by enactment of primary legislation; the primary legislation grants the executive agency power to implement and administer the requirements of that primary legislation.

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Demetae

The Demetae were a Celtic people of Iron Age Britain who inhabited modern Pembrokeshire and Carmarthenshire in south-west Wales, and gave their name to the county of Dyfed.

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Denbighshire

Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych) is a county in north-east Wales.

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Deputy First Minister for Wales

The Deputy First Minister for Wales (Dirprwy Brif Weinidog Cymru) is the deputy leader of the Welsh Government, the devolved administration for Wales.

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Devolution in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and the Greater London Authority.

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Digital television

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog television.

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Digital television transition

The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover or analog switch-off (ASO), is the process in which analog television broadcasting is converted to and replaced by digital television.

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Digital terrestrial television

Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technological evolution of broadcast television and an advancement over analog television.

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Dinefwr Borough Council

Dinefwr was a local government district of Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996.

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Dinorwic Quarry

The Dinorwic Slate Quarry is a large former slate quarry, now home to the Welsh National Slate Museum, located between the villages of Llanberis and Dinorwig in north Wales.

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Doctor Who

Doctor Who is a British science-fiction television programme produced by the BBC from 1963 to the present day.

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Doggerel

Doggerel is poetry that is irregular in rhythm and in rhyme, often deliberately for burlesque or comic effect.

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Doggerland

Doggerland was an area of land, now lying beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Great Britain to mainland Europe during and after the last Ice Age.

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Dolphin

Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic marine mammals.

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Donald Houston

Donald Daniel Houston (6 November 1923 – 13 October 1991) was a Welsh actor whose first two films – The Blue Lagoon (1949) with Jean Simmons, and A Run for Your Money (1949) with Sir Alec Guinness – were highly successful.

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Dowlais Ironworks

The Dowlais Ironworks was a major ironworks and steelworks located at Dowlais near Merthyr Tydfil, in Wales.

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Draba aizoides

Draba aizoides is a species of Draba, known as yellow whitlow-grass.

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Dublin

Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland.

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Duffy (singer)

Duffy (born 23 June 1984 as Aimee Ann Duffy) is a Welsh singer, songwriter and actress.

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Dydd Santes Dwynwen

Dydd Santes Dwynwen (Welsh for St Dwynwen's Day) is considered to be the Welsh equivalent to Valentine's Day and is celebrated on 25 January every year.

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Dyfed

Dyfed is a preserved county of Wales. It was originally created as an administrative county council on 1 April 1974 under the terms of the Local Government Act 1972, and covered approximately the same geographic extent as the ancient Principality of Deheubarth, although excluding the Gower Peninsula and the area west of the River Tawe. The choice of the name Dyfed was based on the historic name given to the region once settled by the Irish Déisi and today known as Pembrokeshire (the historic Dyfed never included Ceredigion and only briefly included Carmarthenshire). It was formed from the administrative counties (which corresponded to the ancient counties) of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire, Pembrokeshire and was divided into the following local government districts: The Lord Lieutenant of Pembrokeshire became Lord Lieutenant of Dyfed and the Lord Lieutenants of Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire each became Lieutenants. The Dyfed-Powys police force had been created a number of years earlier.

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Dyfed-Powys Police

Dyfed-Powys Police (Heddlu Dyfed Powys) is the territorial police force responsible for policing Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion, Pembrokeshire (which make up Dyfed) and the county of Powys, in Wales.

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Dylan Thomas

Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 – 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion", the "Play for Voices", Under Milk Wood, and stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog.

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Early 1980s recession

The early 1980s recession describes the severe global economic recession affecting much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from the 5th century to the 10th century.

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Edward I of England

Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.

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Edward II of England

Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.

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Edward Lhuyd

Edward Lhuyd (usually rewritten as Llwyd in recent times) (1660 – 30 June 1709) was a Welsh naturalist, botanist, linguist, geographer and antiquary.

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Eel

An eel is any fish belonging to the order Anguilliformes, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and about 800 species.

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Eisteddfod

An eisteddfod (plural eisteddfodau) is a Welsh festival of literature, music and performance.

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Eleanor de Montfort

Eleanor de Montfort, Princess of Wales and Lady of Snowdon (1252 – 19 June 1282) was a daughter of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester and Eleanor of England.

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Elisedd ap Gwylog

Elisedd ap Gwylog (died c. 755), also known as Elise, was king of Powys in eastern Wales.

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Emlyn Williams

George Emlyn Williams, CBE (26 November 1905 – 25 September 1987), known as Emlyn Williams, was a Welsh dramatist and actor.

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Employment-to-population ratio

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development defines the employment rate as the employment-to-population ratio.

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Encyclopaedia of Wales

The Encyclopaedia of Wales is a single-volume-publication encyclopaedia on Wales.

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End of Roman rule in Britain

The end of Roman rule in Britain is the period during which the Roman Empire ended its relationship with Britain, thus marking the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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England and Wales

England and Wales, is a jurisdiction covering two of the four countries of the United Kingdom, which form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follow a single legal system, known as English law.

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England and Wales Cricket Board

The England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) is the governing body of cricket in England and Wales.

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England cricket team

The England cricket team is the team that represents England and Wales (and until 1992 also Scotland) in international cricket.

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England–Wales border

The England–Wales border is the official border and mark of entry between Wales and England, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.

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English football league system

The English football league system, also known as the football pyramid, is a series of interconnected leagues for men's association football clubs in England, with six teams from Wales and one from Guernsey also competing.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English law

English law means the legal system of England and Wales.

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Enlargement of the European Union

The process of expanding the European Union (EU) through the accession of new member states began with the Inner Six, who founded the European Economic Community (the EU's predecessor) in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force.

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Enzo Maccarinelli

Enzo Maccarinelli (born 20 August 1980) is a Welsh professional boxer.

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Eric Gill

Arthur Eric Rowton Gill (22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, stonecutter and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.

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EULIS

The European Land Information Service provides direct access to official land registers in Europe.

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European Challenge Cup

The European Challenge Cup, most recently known for sponsorship reasons as the Amlin Challenge Cup, was one of two annual rugby union competitions organised by European Rugby Cup.

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European pine marten

The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine and weasel.

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European polecat

The European polecat (Mustela putorius) — also known as the black or forest polecat, or fitch (as well as a some other names) — is a species of mustelid native to western Eurasia and North Africa.

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Evan Roberts (minister)

Evan John Roberts (8 June 1878 – 29 September 1951), was a leading figure of the 1904–1905 Welsh Revival who suffered many setbacks in his later life.

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Expatriate

An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than that of their citizenship.

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Fairtrade certification

Fairtrade certification is a product certification system claiming that products with its brand meet certain environmental, labour, and developmental standards.

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Fealty

An oath of fealty, from the Latin fidelitas (faithfulness), is a pledge of allegiance of one person to another.

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Feeder

Feeder are a British rock band based in Newport, Wales.

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Feral goat

The feral goat is the domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) when it has become established in the wild.

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Fernhill (band)

Fernhill is a Welsh folk band, formed in 1996.

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Ferry

A ferry (or ferryboat) is a boat or ship (a merchant vessel) used to carry (or ferry) primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Fifteen Tribes of Wales

'The five royal tribes of Wales' and 'The fifteen tribes of Gwynedd' refer to a class of genealogical lists which were compiled by Welsh bard "bards" word/language used loosely, i.e.: 'bard' is an ancient Celtic name which cannot truly be attributed to post-Christian academics, therefore 15th century bard's writings are woefully misrepresented.

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First Minister of Wales

The First Minister of Wales (Prif Weinidog Cymru) is the leader of the Welsh Government, Wales' devolved administration, which was established in 1999.

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Fish and chips

Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin, consisting of battered fish, commonly Atlantic cod or haddock, and chips.

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Fishguard

Fishguard (Abergwaun, meaning "Mouth of the River Gwaun") is a coastal town in Pembrokeshire, south-west Wales, with a population of 3,419 recorded in the 2011 Census.

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Flag of Wales

The flag of Wales (Baner Cymru or Y Ddraig Goch, meaning "The Red Dragon") consists of a red dragon passant on a green and white field.

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Flintshire

Flintshire (Sir y Fflint) is the most north-easterly county in Wales bordering the English county of Cheshire to the east, Denbighshire to the west and Wrexham County Borough to the south.

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Folk dance

Folk dances are dances developed by groups of people that reflect the traditional life of the people of a certain country or region.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folklore

Folklore can be described as traditional art, literature, knowledge, and practices that are passed on in large part through oral communication and example.

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Foreign direct investment

A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Frank Brangwyn

Sir Frank William Brangwyn RA RWS RBA (12 May 1867 – 11 June 1956) was an Anglo-Welsh artist, painter, water colourist, virtuoso engraver and illustrator, and progressive designer.

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Freddie Welsh

Freddie Welsh (5 March 1886 – 29 July 1927) was a Welsh lightweight boxing champion.

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Free Wales Army

The Free Wales Army (Byddin Rhyddid Cymru) was a paramilitary Welsh nationalist organisation, formed at Lampeter in Cardiganshire by William Julian Cayo-Evans in 1963.

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Funeral for a Friend

Funeral for a Friend are a Welsh post-hardcore band from Bridgend, formed in 2001.

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Gagea serotina

Gagea serotina, synonym Lloydia serotina, is an Arctic–alpine flowering plant of the lily family.

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Gannet

Gannets are seabirds comprising the genus Morus, in the family Sulidae, closely related to boobies.

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Gareth Bale

Gareth Frank Bale (born 16 July 1989) is a Welsh professional footballer who plays as a winger for La Liga club Real Madrid and the Wales national team.

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Gaul

Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau

Gŵyl Fair y Canhwyllau (Welsh, "Mary's Festival of the Candles") is a Welsh name of Candlemas, celebrated on 2 February.

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Gŵyl Mabsant

A Gŵyl Mabsant (Welsh for "Feast of the Patron"), also known as the Patronal Festival or Wake of a parish,Baring-Gould, Sabine & al.

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Geoffrey of Monmouth

Geoffrey of Monmouth (Galfridus Monemutensis, Galfridus Arturus, Gruffudd ap Arthur, Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. 1100 – c. 1155) was a Welsh cleric and one of the major figures in the development of British historiography and the popularity of tales of King Arthur.

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Geology

Geology (from the Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change.

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Geraint Evans

Sir Geraint Llewellyn Evans (16 February 1922 – 19 September 1992) was a Welsh baritone or bass-baritone noted for operatic roles including Figaro in Le nozze di Figaro, Papageno in Die Zauberflöte, and the title roles in Falstaff and Wozzeck.

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Gerald of Wales

Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro) was archdeacon of Brecon and chronicler of his times.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.

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Gildas

St.

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Glacier

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Glamorgan County Cricket Club

Glamorgan County Cricket Club (Criced Morgannwg) is one of the 18 major county clubs which make up the English and Welsh national cricket structure, representing the historic county of Glamorgan aka Glamorganshire (Morgannwg).

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Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust

The Glamorgan-Gwent Archaeological Trust is an Archaeological Trust organisation established in 1975 as part of the Welsh Archaeological Trusts.

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Glywysing

Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.

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GO Wales

The GO Wales project (Graduate Opportunities Wales) was an employability and business support project in Wales.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha, cànanan Goidhealach, çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.

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Golwg

Golwg (Welsh for "View") is a Welsh-language magazine established in 1988.

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Gomer Press

Gomer Press (Welsh: Gwasg Gomer) is a printing and publishing company based in Llandysul, west Wales.

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Gorky's Zygotic Mynci

Gorky's Zygotic Mynci were a Welsh alternative rock band, formed in Carmarthen, west Wales in 1991.

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Goscombe John

Sir William Goscombe John (21 February 1860 – 15 December 1952) was a Welsh sculptor.

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Government of the United Kingdom

Her Majesty's Government (HMG), commonly referred to as the British government, Welsh: Llywodraeth Ei Mawrhydi, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Government of Wales Act 1998

The Government of Wales Act 1998 (c. 38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Government of Wales Act 2006

The Government of Wales Act 2006 (c 32) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that reforms the National Assembly for Wales and allows further powers to be granted to it more easily.

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Gower Peninsula

Gower or the Gower Peninsula (Gŵyr or Penrhyn Gŵyr) is a peninsula in South Wales, projecting westwards into the Bristol Channel, and administratively part of the City and County of Swansea.

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Grand Tour

The Grand Tour was the traditional trip of Europe undertaken by mainly upper-class European young men of means, or those of more humble origin who could find a sponsor.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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Great Britain at the Olympics

Great Britain is the team that sends athletes from the United Kingdom (UK), all but three of its overseas territories and the three Crown dependencies, to the Olympic Games.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.

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Great Western Main Line

The Great Western Main Line is a main line railway in Great Britain, that runs westwards from London's Paddington station to the west of England and South Wales.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gresford

Gresford (Gresffordd) is a village and a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough in Wales.

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Grey seal

The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.

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Griff Rhys Jones

Griff Rhys Jones (born 16 November 1953) is a Welsh comedian, writer, actor and television presenter.

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Griffith Jones (priest)

Griffith Jones (early 1684 – 8 April 1761) was a minister of the Church of England famous for his work in organising circulating schools in Wales.

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Gross value added

Gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy, in economics.

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Gruffydd ap Llywelyn

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (died 1063) was the King of Wales from 1055 until his death.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful, warm, and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates at the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gwasg Carreg Gwalch

Gwasg Carreg Gwalch is a publishing company based in Llanrwst, Wales.

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Gwen John

Gwendolen Mary John (22 June 1876 – 18 September 1939) was a Welsh artist who worked in France for most of her career.

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Gwenllian of Wales

Gwenllian of Wales or Gwenllian ferch Llywelyn (June 1282 – 7 June 1337) was the only child of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last native Prince of Wales.

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Gwent Police

Gwent Police (Heddlu Gwent) is the territorial police force responsible for policing the local authority areas of Blaenau Gwent, Caerphilly, Monmouthshire, Newport and Torfaen in southeast Wales.

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Gwyn Thomas (novelist)

Gwyn Thomas (6 July 1913 – 13 April 1981) was a Welsh writer, dramatist, Punch-columnist, radio broadcaster and raconteur, who has been called 'the true voice of the English-speaking valleys'.

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Gwynedd

Gwynedd is an area in north-west Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd.

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Gwyneth Jones (soprano)

Dame Gwyneth Jones, DBE (born 7 November 1936) is a Welsh dramatic soprano.

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Gwynfor Evans

Gwynfor Richard Evans (1 September 1912 – 21 April 2005) was a Welsh politician, lawyer and author.

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Gwyniad

The gwyniad (Coregonus pennantii) is a freshwater whitefish native to Bala Lake (Llyn Tegid) in northern Wales.

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Hake

The term hake refers to fish in either of.

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Halcrow Group

Halcrow Group Limited is a multinational engineering consultancy company, based in the United Kingdom.

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Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture.

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Hansard

Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries.

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Haplogroup R1b

Haplogroup R1b, also known as haplogroup R-M343, is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (the Bashkir minority), Central Asia (e.g. Turkmenistan) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon).

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Harry Secombe

Sir Harry Donald Secombe, CBE (8 September 1921 – 11 April 2001) was a Welsh comedian and singer.

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Hawarden Bridge

Hawarden Bridge (Pont Penarlâg) is a railway bridge over the River Dee, near Shotton, Flintshire, Wales.

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Hazel dormouse

The hazel dormouse or common dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a small mammal and the only living species in the genus Muscardinus.

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Heavy industry

Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.

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Heineken Cup

The Heineken Cup (known as the H Cup in France due to restrictions on alcohol sponsorship) was one of two annual rugby union competitions organised annually by European Rugby Cup from 1995 to 2014.

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Heir apparent

An heir apparent is a person, male or female, who is first in line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.

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Hen harrier

The hen harrier (Circus cyaneus) or northern harrier (in the Americas) is a bird of prey.

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Hen Ogledd

Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North) is a Welsh term used by scholars to refer to those parts of what is now northern England and southern Scotland in the years between 500 and the Viking invasions of c. 800, with particular interest in the Brittonic-speaking peoples who lived there.

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Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau

Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau is the national anthem of Wales.

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Henry III of England

Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272), also known as Henry of Winchester, was King of England, Lord of Ireland and Duke of Aquitaine from 1216 until his death.

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Henry IV of England

Henry IV (15 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413 and asserted the claim of his grandfather, Edward III, to the Kingdom of France.

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Henry VII of England

Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was King of England, ruled the Principality of Wales (until 29 November 1489) and Lord of Ireland from his seizing the crown on 22 August 1485 until his death on 21 April 1509, as the first monarch of the House of Tudor.

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Henry VIII of England

Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.

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Her Majesty's Courts Service

Her Majesty's Courts Service (HMCS) was an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) and was responsible for the administration of the civil, family and criminal courts in England and Wales.

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Heraldic badge

A heraldic badge, an emblem, an impresa, or device, or personal device worn as a badge indicates allegiance to, or the property of, an individual or family.

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Hereford Gospels

The Hereford Gospels (Hereford, Hereford Cathedral Library, MS P. I. 2) is an 8th-century illuminated manuscript gospel-book in insular script (minuscule), with large illuminated initials in the Insular style.

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Heritage coast

A heritage coast is a strip of coastline in England and Wales, the extent of which is defined by agreement between the relevant statutory national agency and the relevant local authority.

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Herring

Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.

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High Court of Justice

Her Majesty's High Court of Justice in England (usually known as the High Court of Justice of England and Wales, the High Court of Justice or, simply, the High Court) is, together with the Court of Appeal and the Crown Court, one of the Senior Courts of England and Wales.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Historia Brittonum

The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.

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Historia Regum Britanniae

Historia Regum Britanniae—in English, The History of the Kings of Britain—is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written c. 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth.

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Hollywood

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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Holyhead

Holyhead (Caergybi, "Cybi's fort") is the largest town in the county of Isle of Anglesey in Wales.

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Holywell

Holywell (Treffynnon) is the fifth largest town in Flintshire, Wales.

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Honno (press)

Honno is a Welsh women's press, based in Aberystwyth, which is run as an independent co-operative.

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Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion

The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion), often called simply the Cymmrodorion, is a London-based Welsh learned society, with membership open to all.

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House of Commons of the United Kingdom

The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland which, like the House of Lords (the upper house), meets in the Palace of Westminster.

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Howard Winstone

Howard Winstone, MBE (15 April 1939 – 30 September 2000) was a Welsh world champion boxer, born in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.

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Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hywel Dda

Hywel Dda (Hywel the Good) or Hywel ap Cadell (c.880 – 950) was a King of Deheubarth who eventually came to rule most of Wales.

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Ian Rush

Ian James Rush, MBE, (born 20 October 1961, St Asaph) is a Welsh former footballer.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

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Ieuan Wyn Jones

Ieuan Wyn Jones (born 22 May 1949) is a Welsh politician who was the Deputy First Minister in the Welsh Assembly Government from 2007 to 2011.

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Illuminated manuscript

An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.

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Indian cuisine

Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional cuisines native to India.

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Industrial park

An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Institute of Welsh Affairs

The Institute of Welsh Affairs (also known by the acronym IWA) is an independent, membership-based think-tank based in the capital of Wales, Cardiff, owing no allegiance to any political or economic interest group.

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Insular art

Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of the British Isles.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that originated in the British Isles, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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International Hydrographic Organization

The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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Ioan Gruffudd

Ioan Gruffudd (born 6 October 1973) is a Welsh actor.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.

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Irish language

Irish (Gaeilge), sometimes referred to as Gaelic or Irish Gaelic, is a Goidelic language of the Indo-European language family, originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Irish Sea

The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain.

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Iron Age

The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), otherwise known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency located in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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ISO 3166-1

ISO 3166-1 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.

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ITV (TV network)

ITV is a commercial TV network in the United Kingdom.

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James Sheridan Knowles

James Sheridan Knowles (12 May 1784 – 30 November 1862) was an Irish dramatist and actor.

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Jimmy Wilde

Jimmy Wilde (15 May 1892 – 10 March 1969) was a Welsh professional boxer and world boxing champion.

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Joe Calzaghe

Joseph William "Joe" Calzaghe, CBE (born 23 March 1972) is a Welsh former professional boxer.

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Joe Louis

Joseph Louis Barrow (May 13, 1914 – April 12, 1981), best known as Joe Louis, was an American professional boxer.

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John Charles

William John Charles, CBE (27 December 1931 – 21 February 2004) was a Welsh international footballer who played for Leeds United and Juventus.

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John Davies (historian)

John Davies (25 April 1938 – 16 February 2015) was a Welsh historian, and a television and radio broadcaster.

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John Davies (Mallwyd)

Dr John Davies, Mallwyd (c. 1567 – 1644) was one of Wales's leading scholars of the late Renaissance.

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John Rhys-Davies

John Rhys-Davies (born 5 May 1944) is a Welsh actor and voice actor best known for his portrayal of Gimli in ''The Lord of the Rings'' trilogy and the charismatic Arab excavator Sallah in the ''Indiana Jones'' films.

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John T. Koch

Professor John T. Koch is an American academic, historian and linguist who specializes in Celtic studies, especially prehistory and the early Middle Ages.

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John Wilkinson (industrialist)

John "Iron-Mad" Wilkinson (1728–14 July 1808) was an English industrialist who pioneered the manufacture of cast iron and the use of cast-iron goods during the Industrial Revolution.

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Jonah Jones (sculptor)

Jonah Jones (17 February 1919 – 29 November 2004) was born Leonard Jones in the north east of England, but known as a Welsh sculptor, writer and artist-craftsman.

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Julian Hodge

Sir Julian Hodge (15 October 1904 – 17 July 2004) was a London-born entrepreneur and banker who lived in Wales for most of his life, from the age of five.

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Katherine Jenkins

Katherine Jenkins, OBE (born 29 June 1980) is a Welsh lyric mezzo-soprano, singer and songwriter.

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Keir Hardie

James Keir Hardie (15 August 185626 September 1915) was a Scottish Georgist, socialist, and Labour Party leader, and was the first independent Labour Member of Parliament elected to the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Kenneth O. Morgan

Kenneth Owen Morgan, Baron Morgan (born 16 May 1934) is a Welsh historian and author, known especially for his writings on Modern British history and politics and on Welsh history.

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Kids in Glass Houses

Kids in Glass Houses were a Welsh rock band from Pontycymmer.

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King Arthur

King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th to early 6th century A.D. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians.

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Kingdom of Gwent

Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.

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Kingdom of Gwynedd

The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to Rome which emerged in 5th-century Britain during the Coming of the Saxons.

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Kingdom of Northumbria

The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþhymbra rīce, "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom.

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Kingdom of Powys

The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain.

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Kittiwake

The kittiwakes (genus Rissa) are two closely related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake (R. tridactyla) and the red-legged kittiwake (R. brevirostris).

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Kyffin Williams

Sir John "Kyffin" Williams, KBE, RA (9 May 1918 – 1 September 2006) was a Welsh landscape painter who lived at Pwllfanogl, Llanfairpwll on the Island of Anglesey.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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Lady Charlotte Guest

Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Guest (née Bertie; 19 May 1812 – 15 January 1895), later Lady Charlotte Schreiber, was an English aristocrat who is best known as the first publisher in modern print format of The Mabinogion which is the earliest prose literature of Britain.

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Lammas

In some English-speaking countries in the Northern Hemisphere, August 1 is Lammas Day (Anglo-Saxon hlaf-mas, "loaf-mass"), the festival of the wheat harvest, and is the first harvest festival of the year.

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Landscape painting

Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction in art of landscapes – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.

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Language death

In linguistics, language death (also language extinction, linguistic extinction or linguicide,Zuckermann, Ghil'ad,, The Australian Higher Education, June 6, 2012. and rarely also glottophagy) occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

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Languages of Wales

The two official languages of Wales are Welsh and English.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period, popularly known as the Ice Age was the most recent glacial period within the Quaternary glaciation occurring during the last one hundred thousand years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago.

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Latitude

In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Laver (seaweed)

Laver is an edible, littoral alga (seaweed).

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Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542

The Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542 (Y Deddfau Cyfreithiau yng Nhgymru 1535 a 1542) were parliamentary measures by which Wales became a full and equal part of the Kingdom of England and the legal system of England was extended to Wales and the norms of English administration introduced.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Leek

The leek is a vegetable that belongs, along with onion and garlic, to the genus Allium, currently placed in family Amaryllidaceae, subfamily Allioideae.

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Leek soup

Leek soup is a soup based on potatoes, leeks, broth (usually chicken), and heavy cream.

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Legislative Competence Order

In Wales, a Legislative Competence Order (LCO; pronounced 'elco') was a piece of constitutional legislation in the form of an Order in Council.

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Liberal Democrats

The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as the Lib Dems) are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom, with policies ranging from the centre-left to the centre-right.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was a liberal political party which was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th century.

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Lichfield Gospels

The Lichfield Gospels (recently, more often referred to as the St Chad Gospels — but also known as the Book of Chad, the Gospels of St. Chad, St Teilo Gospels, the Llandeilo Gospels, and variations on these) is an eighth century Insular gospel Book housed in Lichfield Cathedral.

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Life on Mars (UK TV series)

Life on Mars is a British television series broadcast on BBC One between January 2006 and April 2007.

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Light industry

Light industry is industry that is usually less capital-intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries).

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Limpet

A limpet is an aquatic snail with a shell that is broadly conical in shape.

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List of islands of Wales

This is a list of islands of Wales, the mainland of which is part of Great Britain, as well as a table of the largest Welsh islands by area.

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List of MPs elected in the United Kingdom general election, 2010

The fifty-fifth Parliament of the United Kingdom was the legislature of the United Kingdom following the 2010 general election of Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons.

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List of sports governing bodies in Wales

The governing bodies of sports in Wales perform an organisational, regulatory or sanctioning function at a national level in Wales, some tracing their history to the 19th Century.

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List of unusual units of measurement

An unusual unit of measurement is a unit of measurement that does not form part of a coherent system of measurement; especially in that its exact quantity may not be well known or that it may be an inconvenient multiple or fraction of base units in such systems.

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Liverpool

Liverpool is a city in Merseyside, England, on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.

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Liverpool Daily Post

The Liverpool Post was a newspaper published by Trinity Mirror in Liverpool, Merseyside, England.

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Livestock

Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.

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Llandaff

Llandaff (Llandaf; from llan "church" and Taf) is a district in the north of Cardiff, capital of Wales, having been incorporated into the city in 1922.

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Llandudno

Llandudno is a seaside resort, town and community in Conwy County Borough, Wales, located on the Creuddyn peninsula, which protrudes into the Irish Sea.

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Llangollen

Llangollen is a small town and community in Denbighshire, north-east Wales, situated on the River Dee and on the edge of the Berwyn mountains.

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Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod

The Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod is a music festival which takes place every year during the second week of July in Llangollen, North Wales.

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Llanishen

Llanishen (Welsh Llanisien llan church + Isien Saint Isan) is a district in the north of Cardiff, the capital city of Wales.

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Llantrisant

Llantrisant ("Parish of the Three Saints") is a town in the county borough of Rhondda Cynon Taf in Wales, within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan, Wales, lying on the River Ely and the Afon Clun.

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Llŷn Peninsula

The Llŷn Peninsula (Penrhyn Llŷn or Pen Llŷn) extends into the Irish Sea from north west Wales, south west of the Isle of Anglesey.

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Lloegyr

Lloegyr is the medieval Welsh name for that part of Britain south and east of a line extending from the Humber Estuary to the Severn Estuary, exclusive of Cornwall and Devon.

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Lloyd George ministry

The Lloyd George ministry, a coalition government led by David Lloyd George, came to power in the United Kingdom in December 1916.

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Llywelyn ap Gruffudd

Llywelyn ap Gruffudd (c. 1223 – 11 December 1282), sometimes written as Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, also known as Llywelyn the Last, or, in Welsh, Llywelyn Ein Llyw Olaf ("Llywelyn, Our Last Leader"), was King of Wales from 1258, until his death at Cilmeri, in 1282.

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Llywelyn Bren

Llywelyn Bren (died 1318), or Llywelyn ap Gruffudd ap Rhys or Llywelyn of the Woods (English), was a nobleman who led a revolt in Wales during the reign of King Edward II of England in 1316.

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Llywelyn the Great

Llywelyn the Great (Llywelyn Fawr), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 117211 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.

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London Paddington station

Paddington, also known as London Paddington, is a central London railway terminus and London Underground station complex, located on Praed Street in Paddington.

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Lostprophets

Lostprophets were a Welsh rock band from Pontypridd formed in 1997.

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Loyal opposition

In parliamentary systems of government, the term loyal opposition is a term applied collectively to the opposition parties in the legislature to indicate that the non-governing parties may oppose the actions of the sitting cabinet while remaining loyal to the source of the government's power.

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Luftwaffe

The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the German Wehrmacht during World War II.

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M4 motorway

The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom.

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Mabinogion

The Mabinogion is the earliest prose literature of Britain.

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Machynlleth

Machynlleth, sometimes referred to colloquially as Mach, is a market town and community in Powys, Wales and within the historic boundaries of Montgomeryshire (Sir Drefaldwyn).

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Mackerel

Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.

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Madog ap Llywelyn

Madog ap Llywelyn (died after 1312) was from a junior branch of the House of Aberffraw and a distant relation of Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, the last recognised native Prince of Wales.

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Magistrates' court (England and Wales)

In England and Wales, a magistrates' court is a lower court, where all the criminal proceedings start.

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Magna Carta

Magna Carta (Latin for "the Great Charter"), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.

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Magnus Maximus

Magnus Maximus (Flavius Magnus Maximus Augustus, Macsen Wledig) (ca. 335 – August 28, 388) was Western Roman Emperor from 383 to 388.

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Mametz Wood Memorial

The Mametz Wood Memorial commemorates an engagement of the 38th (Welsh) Division of the British Army during the First Battle of the Somme in France in 1916.

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Man (band)

Man are a rock band from South Wales whose style is a mixture of West Coast psychedelia, progressive rock, blues and pub rock.

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Manic Street Preachers

Manic Street Preachers are an alternative rock band formed in 1986 in Blackwood, Wales and consisting of James Dean Bradfield (lead vocals, lead guitar), Nicky Wire (bass guitar, lyrics) and Sean Moore (drums).

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Manx language

No description.

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Manx shearwater

The Manx shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) is a medium-sized shearwater in the seabird family Procellariidae.

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Manx2

Manx2 was a virtual commuter airline with its head office in Hangar 9, Isle of Man Airport in Ballasalla, Malew, Isle of Man. It sold flights and services from several airports in the UK with bases in Belfast City, Blackpool, Cardiff and Isle of Man. The flights were operated for Manx2 by a number of airlines including, Van Air Europe, FLM Aviation and Links Air. In December 2012 the assets of Manx2 were sold to citywing and Manx2's last flight took place on 31 December 2012.

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Marcher Lord

A Marcher Lord was a strong and trusted noble appointed by the King of England to guard the border (known as the Welsh Marches) between England and Wales.

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Maredudd ab Owain

Maredudd ab Owain (died) was a 10th-century king in Wales of the High Middle Ages.

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Margaret Price

Dame Margaret Berenice Price, DBE (13 April 194128 January 2011) was a Welsh soprano.

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Mark Williams (snooker player)

Mark James Williams, (born 21 March 1975) is a Welsh professional snooker player who has been World Champion twice, in 2000 and 2003.

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Mary Hopkin

Mary Hopkin (born 3 May 1950), credited on some recordings as Mary Visconti, is a Welsh folk singer best known for her 1968 UK number one single "Those Were The Days".

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Mathrafal

Mathrafal near Welshpool, in Powys, Mid Wales, was the seat of the Kings and Princes of Powys probably from the 9th century until its destruction in 1212 by Llywelyn ap Iorwerth (Llywelyn the Great) of Gwynedd.

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Matt Ryan (actor)

Matt Ryan (born Matthew Darren Evans; 11 April 1981) is a Welsh actor from Swansea, Wales, best known as Edward Kenway in the Ubisoft video game Assassin's Creed IV: Black Flag and John Constantine in the NBC series Constantine and the CW series Arrow.

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Matthew Rhys

Matthew Rhys Evans (born 8 November 1974), known as Matthew Rhys, is a Welsh actor best known as Kevin Walker in the ABC family drama Brothers & Sisters, and as Dylan Thomas in The Edge of Love.

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Matthew Stevens

Matthew Stevens (born 11 September 1977) is a Welsh professional snooker player.

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Measure of the National Assembly for Wales

A Measure of the National Assembly for Wales (informally, an Assembly Measure) is primary legislation in Wales that is a category lower than an Act of Parliament.

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Media Wales

Media Wales Ltd. is a publishing company based in Cardiff in Wales.

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Medieval Welsh literature

Medieval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages.

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Meic Stevens

Meic Stevens is a Welsh singer-songwriter often referred to as "the Welsh Dylan", who has been compared with Syd Barrett.

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Member of parliament

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.

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Member of the European Parliament

A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.

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Member of the National Assembly for Wales

The National Assembly for Wales is composed of 60 members known as AMs or Assembly Members (in Welsh: ACau or Aelodau'r Cynulliad).

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Merched y Wawr

Merched y Wawr (Daughters of the Dawn) is a voluntary, non-political, organisation for women in Wales.

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Mercia

The Kingdom of Mercia (Miercna rīce), usually referred to as Mercia, was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.

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Merlin (bird)

The merlin (Falco columbarius) is a small species of falcon from the Northern Hemisphere.

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Merthyr Town F.C.

Merthyr Town Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Tref Merthyr) is a Welsh semi-professional football club based in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales.

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Merthyr Tydfil

Merthyr Tydfil (Merthyr Tudful) is a town in Wales, with a population of about 59,500, situated approximately north of Cardiff.

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Merthyr Tydfil (UK Parliament constituency)

Merthyr Tydfil was a parliamentary constituency centred on the town of Merthyr Tydfil in Glamorgan.

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Mesolithic

In archaeology, mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle", lithos "stone") is the culture between paleolithic and neolithic.

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Met Office

The Met Office (officially the Meteorological Office until 2000) is the United Kingdom's national weather service.

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Metallurgy

Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys.

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Methuen Publishing

Methuen Publishing Ltd is a British publishing house.

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Michael Sheen

Michael Christopher Sheen, (born 5 February 1969) is a Welsh actor.

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Mid Wales

Mid Wales (Canolbarth Cymru or simply Y Canolbarth "The Midlands") is the name given to the central region of Wales.

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Middle Ages

In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Milford Haven

Milford Haven (Aberdaugleddau, meaning "mouth of the two Rivers Cleddau") is a town and community in Pembrokeshire, Wales.

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Mining in Wales

Mining in Wales provided a significant source of income to the economy of Wales throughout the nineteenth century and early twentieth century.

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Monmouthshire

Monmouthshire (Sir Fynwy) is a county in south east Wales.

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Monolingualism

Monoglottism (Greek μόνοσ monos, "alone, solitary", + γλώττα glotta, "tongue, language") or, more commonly, monolingualism or unilingualism, is the condition of being able to speak only a single language, as compared to multilingualism.

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Mosque

A mosque (مسجد and مسجد masjid, plural مساجد masājid) is a place of worship for followers of Islam.

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Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru

Mudiad Amddiffyn Cymru (Movement for the Defence of Wales), abbreviated as MAC, was a paramilitary Welsh nationalist organisation, which was responsible for a number of bombing incidents between 1963 and 1969.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than two languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Mumbles

Mumbles (Mwmbwls.) is a headland sited on the western edge of Swansea Bay.

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Mussel

Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of clams or bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Mystery play

Mystery plays (from the Latin "misterium" meaning "occupation") and miracle plays (they are distinguished as two different forms although the terms are often used interchangeably) are among the earliest formally developed plays in medieval Europe.

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Mythology

Mythology is a collection of myths, especially one belonging to a particular religious or cultural tradition of a group of people–their collection of stories they tell to explain nature, history, and customs–or the study of such myths.

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Nantgarw Pottery

The Nantgarw Pottery was a noted pottery, located in Nantgarw on the eastern bank of the Glamorganshire Canal, north of Cardiff in the River Taff valley, Glamorganshire, Wales.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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Narcissus (plant)

Narcissus is a genus of predominantly spring perennial plants in the Amaryllidaceae (amaryllis) family.

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National Assembly for Wales

The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales.

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National Assembly for Wales constituencies and electoral regions

National Assembly for Wales constituencies and electoral regions were first used for the 1999 elections.

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National Assembly for Wales election, 2007

The 2007 National Assembly election was held on Thursday 3 May 2007 to elect members to the National Assembly for Wales.

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National Assembly for Wales election, 2011

The National Assembly for Wales election 2011 was the most recent election for the National Assembly.

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National Dance Company Wales

National Dance Company Wales (NDCWales), formerly Diversions, is the national dance company of Wales.

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National Eisteddfod of Wales

The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh: Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau (festivals) that are held annually, mostly in Wales.

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National Health Service Act 1946

The National Health Service Act 1946 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in England and Wales.

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National Library of Wales

The National Library of Wales (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru), Aberystwyth, is the national legal deposit library of Wales and is one of the Welsh Government sponsored bodies.

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National Museum Cardiff

National Museum Cardiff (Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Caerdydd) is a museum and art gallery in Cardiff, Wales.

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National park

A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.

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National Union of Mineworkers (Great Britain)

The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) is a trade union for coal miners in Great Britain formed in 1945 as a reorganisation of the Miners' Federation of Great Britain (MFGB).

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National Youth Orchestra of Wales

The National Youth Orchestra of Wales (Cerddorfa Genedlaethol Ieuenctid Cymru), founded in 1945, has the distinction of being the first national youth orchestra in the world and is Europe’s longest-standing national youth orchestra.

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Neath Port Talbot

Neath Port Talbot (Castell-nedd Port Talbot) is a county borough and one of the unitary authority areas of Wales.

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Nennius

Nennius (also known as Nemnius or Nemnivus) was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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Neolithic Europe

Neolithic Europe refers to a prehistoric period in which Neolithic technology was present in Europe.

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Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution or Neolithic Demographic Transition, sometimes called the Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, allowing the ability to support an increasingly large population.

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New Quay

New Quay (Cei Newydd) is a seaside town in Ceredigion, Wales with a resident population of around 1,200 people, reducing to 1,082 at the 2011 census.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Newport County A.F.C.

Newport County Association Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Sir Casnewydd) is a professional association football club based in the city of Newport, South Wales.

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Newport Gwent Dragons

Newport Gwent Dragons (Dreigiau Casnewydd Gwent) are one of the four professional Rugby Union regional teams in Wales.

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Newport, Wales

Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.

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NHS Wales

NHS Wales (Gwasanaeth Iechyd Gwladol Cymru (GIG Cymru)) is the publicly funded healthcare system of Wales and is the responsibility of the devolved Welsh Government.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.

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Normans

The Normans (Normands; Nortmanni) were the people who in the 10th and 11th centuries gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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North Atlantic Current

The North Atlantic Current (also known as North Atlantic Drift and North Atlantic Sea Movement) is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast.

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North Sea

The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.

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North Wales

North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is the northernmost unofficial region of Wales.

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North Wales Police

North Wales Police (Heddlu Gogledd Cymru) is the territorial police force responsible for policing North Wales.

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North West England

North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.

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Northern Ireland Assembly

The Northern Ireland Assembly (Tionól Thuaisceart Éireann, Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlan Assemblie) is the devolved legislature of Northern Ireland.

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Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.

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Offa of Mercia

Offa was King of Mercia, a kingdom of Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death in July 796.

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Offa's Dyke

Offa's Dyke (Clawdd Offa) is a large linear earthwork that roughly follows the current border between England and Wales.

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Office for National Statistics

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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Office of Rail and Road

The Office of Rail and Road (ORR) is a statutory board which is the combined economic and safety regulatory authority for Great Britain's railway network, as well as being responsible for monitoring Highways England.

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Old Church Slavonic

Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (often abbreviated to OCS; self-name, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), was the first Slavic literary language.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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One Wales

One Wales (Cymru'n Un) was the coalition agreement for the National Assembly for Wales between Labour and Plaid Cymru agreed to by Rhodri Morgan, First Minister of Wales and leader of Welsh Labour, and Ieuan Wyn Jones, leader of Plaid Cymru, on 27 June 2007.

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Ordnance Survey

Ordnance Survey (OS) is the national mapping agency for Great Britain and is one of the world's largest producers of maps.

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Ordovices

The Ordovices were one of the Celtic tribes living in Great Britain, before the Roman invasion of Britain.

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Ordovician

The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six of the Paleozoic Era, and covers the time between and million years ago.

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Ospreys (rugby team)

The Ospreys (Y Gweilch), formerly the Neath-Swansea Ospreys http://www.walesonline.co.uk/rugbynation/rugby-news/tm_objectid.

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Oswestry

Oswestry (Croesoswallt), one of the UK's oldest border settlements, is the largest market town and civil parish in Shropshire, England, close to the Welsh border.

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Otter

Otter is a common name for a carnivorous mammal in the subfamily Lutrinae.

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Outline of Wales

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Wales: Wales – country that is part of the United Kingdom, bordered by England to its east and the Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea to its west.

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Overton-on-Dee

Overton-on-Dee (Owrtyn) is a large village and a local government community, the lowest tier of local government, part of Wrexham County Borough near the Welsh-English border.

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Owain Glyndŵr

Owain Glyndŵr, or Owain Glyn Dŵr, (c. 1349 or 1359 – c. 1415) was a Welsh ruler and the last native Welshman to hold the title Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru).

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Owain Gwynedd

Owain ap Gruffudd (23 or 28 November 1170) was King of Gwynedd, north Wales, from 1137 until his death in 1170, succeeding his father Gruffudd ap Cynan.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Pacifism

Pacifism is opposition to war and violence.

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Palaeos

Palaeos.com is a web site on biology, paleontology, phylogeny and geology and which covers the history of Earth.

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Paleontology

Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life existent prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch roughly 11,700 years before present.

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Paleozoic

The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (or; from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, spanning from roughly (ICS, 2004).

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Parc Cwm long cairn

Parc Cwm long cairn (carn hir Parc Cwm), also known as Parc le Breos burial chamber (siambr gladdu Parc le Breos), is a partly restored Neolithic chambered tomb, identified in 1937 as a Severn-Cotswold type of chambered long barrow.

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Parliament

A parliament is a legislature.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the UK Parliament or the British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories.

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Parliamentary system

A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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Parys Mountain

Parys Mountain (Mynydd Parys) – is located south of the town of Amlwch in north east Anglesey, Wales.

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Patron saint

A patron saint or a patron hallow is a saint who in Roman Catholicism is regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Paul Whitehouse

Paul Julian Whitehouse (born 17 May 1958) is a British actor, writer and comedian.

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Pembroke Dock

Pembroke Dock (Doc Penfro) is a town in Pembrokeshire, South West Wales, lying north of Pembroke on the River Cleddau.

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Pembrokeshire

Pembrokeshire (or; Sir Benfro) is a county in the south west of Wales.

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Pembrokeshire Coast National Park

Pembrokeshire Coast National Park (Parc Cenedlaethol Arfordir Penfro) is a national park along the Pembrokeshire coast in west Wales.

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Pen y Fan

Pen y Fan is the highest peak in south Wales, situated in the Brecon Beacons National Park.

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Penmachno Document

The Penmachno Document was a letter patent drawn up at Penmachno in Gwynedd and signed on 19 December 1294 by Madog ap Llywelyn at the height of his revolt against English rule in Wales.

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Penrhyn Quarry

The Penrhyn Slate Quarry is a slate quarry located near Bethesda in north Wales.

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Pentecostalism

Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.

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Pentre Ifan

Pentre Ifan is the name of an ancient manor in the civil parish of Nevern, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

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Penydarren Ironworks

Penydarren Ironworks was the fourth of the great ironworks established at Merthyr Tydfil in South Wales.

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Percy Jones (boxer)

Rhondda's Percy Jones (26 December 1892 – 25 December 1922) became the first Welshman to win a world boxing title when he took the World Flyweight Championship from Bill Ladbury in 1914.

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Perfeddwlad

Perfeddwlad or Y Berfeddwlad (Welsh for 'Midlands') was a name adopted during the 12th century for the territories in north-east Wales lying between the rivers Conwy and Dee.

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Period (geology)

A geologic period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.

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Peter Prendergast (artist)

Peter Prendergast (21 October 1946 – 14 January 2007) was a Welsh landscape painter.

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Phil Williams (politician)

Professor Philip James Stradling Williams (11 January 1939 – 10 June 2003) was a Welsh politician for Plaid Cymru and scientist.

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Pig iron

Pig iron is the intermediate product of smelting iron ore.

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Pilgrimage

A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.

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Pillar of Eliseg

The Pillar of Eliseg also known as Elise's Pillar or Croes Elisedd in Welsh, stands near Valle Crucis Abbey, Denbighshire, Wales, at.

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Pistyll Rhaeadr

Pistyll Rhaeadr (meaning "spring of the waterfall") is a waterfall, located a few miles from the village of Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant in Powys, Wales, twelve miles west of Oswestry.

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Plaid Cymru

Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – the Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for an independent Wales from the United Kingdom within the European Union.

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Play (theatre)

A play is a form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.

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Plurality voting system

The plurality voting system is a single-winner voting system often used to elect executive officers, or members of a legislative assembly based on single-member constituencies.

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Plynlimon

Plynlimon (anglicised from Pumlumon in Welsh, meaning "five peaks") is the highest point of the Cambrian Mountains in Wales, and the highest point in Mid Wales.

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Poetry Wales

Poetry Wales is a quarterly magazine published in Bridgend, Wales in the UK.

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Politics of Wales

Politics in Wales forms a distinctive polity in the wider politics of the United Kingdom, with Wales as one of the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom (UK).

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Pont Abraham services

Pont Abraham services is a motorway service station on the M4 motorway in Wales.

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Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

The Pontcysyllte Aqueduct (full name in Traphont Ddŵr Pontcysyllte) is a navigable aqueduct that carries the Llangollen Canal over the valley of the River Dee in Wrexham County Borough in north east Wales.

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Porcelain

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Porpoise

Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals, that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales).

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Portmeirion

Portmeirion is a tourist village in Gwynedd, North Wales.

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Portmeirion Pottery

Portmeirion is a British pottery company based in Stoke-on-Trent.

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Post-industrial economy

A post-industrial economy refers to a period of growth within an industrialized economy or nation in which the relative importance of manufacturing reduces and that of services, information, and research grows.

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Pottery

Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up potterywares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known simply as the pound, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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Power pop

Power pop is a popular musical genre that draws its inspiration from 1960s British and American pop and rock music.

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Powys

Powys (or; Welsh) is a principal area, local-government county and preserved county in Mid Wales.

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Precambrian

Positions of landmasses near the end of the Precambrian The Precambrian or Pre-Cambrian; sometimes abbreviated pЄ is the largest span of time in Earth's history before the current Phanerozoic Eon, and is a Supereon divided into several eons of the geologic time scale.

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Precedent

In common law legal systems, a precedent or authority is a principle or rule established in a previous legal case that is either binding on or persuasive for a court or other tribunal when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts.

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Presbyterian Church of Wales

The Presbyterian Church of Wales (Eglwys Bresbyteraidd Cymru), also known as The Calvinistic Methodist Church (Yr Eglwys Fethodistaidd Galfinaidd), is a denomination of Protestant Christianity.

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Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales

The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales is the Speaker of the National Assembly for Wales, elected by the Members of the National Assembly for Wales to chair their meetings (plenary sessions); to maintain order; and to protect the rights of Members.

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Press Gazette

Press Gazette, formerly known as UK Press Gazette (UKPG), is a British media trade magazine dedicated to journalism and the press.

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Prince of Wales

Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru) is a title traditionally granted to the heir apparent of the British or English monarch.

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Prince of Wales's feathers

The Prince of Wales's feathers is the heraldic badge of the Prince of Wales.

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Principality of Wales

The Principality of Wales (Welsh: Tywysogaeth Cymru) existed between 1216 and 1536, encompassing two-thirds of modern Wales during its height between 1267–1277.

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Priory

A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress.

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Prisons in Wales

The prisons in Wales are run by Her Majesty's Prison Service, which is in turn a part of the National Offender Management Service which is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice responsible for the correctional services in England and Wales.

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Pro12

The Pro12 (known as the Guinness Pro12 for sponsorship reasons) (formerly known as the Celtic League, Magners League and RaboDirect Pro12) is an annual rugby union competition involving twelve professional sides from Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.

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Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.

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Prose

Prose is a form of language that exhibits a grammatical structure and a natural flow of speech rather than a rhythmic structure (as in traditional poetry).

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Pseudohistory

"Pseudohistory" is a term applied to a type of historical revisionism.

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Public sector

The public sector is the part of the economy concerned with providing various government services.

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Puffin

Puffins are any of three small species of alcids (auks) in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season.

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R. Williams Parry

Robert Williams Parry (6 March 1884 - 4 January 1956) was one of Wales' most notable poets in the twentieth century.

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Rachel Bromwich

Rachel Bromwich (30 July 1915 – 15 December 2010) was a British scholar.

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Rachel Roberts (actress)

Rachel Roberts (20 September 192726 November 1980) was a Welsh actress noted for her fervour and passion.

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Radio Ceredigion

Radio Ceredigion is a British bilingual local radio station that serves Ceredigion in West Wales.

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Radio Maldwyn

Radio Maldwyn - The Magic 756 was a local commercial radio station serving Mid Wales and the English border counties.

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Radnorshire

Radnor or Radnorshire (Sir Faesyfed) is a sparsely populated area, one of thirteen historic and former administrative counties of Wales.

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Raven

A raven is one of several larger-bodied members of the genus Corvus.

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Ray Reardon

Ray Reardon, (born 8 October 1932) is a Welsh retired snooker player who dominated the sport in the 1970s, winning six World Championships, and is remembered as one of the best players of the 20th Century.

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Razorbill

The razorbill (Alca torda) is a colonial seabird that only comes to land in order to breed.

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Red Book of Hergest

The Red Book of Hergest (Llyfr Coch Hergest) is a large vellum manuscript written shortly after 1382, which ranks as one of the most important medieval manuscripts written in the Welsh language.

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Red kite

The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.

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Red Lady of Paviland

The Red Lady of Paviland is a fairly complete Upper Paleolithic-era human male skeleton dyed in red ochre.

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Relict

A relict is a surviving remnant of a natural phenomenon.

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Rhayader

Rhayader (Rhaeadr Gwy) is a market town and community in Powys, Wales.

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Rhod Gilbert

Rhodri "Rhod" Paul Gilbert (born 18 October 1968) is a Welsh comedian who was nominated in 2005 for the Perrier Best Newcomer Award.

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Rhodri Morgan

Hywel Rhodri Morgan (born 29 September 1939) is a Welsh Labour politician who was the First Minister of Wales and the Leader of Welsh Labour from 2000 to 2009.

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Rhodri the Great

Rhodri ap Merfyn (820–878), later known as Rhodri the Great (Rhodri Mawr), succeeded his father, Merfyn Frych, as King of Gwynedd in 844.

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Rhondda

Rhondda, or the Rhondda Valley (Cwm Rhondda), is a former coal mining valley in Wales, formerly a local government district, consisting of 16 communities built around the River Rhondda.

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Rhondda Cynon Taf

Rhondda Cynon Taf, or RCT, is a county borough in South Wales.

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Rhydwen Williams

Robert Rhydwenfro Williams, known as Rhydwen Williams, (29 August 1916 - 2 August 1997), was a Welsh poet, novelist and Baptist minister.

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Rhyl

Rhyl (Y Rhyl) is a seaside resort town and community in Denbighshire, situated on the north east coast of Wales, at the mouth of the River Clwyd (Welsh: Afon Clwyd).

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Rhys Lewis (novel)

Rhys Lewis is a novel by Daniel Owen, written in the Welsh language and published in 1885.

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Ricemarch Psalter

The Ricemarch Psalter is an 11th-century Welsh illuminated psalter, in a late Insular style, that has been described as "Hiberno-Danish", instead of the usual "Hiberno-Saxon", as it reflects Viking influence.

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Richard Burton

Richard Burton, CBE (10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh stage and cinema actor noted for his mellifluous baritone voice and his great acting talent.

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Richard Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn

Richard Pennant, 1st Baron Penrhyn (1737 – 21 January 1808) was a slave owner, anti-abolitionist Member of Parliament (MP) and Irish peer.

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Richard Wilson (painter)

Richard Wilson (1 August 1714 – 15 May 1782) was an influential British landscape painter, who worked in Britain and Italy.

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Ring ouzel

The ring ouzel (Turdus torquatus) is a European member of the thrush family Turdidae.

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River Dee, Wales

The River Dee (Afon Dyfrdwy, Deva Fluvius) is a river in the United Kingdom.

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River Severn

The River Severn (Welsh: Afon Hafren, Latin: Sabrina) is the longest river in the United Kingdom, at about.

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River Wye

The River Wye (Afon Gwy) is the fifth-longest river in the UK, stretching some from source to sea.

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Roald Dahl

Roald Dahl (13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, screenwriter, and fighter pilot.

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Robbie Regan

Robbie Regan (born 30 August 1968 in Caerphilly, Wales) is a Welsh former professional boxer.

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Roderick Murchison

Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.

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Roman Britain

Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.

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Roman citizenship

Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.

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Roman conquest of Britain

The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman engineering

Romans are famous for their advanced engineering accomplishments, although some of their own inventions were improvements on older ideas, concepts and inventions.

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Roman technology

Roman technology is the engineering practice which supported Roman civilization and made the expansion of Roman commerce and Roman military possible for almost three quarters of a millennium (753 BC–476 AD).

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Romanization (cultural)

Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation: see spelling differences)—in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms—indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.

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Romano-British culture

Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia.

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Rosemary Butler (politician)

Dame Rosemary Janet Mair Butler (née McGrath; born 21 January 1943) is a British politician and Labour Member of the National Assembly for Wales for Newport West since 1999.

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Royal Cambrian Academy of Art

The Royal Cambrian Academy of Art is a centre of excellence for art in Wales.

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Royal charter

A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.

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Royal Charter (ship)

The Royal Charter was a steam clipper which was wrecked off the beach of Porth Alerth in Dulas Bay on the north-east coast of Anglesey on 26 October 1859.

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Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, the coins of the United Kingdom.

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Royal Society for the Protection of Birds

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) is a charitable organisation registered in England and Wales and in Scotland.

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Royal Welsh

The Royal Welsh (R WELSH) (Y Cymry Brenhinol) is one of the new large infantry regiments of the British Army.

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Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama

The Royal Welsh College of Music & Drama (Welsh: Coleg Brenhinol Cerdd a Drama Cymru) is a conservatoire located in Cardiff, Wales.

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Rugby League World Cup

The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rugby World Cup

The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.

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Ruthin

Ruthin (Rhuthun) is the county town of Denbighshire in north Wales.

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Ryan Giggs

Ryan Joseph Giggs, OBE (born Ryan Joseph Wilson on 29 November 1973) is a Welsh football coach and former player who is currently the assistant manager at Manchester United and co-owner of Salford City.

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S4C

S4C (from the Welsh Sianel Pedwar Cymru, meaning "Channel Four Wales") is a Welsh-language public-service television channel based in Cardiff and broadcast throughout Wales.

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Sailor

A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.

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Saint David

Saint David ('Dewi Sant', Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Menevia during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.

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Saint David's Day

Saint David's Day (Dydd Gŵyl Dewi) is the feast day of Saint David, the patron saint of Wales, and falls on 1 March each year.

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Salmon

Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae.

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Salvelinus

Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout".

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Saunders Lewis

Saunders Lewis (born John Saunders Lewis) (15 October 1893 – 1 September 1985) was a Welsh poet, dramatist, historian, literary critic, and political activist.

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Saxifraga cespitosa

The tufted saxifrage (Saxifraga cespitosa) is a flower common to many arctic heights.

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Saxifraga oppositifolia

Saxifraga oppositifolia, the purple saxifrage or purple mountain saxifrage, is a species of edible plant that is very common all over the high Arctic and also some high mountainous areas further south, including northern Britain, the Alps and the Rocky Mountains.

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Saxons

The Saxons (Saxones, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Sachsen, Saksen) were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the North German Plain.

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Scarlets

The Scarlets are one of the four professional Welsh regional rugby union teams.

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Scotland

Scotland (Scots:; Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.

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Scottish Parliament

The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.

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Sea Empress oil spill

The Sea Empress oil spill occurred at the entrance to the Milford Haven Waterway in Pembrokeshire, Wales on 15 February 1996.

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Seaweed

Seaweed refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae that live near the seabed (benthic).

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Second Severn Crossing

The Second Severn Crossing (Ail Groesfan Hafren) is the M4 motorway bridge over the River Severn between England and Wales, inaugurated on 5 June 1996 by HRH The Prince of Wales to augment the traffic capacity of the original Severn Bridge built in 1966.

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Secretary of State for Wales

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Wales (Ysgrifennydd Gwladol Cymru) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom with responsibilities for Wales.

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Seisyllwg

Seisyllwg was a petty kingdom of medieval Wales.

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Sempringham

Sempringham is a hamlet in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England.

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Seven Wonders of Wales

The Seven Wonders of Wales (Saith Rhyfeddod Cymru) is a traditional list of notable landmarks in North Wales, commemorated in an anonymously written rhyme: The rhyme is usually supposed to have been written sometime in the late 18th or early 19th century by an English visitor to North Wales.

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Sheep farming in Wales

Sheep farming is important to the economy of Wales.

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Sheffield

Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough in South Yorkshire, England.

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Shirburn Castle

Shirburn Castle is at the village of Shirburn, south of Thame, Oxfordshire.

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Shirley Bassey

Dame Shirley Veronica Bassey, (born 8 January 1937) is a Welsh singer with a career spanning more than 60 years.

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Shrewsbury

Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England.

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Siân James (musician)

Siân James (born 24 December 1961) is a Welsh traditional folk singer and harpist who has recorded for Sain and BBC Records as well as her own label, Bos.

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Sikhism

Sikhism, or Sikhi (from Sikh, meaning a disciple, or a learner), is a monotheistic religion founded in South Asia in the 15th century.

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Silene acaulis

Silene acaulis, known as moss campion or cushion pink, is a small mountain-dwelling wildflower that is common all over the high arctic and tundra in the higher mountains of Eurasia and North America, (south to the Alps, Carpathians, southern Siberia, Pyrenees, British Isles, Faroe Islands, Rocky Mountains).

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Silures

The Silures were a powerful and warlike tribe or tribal confederation of ancient Britain, occupying what is now south east Wales and perhaps some adjoining areas.

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Silurian

The Silurian is a geologic period and system that extends from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period.

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Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (άργυρος árguros, argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47.

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Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester

Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (– 4 August 1265), also called Simon de Munford and sometimes referred to as Simon V de Montfort to distinguish him from other Simons de Montfort, was a French nobleman who inherited the title and estates of the earldom of Leicester in England.

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Six Nations Championship

The Six Nations Championship is an annual international rugby union competition involving six European sides: England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland and Wales.

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Smoking

Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.

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Snooker

Snooker is a cue sport played on a table covered with a green cloth or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions.

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Snowdon

, Dewey, Sim sub Dewey Snowdon (Yr Wyddfa) is the highest mountain in Wales, at an elevation of above sea level, and the highest point in the British Isles outside the Scottish Highlands.

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Snowdonia

Snowdonia (Eryri) is a region in north Wales and a national park of in area.

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Socialism

Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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South Wales

South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and mid Wales and west Wales to the north and west.

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South Wales Argus

The South Wales Argus is an American-owned daily tabloid newspaper published in Newport, south Wales.

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South Wales Coalfield

The South Wales Coalfield (Welsh: Maes glo De Cymru) is a large region of south Wales that is rich in coal deposits, especially the South Wales Valleys.

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South Wales Echo

The South Wales Echo is a daily tabloid newspaper published in Cardiff, Wales and distributed throughout the surrounding area.

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South Wales Evening Post

The South Wales Evening Post is a tabloid daily newspaper distributed in the South West Wales area of the United Kingdom.

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South Wales Main Line

The South Wales Main Line (Prif Linell De Cymru), originally known as the London, Bristol and South Wales Direct Railway or simply as the Bristol and South Wales Direct Railway, is a branch of the Great Western Main Line in Great Britain.

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South Wales Police

South Wales Police (Heddlu De Cymru) is one of the four territorial police forces in Wales.

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South Wales Valleys

The South Wales Valleys (Cymoedd De Cymru) are a number of industrialised valleys in South Wales.

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Sparling

Sparling is a surname.

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Sport Wales

Sport Wales is the national organisation responsible for developing and promoting sport and physical activity in Wales.

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St Asaph

St Asaph (Llanelwy) is a city and community on the River Elwy in Denbighshire, Wales.

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St Davids

St Davids or St David's (Tyddewi,, "David's house") is a city and community (full name St David's and the Cathedral Close) in Pembrokeshire, Wales, in the United Kingdom.

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St Fagans National History Museum

St Fagans National History Museum (Sain Ffagan: Amgueddfa Werin Cymru), commonly referred to as St Fagans after the village where it is located, is an open-air museum in Cardiff chronicling the historical lifestyle, culture, and architecture of the Welsh people.

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St George's Channel

St George's Channel (Sianel San Siôr, Muir Bhreatan) is a sea channel connecting the Irish Sea to the north and the Celtic Sea to the southwest.

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St Giles' Church, Wrexham

St Giles' Church is the parish church of Wrexham, Wales, and is a Grade 1 listed building, described by Simon Jenkins as "the glory of the Marches".

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St Paul's Cathedral

St Paul's Cathedral, London, is an Anglican cathedral, the seat of the Bishop of London and the mother church church of the Diocese of London.

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St Winefride's Well

St Winefride's or Winifred's Well is a well located in Holywell, Flintshire, in Wales.

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Stanley Baker

Sir William Stanley Baker (28 February 192828 June 1976) was a Welsh actor and film producer.

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Statistics Canada

Statistics Canada (Statistique Canada), which was formed in 1971, is the Canadian federal government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture.

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Statute of Rhuddlan

The Statute of Rhuddlan (Statud Rhuddlan,, approximately), also known as the Statutes of Wales (Statuta Vallie) or as the Statute of Wales (Statutum Vallie or Statutum Valliae), provided the constitutional basis for the government of the Principality of North Wales from 1284 until 1536.

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Steeple

A steeple, in architecture, is a tall tower on a building, topped by a spire and often incorporating a belfry and other components.

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Stephen Crabb

Stephen Crabb (born 20 January 1973) is a British Conservative Party politician.

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Stereophonics

Stereophonics are a Welsh rock band that formed in 1992 in the village of Cwmaman in Cynon Valley, Wales.

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Steve Robinson (boxer)

Steve Robinson (born 13 December 1968 Cardiff) is a Welsh retired professional boxer.

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Stoat

The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel, is a species of Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.

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Stoke-on-Trent

Stoke-on-Trent (often abbreviated to Stoke) is a city in Staffordshire, England, with an area of.

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Stratigraphy

Stratigraphy is a branch of geology which studies rock layers (strata) and layering (stratification).

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Sub-Roman Britain

Sub-Roman Britain is a term derived from an archaeological label for the material culture of Great Britain in Late Antiquity.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state.

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Super Furry Animals

Super Furry Animals are a Welsh rock band who lean towards psychedelic rock and electronic experimentation.

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Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Ireland law and Scottish civil law.

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Surrealism

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.

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Susan Williams-Ellis

Susan Williams-Ellis (6 June 1918 – 26 November 2007) was an English pottery designer, and the eldest daughter of Clough Williams-Ellis, who was best known for co-founding Portmeirion Pottery.

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Swansea

Swansea (Abertawe, "mouth of the Tawe"), officially known as the City and County of Swansea, is a coastal city and county in Wales.

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Swansea Blitz

The Swansea Blitz was the heavy and sustained bombing of Swansea by the Luftwaffe of Nazi Germany on 19–21 February 1941.

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Swansea City A.F.C.

Swansea City Association Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Dinas Abertawe) is a Welsh professional association football club based in the city of Swansea, Wales, who play in the Premier League.

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Swansea Sound

Swansea Sound (Sain Abertawe) is an independent local radio station broadcasting to Swansea and surrounding areas, aimed at a core 40+ demographic.

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T. Gwynn Jones

Professor Thomas Gwynn Jones C.B.E. (10 October 1871 – 7 March 1949), more widely known as T. Gwynn Jones, was a leading Welsh poet, scholar, literary critic, novelist, translator, and journalist who did important work in Welsh literature, Welsh education, and the study of Welsh folk tales in the first half of the twentieth century.

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T. H. Parry-Williams

Sir Thomas Herbert Parry-Williams (21 September 1887 – 3 March 1975) was a Welsh poet, author and academic.

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Taliesin

Taliesin (6th century; was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard who is believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. Eleven of the preserved poems have been dated to as early as the 6th century, and were ascribed to the historical Taliesin. The bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he also served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd (c. 583), are referred to in other sources. His name, spelled as Taliessin in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King and in some subsequent works, means "shining brow" in Middle Welsh. In legend and medieval Welsh poetry, he is often referred to as Taliesin Ben Beirdd ("Taliesin, Chief of Bards" or chief of poets). He is mentioned as one of the five British poets of renown, along with Talhaearn Tad Awen ("Talhaearn Father of the Muse"), Aneirin, Blwchfardd, and Cian Gwenith Gwawd ("Cian Wheat of Song"), in the Historia Brittonum, and is also mentioned in the collection of poems known as Y Gododdin. Taliesin was highly regarded in the mid-12th century as the supposed author of a great number of romantic legends.Griffin (1887) According to legend Taliesin was adopted as a child by Elffin, the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, and prophesied the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd from the Yellow Plague. In later stories he became a mythic hero, companion of Bran the Blessed and King Arthur. His legendary biography is found in several late renderings (see below), the earliest surviving narrative being found in a manuscript chronicle of world history written by Elis Gruffydd in the 16th century.

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Tanni Grey-Thompson

Carys Davina "Tanni" Grey-Thompson, Baroness Grey-Thompson, DBE, DL (born 26 July 1969) is a British former wheelchair racer and is a parliamentarian and television presenter.

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Taxus

Taxus is a genus of small coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Temperate climate

In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of Earth lie between the tropics and the polar regions.

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Tenby

Tenby (Dinbych-y-pysgod, meaning little town of the fishes or little fortress of the fish) is a walled seaside town in Pembrokeshire, south Wales, on the western side of Carmarthen Bay.

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Terry Griffiths

Terrence "Terry" Griffiths, (born 16 October 1947) is a retired Welsh snooker player and current snooker coach and pundit.

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Tertiary sector of the economy

The tertiary sector of the economy (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three economic sectors, the others being the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing) and the primary sector (agriculture, fishing, and extraction such as mining).

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The Alarm

The Alarm are an alternative rock/new wave band that formed in Rhyl, North Wales, in 1981.

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The Football League

The Football League is a league competition featuring professional association football clubs from England and Wales.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.

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The Hennessys

The Hennessys are one of Wales' foremost traditional folk music groups.

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The History Press

The History Press is a British publishing company specialising in the publication of titles devoted to local and specialist history.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.

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The Kardomah Gang

The Kardomah Gang,The Kardomah Boys, or Kardomah Group was a group of bohemian friends – artists, musicians, poets and writers – who, in the 1930s, frequented the Kardomah Café in Castle Street, Swansea, Wales.

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The National Archives (United Kingdom)

The National Archives (TNA) is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice of the United Kingdom.

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The Prehistoric Society

The Prehistoric Society is an international learned society devoted to the study of the human past from the earliest times until the emergence of written history.

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Theguardian.com

theguardian.com, formerly known as Guardian Unlimited and guardian.co.uk, is a British news and media website owned by the Guardian Media Group.

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Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain

The Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain (Welsh: Tri Thlws ar Ddeg Ynys Prydain) are a series of items in late medieval Welsh tradition.

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Thomas E. Stephens

Thomas Edgar Stephens (1885–1966) was an American artist and portrait painter.

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Tom Jones (singer)

Sir Thomas Jones Woodward, OBE (born 7 June 1940), is a Welsh singer known by his stage name Tom Jones.

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Tommy Cooper

Thomas Frederick "Tommy" Cooper (19 March 1921 – 15 April 1984) was a Welsh prop comedian and magician.

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Tommy Farr

Thomas George Farr (12 March 1913 – 1 March 1986) was a British boxer from Clydach Vale, Wales, nicknamed "the Tonypandy Terror".

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Topographic prominence

In topography, prominence characterizes the height of a mountain or hill's summit by the vertical distance between it and the lowest contour line encircling with no higher summit.

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Torchwood

Torchwood is a British science fiction television programme created by Russell T Davies.

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Torfaen

Torfaen (Tor-faen) is a county borough in Wales within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR) or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tourism in Wales

Wales is an emerging tourist destination, with 8,078,900 visitors to National Trust and Welsh Tourist Board destinations in 2002.

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Treachery of the Blue Books

The Treachery of the Blue Books or Treason of the Blue Books (Brad y Llyfrau Gleision) was the name given in Wales to the Reports of the commissioners of enquiry into the state of education in Wales published in 1847.

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Treaty of Aberconwy

The Treaty of Aberconwy was signed in 1277 by King Edward I of England and Llewelyn the Last of modern-day Wales, who had fought each other on and off for years over control of the Welsh countryside.

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Treaty of Montgomery

The Treaty of Montgomery was an Anglo-Cambrian treaty signed on 29 September 1267 in Montgomeryshire by which Llywelyn ap Gruffudd was acknowledged as Prince of Wales by King Henry III of England (r. 1216–1272).

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Trial court

A trial court is a court in which trials take place.

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Triple harp

The triple harp, often referred to as the Welsh triple harp (Welsh: Telyn deires), is a type of harp employing three rows of strings instead of the more common single row.

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Tuberaria guttata

Tuberaria guttata, the spotted rock-rose or annual rock-rose, is a annual plant of the Mediterranean region which also occurs very locally in Wales and Ireland.

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Tudor dynasty

The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a royal house of Welsh and English origin, descended in the male line from the Tudors of Penmynydd.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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Union Jack

The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Kingdom Census 2001

A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.

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United Kingdom Census 2011

A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.

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United Kingdom general election, 1906

The United Kingdom general election of 1906 was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906.

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Leicester

The University of Leicester is a public research university based in Leicester, England.

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University of Wales

The University of Wales (Welsh: Prifysgol Cymru) was a confederal university based in Cardiff, Wales, UK.

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University of Wales Press

The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.

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Vale of Glamorgan

The Vale of Glamorgan (Bro Morgannwg) is a county borough in Wales.

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Valleys & Cardiff Local Routes

Valleys & Cardiff Local Routes (Llwybrau Lleol y Cymoedd a Chaerdydd) (formerly Valley Lines) is the busy network of passenger suburban railway services radiating from Cardiff, Wales.

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Value added

In business, the difference between the sale price and the production cost of a product is the unit profit.

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Vernon Watkins

Vernon Phillips Watkins (27 June 1906 – 8 October 1967) was a British poet, translator and painter.

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Vikings

Vikings (Norwegian and Vikinger; Swedish and Vikingar; Víkingar), from Old Norse víkingr, were Germanic Norse seafarers, speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Scandinavian homelands across wide areas of northern and central Europe, as well as European Russia, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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Visit Wales

Visit Wales (Croeso Cymru) is the Welsh Assembly Government's tourism team within the Department for Heritage to promote Welsh tourism and assist the tourism industry.

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Vlachs

The Vlachs are several modern Latin peoples descending from the Romanized population in the present-day territory of Romania and Moldova, as well as the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and south and west of the Danube River.

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Volcae

The Volcae were a tribal confederation constituted before the raid of combined Gauls that invaded Macedon c. 270 BC and defeated the assembled Greeks at the Battle of Thermopylae in 279 BC.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.

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Wales (European Parliament constituency)

Wales is a constituency of the European Parliament.

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Wales and Berwick Act 1746

The Wales and Berwick Act 1746 (20 Geo. II, c. 42) was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain that created a statutory definition of England as including England, Wales and Berwick-upon-Tweed.

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Wales in the High Middle Ages

Wales in the High Middle Ages covers the 11th to 13th centuries in Welsh history.

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Wales Millennium Centre

Wales Millennium Centre (Canolfan Mileniwm Cymru) is an arts centre located in the Cardiff Bay area of Cardiff, Wales.

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Wales national cricket team

The Welsh cricket team (Tîm criced cenedlaethol Cymru) is the representative cricket team for Wales.

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Wales national rugby union team

The Wales national rugby union team (Tîm rygbi'r undeb cenedlaethol Cymru) represent Wales in international rugby union.

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Wales Office

The Wales Office is a United Kingdom government department.

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Walhaz

*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word, meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".

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Wallachia

Wallachia or Walachia (Proto-Rom. Ţara Muntenească, Țara Românească or Valahia; archaic: Țeara Rumânească, Cyrillic: Цѣра Румѫнѣскъ / Цѣра Рȣмѫнѣскъ / Землѧ Ѹгровлахїиска, Земля Угровлахийская, Угровлашская Земля, Влашская Земля, Власское, Transalpina, Valachia) is a historical and geographical region of Romania.

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Wallonia

Wallonia (Wallonie, Wallonie(n), Dutch: Wallonië, Walonreye; Wallounesch) is the predominantly French-speaking southern region of Belgium.

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Walnut

A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

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Walton, Wetherby

Walton is a village and civil parish 2 miles (3 km) east of Wetherby, West Yorkshire, England.

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Walworth, County Durham

Walworth is a central small village with outlying farmsteads, which together constitute a scattered village in the borough of Darlington and the ceremonial county of County Durham, England.

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Wat's Dyke

Wat's Dyke is a 40-mile (64 km) earthwork running through the northern Welsh Marches from Basingwerk Abbey on the River Dee estuary, passing to the east of Oswestry and on to Maesbury in Shropshire, England.

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Water supply and sanitation in England and Wales

Public water supply and sanitation in England and Wales has been characterised by universal access and generally good service quality.

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Weasel

A weasel is a mammal belonging to the genus Mustela of the Mustelidae family.

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Welsh 3000s

This is a list of what are known as the Welsh 3000s, i.e. those 15 mountains in Wales that have a height of or more.

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Welsh Affairs Select Committee

The Welsh Affairs Select Committee (or simply the 'Welsh Affairs Committee') is a select committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Welsh American

Welsh Americans are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales.

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Welsh Books Council

The Welsh Books Council or Cyngor Llyfrau Cymru was established in 1961.

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Welsh cake

Welsh cakes (picau ar y maen, pice bach, cacen gri or teisen radell), also Welshcakes or pics, are traditional in Wales.

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Welsh Church Act 1914

The Welsh Church Act 1914 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom under which the Church of England was separated and disestablished in Wales and Monmouthshire, leading to the creation of the Church in Wales.

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Welsh Conservative Party

The Welsh Conservatives (Ceidwadwyr Cymreig), also known as the Welsh Conservative Party (Plaid Geidwadol Cymru), are the part of the Conservative and Unionist Party that operates in Wales.

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Welsh devolution referendum, 1979

The Welsh referendum of 1979 was a post-legislative referendum held on 1 March 1979 (Saint David's Day) to decide whether there was sufficient support for a Welsh Assembly among the Welsh electorate.

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Welsh devolution referendum, 1997

The Welsh devolution referendum of 1997 was a pre-legislative referendum held in Wales on 18 September 1997 over whether there was support for the creation of an assembly for Wales with devolved powers.

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Welsh devolution referendum, 2011

A referendum on extending the law-making powers of the National Assembly for Wales was held in Wales on 3 March 2011.

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Welsh Dragon

The Welsh Dragon – Y Ddraig Goch ("the red dragon") – appears on the national flag of Wales.

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Welsh English

Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people.

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Welsh Government

The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the executive branch of the devolved government in Wales.

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Welsh Government sponsored bodies

Welsh Government sponsored bodies (WGSBs) (Corff a Noddir gan Lywodraeth Cymru, CNLC) are non-departmental public bodies (quangoes) directly funded by the Welsh Government.

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Welsh Labour

Welsh Labour (Llafur Cymru) is the part of the United Kingdom Labour Party that operates in Wales.

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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).

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Welsh Language Act 1993

The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

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Welsh Language Board

The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.

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Welsh Language Society

The Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a direct action pressure group in Wales campaigning for the right of Welsh people to use the Welsh language in every aspect of their lives.

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Welsh law

Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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Welsh Liberal Democrats

The Welsh Liberal Democrats (Democratiaid Rhyddfrydol Cymru) are one of the three state parties of the federal Liberal Democrats and operate within Wales, the others being the Scottish Liberal Democrats and the English Liberal Democrats.

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Welsh Marches

"The Welsh Marches" (Y Mers) as a term in modern usage denotes an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.

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Welsh Marches Line

The Welsh Marches Line (in Welsh: Llinell y Mers), known historically as the North and West Route, is the railway line running from Newport in south-east Wales to Shrewsbury in the West Midlands region of England by way of Abergavenny, Hereford and Craven Arms and thence (by some definitions) to Crewe via Whitchurch.

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Welsh Methodist revival

The Welsh Methodist revival was an evangelical revival that revitalised Christianity in Wales during the 18th century.

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Welsh Mountain sheep

Welsh Mountain sheep (Defaid (sing;"Dafad") Mynydd Cymreig) are small, hardy sheep from the higher parts of the Welsh mountains.

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Welsh National Opera

Welsh National Opera (WNO) is an opera company founded in Cardiff, Wales in 1943.

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Welsh Not

The Welsh Not or Welsh Note was a punishment used in some schools in Wales in the late 19th and early 20th century to dissuade children from speaking Welsh.

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Welsh peers and baronets

This is an index of Welsh peers and baronets whose primary peerage, life peerage, and baronetcy titles includes a Welsh place-name origin or its territorial qualification is within the historic counties of Wales.

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Welsh people

The Welsh people (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales and the Welsh language.

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Welsh Premier League

The Welsh Premier League (Uwch Gynghrair Cymru) is the national football league for Wales.

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Welsh surnames

Fixed family names were adopted in Wales from the 15th century onwards.

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Welsh toponymy

The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English.

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Welsh Triads

The Welsh Triads (Welsh Trioedd Ynys Prydein, literally "Triads of the Island of Britain") are a group of related texts in medieval manuscripts which preserve fragments of Welsh folklore, mythology and traditional history in groups of three.

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Welsh-language literature

Welsh-language literature has been produced continuously since the emergence of Welsh from Brythonic as a distinct language c. 5th-century.

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Wessex

Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages and include German, English, Scots, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, Low German languages and Yiddish.

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West Midlands (region)

The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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West Yorkshire

West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of 2.2 million.

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Westerlies

The Westerlies, anti-trades, or Prevailing Westerlies, are prevailing winds from the west toward the east in the middle latitudes between 30 and 60 degrees latitude.

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Western Mail (Wales)

The Western Mail is a daily newspaper published by Media Wales Ltd in Cardiff, Wales owned by the UK's largest newspaper company, Trinity Mirror.

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White Book of Rhydderch

The White Book of Rhydderch (Welsh: Llyfr Gwyn Rhydderch) is one of the most notable and celebrated surviving manuscripts in Welsh.

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White British

White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.

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Whitland

Whitland (Welsh: Hendy-gwyn, lit. "Old White House", or Hendy-gwyn ar Daf, "Old White House on the River Taf", both in reference to the medieval Ty Gwyn ar Daf) is a community and small town in Carmarthenshire, south-west Wales, lying on the River Tâf.

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Wiley-Blackwell

Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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William Macready

William Charles Macready (3 March 1793 – 27 April 1873) was an English actor.

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William Morgan (Bible translator)

William Morgan (1545 – 10 September 1604) was Bishop of Llandaff and of St Asaph, and the translator of the first version of the whole Bible into Welsh from Greek and Hebrew.

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William Salesbury

William Salesbury also Salusbury (c. 1520 – c. 1584) was the leading Welsh scholar of the Renaissance and the principal translator of the 1567 Welsh New Testament.

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William the Conqueror

William I (Old Norman: Williame I; c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.

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World Boxing Organization

The World Boxing Organization (WBO) is a sanctioning organization currently recognizing professional boxing world champions.

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World Heritage Site

A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Wrexham

Wrexham (Wrecsam) is a town in north Wales.

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Wrexham County Borough

Wrexham County Borough (Bwrdeistref Sirol Wrecsam) is a local government principal area centred on the town of Wrexham in north-east Wales.

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Wrexham F.C.

Wrexham Association Football Club (Clwb Pêl-droed Wrecsam) is a Welsh association football club based in Wrexham, Wales.

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Wroxeter

Wroxeter is a village in Shropshire, England.

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Wye Valley

The Wye Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB; Dyffryn Gwy) is an internationally important protected landscape straddling the border between England and Wales.

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Y Cymro

Y Cymro (Welsh for The Welshman) is a Welsh language newspaper, first published in 1932.

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Y Lolfa

Y Lolfa (Welsh for The Lounge) is a Welsh printing and publishing company based in Tal-y-bont, Ceredigion, in Mid-Wales.

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Y Traethodydd

Y Traethodydd (The Essayist) is a quarterly cultural magazine published in the Welsh language covering historical, literary and theological topics.

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Y Wladfa

Y Wladfa ('The Colony'), or more fully Y Wladfa Gymreig ('The Welsh Colony'), also historically and occasionally Y Wladychfa and Y Wladychfa Gymreig, is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.

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Yellow-necked mouse

The yellow-necked mouse (Apodemus flavicollis), also called yellow-necked field mouse, yellow-necked wood mouse, and South China field mouse, is closely related to the wood mouse, with which it was long confused.

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Yemen

Yemen (اليَمَن), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية), is an Arab country in Southwest Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Zinc

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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.cymru

.cymru is a top-level domain (TLD) for Wales.

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.eu

.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).

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.gb

.gb is a reserved Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom.

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.uk

.uk is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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.wales

.wales is one of two country code top level domains for Wales (the other being.cymru) which were put forth by Nominet UK in 2012.

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10 Downing Street

10 Downing Street, colloquially known in the United Kingdom as "Number 10", is the headquarters of the executive branch of the British Government and the official residence and office of the First Lord of the Treasury, a post which, for much of the 18th and 19th centuries and ever since 1905, is also held by the Prime Minister.

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1904–1905 Welsh Revival

The 1904–1905 Welsh Revival was the largest Christian revival in Wales during the 20th century.

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1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games

The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Cardiff, Wales from 18–26 July 1958.

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1999 Rugby World Cup

The 1999 Rugby World Cup was the fourth Rugby World Cup and was won by Australia.

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2010 Ryder Cup

The 38th Ryder Cup was held 2010 at the Celtic Manor Resort in Newport, Wales.

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38th (Welsh) Infantry Division

The 38th (Welsh) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army.

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Redirects here:

Autonomous Province of Wales, CYMRU, Climate of Wales, Communications in Wales, Cymru, Cymru / Wales, Cymru / wales, Cymru am byth, Cyrmu, Etymology of Wales, Gymru, Pays de Galles, Rain in Wales, The Principality of Wales, WALES, Wales, U.K., Wales, UK, Wales, United Kingdom, Welsh Nation, Welsh Peninsula, Welsh mountains, Welsh nation, West of the Rhymney.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wales

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