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Welsh language

Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina). [1]

216 relations: Aberystwyth, Aberystwyth University, Alun Ffred Jones, Android (operating system), Anglesey, Anglicanism, Anglo-Saxons, Archenfield, Argentina, Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters, Auxiliary verb, Bath, Somerset, BBC, BBC News Online, BBC Radio Cymru, Bible, Bible translations into Welsh, Bishop of Hereford, Blog, Book of Common Prayer, Book of Taliesin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Breton language, British Iron Age, Brittonic languages, Bronze Age, Carmarthenshire, Carwyn Jones, Celtic Britons, Celtic languages, Ceredigion, Chartism, Chepstow, Chubut Province, Circumflex, Code talker, Code-switching, Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol, Collation, Colloquial Welsh morphology, Colloquialism, Common Brittonic, Conditional mood, Consonant mutation, Conwy County Borough, Cornish language, Council of the European Union, Cryptography, Cumbric language, Dal Ati, ..., Denbighshire, Diacritic, Dialect, Digital television transition, Digraph (orthography), Discourse, Early Middle Ages, Elizabeth I of England, England, English and Welsh, English language, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Exonym and endonym, Facebook, Falklands War, Firefox, Firth of Forth, Fusional language, Future tense, Gaels, Gerald of Wales, Glamorgan, Glywysing, Government of Wales Act 1998, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number, Great Britain, Gwynedd, Hen Ogledd, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, Henry II of England, History of the Welsh language, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, Hugh Owen (educator), Imperfect, Inflected preposition, Inflection, Insular Celtic languages, IOS, J. R. R. Tolkien, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, Kenneth H. Jackson, Kenneth O. Morgan, Kingdom of Dyfed, Kingdom of Gwent, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Powys, Languages of the United Kingdom, Latin script, Learncymraeg.org, LibreOffice, Linguistic typology, Linux distribution, List of Celtic-language media, List of Welsh areas by percentage of Welsh-speakers, List of Welsh films, List of Welsh people, List of Welsh-language authors, List of Welsh-language media, List of Welsh-language poets (6th century to c. 1600), Local education authority, Mabinogion, Massacre of Glencoe, Medieval Welsh literature, Medium of instruction, Meri Huws, Microsoft Office, Middle Welsh, Morphology (linguistics), NASA, Nasal consonant, National Assembly for Wales, National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), National Eisteddfod of Wales, Navajo language, New Testament, Newport, Wales, Northern England, Object (grammar), Office for National Statistics, Old Welsh, OpenOffice.org, Orange (UK), Owen Morgan Edwards, Patagonia, Patagonian Welsh, Pembrokeshire, Pencader, Carmarthenshire, Periphrasis, Personal pronoun, Phonology, Pitch (music), Plaid Cymru, Poetry, Powys, Predictive text, Preposition and postposition, Preterite, Pro-drop language, Rebecca Riots, Register (sociolinguistics), Rhotic consonant, Rhyl, Royal Mint, Royal Welch Fusiliers, S4C, Samsung, Scotland, Scottish Gaelic, Short Message Service, Statutory Instrument, Statutory Instrument (UK), Stress (linguistics), Taliesin, The Independent, The Times, Toll road, Treachery of the Blue Books, Turnpike trusts, Tywyn, United Kingdom, United Kingdom Census 2001, United Kingdom Census 2011, United States Armed Forces, University of Wales Press, Verb–subject–object, Verbnoun, Vigesimal, Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, Voyager Golden Record, Wales, Walhaz, Welsh (surname), Welsh Braille, Welsh Government, Welsh Language Act 1993, Welsh Language Board, Welsh Language Commissioner, Welsh Language Society, Welsh law, Welsh Marches, Welsh nationalism, Welsh Not, Welsh orthography, Welsh toponymy, Welsh Tract, Welsh Wikipedia, Welsh-language literature, Western Brittonic languages, Wikivoyage, William Morgan (Bible translator), William Salesbury, Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows XP, World War II, Y Byd, Y Cymro, Y Wladfa, Ysgol Glan Clwyd, Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen. Expand index (166 more) »

Aberystwyth

Aberystwyth (Mouth of the Ystwyth) is a historic market town, administrative centre and holiday resort within Ceredigion, West Wales.

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Aberystwyth University

Aberystwyth University (Prifysgol Aberystwyth) is a public research university located in Aberystwyth, Wales.

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Alun Ffred Jones

Alun Ffred Jones (born 29 October 1949) is a Welsh politician and member of Plaid Cymru.

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Android (operating system)

Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on the Linux kernel and currently developed by Google.

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Anglesey

Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island off the north-west coast of Wales.

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Anglicanism

Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Archenfield

Archenfield (Old English: Ircingafeld) is the historic English name for an area of southern and western Herefordshire in England.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters

The Association of Welsh Translators and Interpreters (in Welsh, Cymdeithas Cyfieithwyr Cymru) is a professional body representing English/Welsh translators and interpreters in Wales.

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Auxiliary verb

An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears—for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.

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Bath, Somerset

Bath is a city in the ceremonial county of Somerset, South West England, that is known for the curative Roman-built baths that still exist there.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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BBC Radio Cymru

BBC Radio Cymru is BBC Cymru Wales's Welsh-language radio station, broadcasting throughout Wales from studios in Cardiff, Bangor, Aberystwyth and Carmarthen on FM since 1977.

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Bible

The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of texts sacred in Judaism and Christianity.

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Bible translations into Welsh

Bible translations into Welsh have existed since at least the 15th century, but the most widely used translation of the Bible into Welsh for several centuries was the 1588 translation by William Morgan, as revised in 1620.

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Bishop of Hereford

The Bishop of Hereford is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Hereford in the Province of Canterbury.

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Blog

A blog (a truncation of the expression weblog) is a discussion or informational site published on the World Wide Web and consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order (the most recent post appears first).

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Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, "Anglican realignment" and other Anglican churches.

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Book of Taliesin

The Book of Taliesin (Llyfr Taliesin) is one of the most famous of Middle Welsh manuscripts, dating from the first half of the 14th century though many of the fifty-six poems it preserves are taken to originate in the 10th century or before.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina,; Cyrillic script: Боснa и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Breton language

Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.

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British Iron Age

The British Iron Age is a conventional name used in the archaeology of Great Britain, referring to the prehistoric and protohistoric phases of the Iron Age culture of the main island and the smaller islands, typically excluding prehistoric Ireland, which had an independent Iron Age culture of its own.

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Brittonic languages

The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig, yethow brythonek/predennek, yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Carmarthenshire

Carmarthenshire (Sir Gaerfyrddin or Sir Gâr) is a unitary authority in the south west of Wales and the largest of the thirteen historic counties.

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Carwyn Jones

Carwyn Howell Jones (born 21 March 1967) is a Welsh politician and the First Minister of Wales.

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Celtic Britons

The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Ceredigion

Ceredigion is a county in Mid Wales.

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Chartism

Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain which existed from 1838 to 1858.

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Chepstow

Chepstow (Cas-gwent) is a town in Monmouthshire, Wales, adjoining the border with Gloucestershire, England.

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Chubut Province

Chubut (Provincia del Chubut,; Talaith Chubut) is a province in southern Argentina, situated between the 42nd parallel south (the border with Río Negro Province), the 46th parallel south (bordering Santa Cruz Province), the Andes range to the west, and the Atlantic ocean to the east.

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Circumflex

The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.

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Code talker

Code talkers are people in the 20th century who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime.

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Code-switching

In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.

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Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol

Before deleting any text please note that some of the text contained within this article has been authorised for use on a CC-BY-SA licence.

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Collation

Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Colloquial Welsh morphology

The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton.

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Colloquialism

A colloquialism is a word, phrase or other form used in informal language.

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Common Brittonic

Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Consonant mutation

Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.

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Conwy County Borough

Conwy County Borough (Welsh: Bwrdeistref Sirol Conwy) is a unitary authority area in the north of Wales.

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Cornish language

Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union (often still referred to as the Council of Ministers, or sometimes just called the Council (Consilium)) is the third of the seven institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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Cryptography

Cryptography or cryptology; from Greek κρυπτός kryptós, "hidden, secret"; and γράφειν graphein, "writing", or -λογία -logia, "study", respectively is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties (called adversaries).

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Cumbric language

Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.

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Dal Ati

Dal Ati (Go For It) is a series of Welsh language television programmes broadcast on S4C to help Welsh speakers and learners gain confidence in the language.

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Denbighshire

Denbighshire (Sir Ddinbych) is a county in north-east Wales.

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Diacritic

A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.

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Digital television transition

The digital television transition, also called the digital switchover or analog switch-off (ASO), is the process in which analog television broadcasting is converted to and replaced by digital television.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Discourse

Discourse denotes written and spoken communications such as.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from the 5th century to the 10th century.

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Elizabeth I of England

Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death.

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England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English and Welsh

English and Welsh is the title of J. R. R. Tolkien's inaugural O'Donnell Memorial Lecture of 1955.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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Exonym and endonym

An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, group of people, or language/dialect: a common name used only outside the place, group or linguistic community in question, usually for historical reasons.

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Facebook

Facebook is an online social networking service headquartered in Menlo Park, California.

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Falklands War

The Falklands War (Guerra de las Malvinas), also known as the Falklands Conflict, Falklands Crisis, and the Guerra del Atlántico Sur (Spanish for "South Atlantic War"), was a ten-week war between Argentina and the United Kingdom over two British overseas territories in the South Atlantic: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. It began on Friday, 2 April 1982, when Argentina invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands (and, the following day, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands) in an attempt to establish the sovereignty it had claimed over them. On 5 April, the British government dispatched a naval task force to engage the Argentine Navy and Air Force before making an amphibious assault on the islands. The conflict lasted 74 days and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982, returning the islands to British control. In total, 649 Argentine military personnel, 255 British military personnel, and three Falkland Islanders died during the hostilities. The conflict was a major episode in the protracted confrontation over the territories' sovereignty. Argentina asserted (and maintains) that the islands are Argentinian territory, and the Argentine government thus characterised its military action as the reclamation of its own territory. The British government regarded the action as an invasion of a territory that had been a Crown colony since 1841. Falkland Islanders, who have inhabited the islands since the early 19th century, are predominantly descendants of British settlers, and favour British sovereignty. Neither state, however, officially declared war (both sides did declare the Islands areas a war zone and officially recognised that a state of war existed between them) and hostilities were almost exclusively limited to the territories under dispute and the area of the South Atlantic where they lie. The conflict has had a strong impact in both countries and has been the subject of various books, articles, films, and songs. Patriotic sentiment ran high in Argentina, but the outcome prompted large protests against the ruling military government, hastening its downfall. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party government, bolstered by the successful outcome, was re-elected the following year. The cultural and political weight of the conflict has had less effect in Britain than in Argentina, where it remains a continued topic for discussion. Relations between the United Kingdom and Argentina were restored in 1989 following a meeting in Madrid, Spain, at which the two countries' governments issued a joint statement. No change in either country's position regarding the sovereignty of the Falkland Islands was made explicit. In 1994, Argentina's claim to the territories was added to its constitution.

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Firefox

Mozilla Firefox (known simply as Firefox) is a free and open-source web browser developed by the Mozilla Foundation and its subsidiary, the Mozilla Corporation.

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Firth of Forth

The Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotland's River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea, between Fife to the north and Lothian to the south.

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Fusional language

A fusional language is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to overlay many morphemes to denote grammatical, syntactic, or semantic change.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gaels

The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.

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Gerald of Wales

Gerald of Wales (Giraldus Cambrensis; Gerallt Gymro) was archdeacon of Brecon and chronicler of his times.

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Glamorgan

Glamorgan or, sometimes, Glamorganshire (Morgannwg or Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales.

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Glywysing

Glywysing was, from the sub-Roman period to the Early Middle Ages, a petty kingdom in south-east Wales.

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Government of Wales Act 1998

The Government of Wales Act 1998 (c. 38) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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Grammatical case

Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, or verbs.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.

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Gwynedd

Gwynedd is an area in north-west Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd.

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Hen Ogledd

Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North) is a Welsh term used by scholars to refer to those parts of what is now northern England and southern Scotland in the years between 500 and the Viking invasions of c. 800, with particular interest in the Brittonic-speaking peoples who lived there.

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Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau

Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau is the national anthem of Wales.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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History of the Welsh language

The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh.

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Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion

The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (Anrhydeddus Gymdeithas y Cymmrodorion), often called simply the Cymmrodorion, is a London-based Welsh learned society, with membership open to all.

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Hugh Owen (educator)

Sir Hugh Owen (14 January 1804 – 20 November 1881) was a significant Welsh educator, one of the pioneers of higher education in Wales.

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Imperfect

The imperfect is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).

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Inflected preposition

In linguistics, an inflected preposition is a type of word that occurs in some languages, that corresponds to the combination of a preposition and a personal pronoun.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.

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Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic languages are those Celtic languages that originated in the British Isles, in contrast to the Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia.

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IOS

iOS (originally iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. and distributed exclusively for Apple hardware.

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J. R. R. Tolkien

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6) ISBN 0-04-440162-0. In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because General American speakers realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, ISBN 0-582-05383-8 3 January 18922 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high-fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.

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Jallianwala Bagh massacre

The Jallianwala Bagh massacre, also known as the Amritsar massacre, took place on 13 April 1919 when a crowd of nonviolent protesters, along with Baishakhi pilgrims, who had gathered in Jallianwala Bagh, Amritsar, Punjab were fired upon by troops of the British Indian Army under the command of General Reginald Dyer.

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Kenneth H. Jackson

Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.

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Kenneth O. Morgan

Kenneth Owen Morgan, Baron Morgan (born 16 May 1934) is a Welsh historian and author, known especially for his writings on Modern British history and politics and on Welsh history.

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Kingdom of Dyfed

The Kingdom of Dyfed is one of several Welsh petty kingdoms that emerged in 5th-century post-Roman Britain in south-west Wales, based on the former Irish tribal lands of the Déisi from c 350 until it was subsumed into Deheubarth in 920.

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Kingdom of Gwent

Gwent (Guent) was a medieval Welsh kingdom, lying between the Rivers Wye and Usk.

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Kingdom of Gwynedd

The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to Rome which emerged in 5th-century Britain during the Coming of the Saxons.

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Kingdom of Powys

The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain.

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Languages of the United Kingdom

The de facto official language of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by 98% of the county's population.According to the 2011 census, 53,098,301 people in England and Wales, 5,044,683 people in Scotland, and 1,681,210 people in Northern Ireland can speak English "well" or "very well"; totalling 59,824,194. Therefore, out of the 60,815,385 residents of the UK over the age of three, 98% can speak English "well" or "very well". In 2011, the second-most spoken language in the United Kingdom was Scots, followed by Polish, an immigrant language. The fourth most-spoken language—Welsh—is an official language in Wales, the only de jure official language in any part of the UK. There are three other living languages indigenous to the country, Scottish Gaelic, Irish, and Cornish, various regional dialects, and numerous languages spoken by recent immigrant populations and those who have learnt them as second languages.

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Latin script

Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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Learncymraeg.org

Learncymraeg.org is the website for the North Wales Welsh for Adults Centre.

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LibreOffice

LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, developed by The Document Foundation.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linux distribution

A Linux distribution (often called a distro for short) is an operating system made as a software collection based on the Linux kernel and, often, on a package management system.

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List of Celtic-language media

The list below contains information on the different types of media available in the Celtic languages.

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List of Welsh areas by percentage of Welsh-speakers

This is a list of subdivisions of Wales by the percentage of those professing some skills in the Welsh language in the 2011 UK census.

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List of Welsh films

1898: Conway Castle 1898: Blackburn Rovers v West Bromwich Albion, the world's oldest extant soccer film, by Arthur Cheetham.

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List of Welsh people

This is a list of Welsh people (rhestr Cymry); an ethnic group and nation associated with Wales.

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List of Welsh-language authors

For Welsh language poets prior to 1600, see List of Welsh language poets.

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List of Welsh-language media

This article lists and provides a summary of the content of some of those broadcast, print, and other media currently being produced in Welsh.

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List of Welsh-language poets (6th century to c. 1600)

Welsh language poetry has, until quite recently, been regulated by specific verse forms (Canu Caeth), with the encouragement of the eisteddfod movement.

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Local education authority

Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.

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Mabinogion

The Mabinogion is the earliest prose literature of Britain.

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Massacre of Glencoe

Early in the morning of 13 February 1692, in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution and the Jacobite uprising of 1689 led by John Graham of Claverhouse, a massacre took place in Glen Coe, in the Highlands of Scotland.

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Medieval Welsh literature

Medieval Welsh literature is the literature written in the Welsh language during the Middle Ages.

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Medium of instruction

A medium of instruction (plural: usu. Mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching.

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Meri Huws

Meri Huws is the Welsh Language Commissioner.

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Microsoft Office

Microsoft Office is an office suite of applications, servers and services.

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Middle Welsh

Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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National Assembly for Wales

The National Assembly for Wales (Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) is a devolved assembly with power to make legislation in Wales.

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National Curriculum (England, Wales and Northern Ireland)

The National Curriculum was introduced into England, Wales and Northern Ireland as a nationwide curriculum for primary and secondary state schools following the Education Reform Act.

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National Eisteddfod of Wales

The National Eisteddfod of Wales (Welsh: Eisteddfod Genedlaethol Cymru) is the most important of several eisteddfodau (festivals) that are held annually, mostly in Wales.

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Navajo language

Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Native American language of the Athabaskan branch of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Koine Greek: Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē) is the second major part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, which is based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Newport, Wales

Newport (Casnewydd) is a cathedral and university city and unitary authority area in south east Wales.

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Northern England

Northern England, also known as the North of England, the North or the North Country, is a cultural region of England.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Office for National Statistics

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.

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Old Welsh

Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.

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OpenOffice.org

OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, was an open-source office suite.

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Orange (UK)

Orange was a mobile network operator and a former internet service provider in the United Kingdom, launched in 1993.

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Owen Morgan Edwards

Sir Owen Morgan Edwards (26 December 1858 – 15 May 1920) was a Welsh historian, educationalist and writer.

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Patagonia

Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.

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Patagonian Welsh

Patagonian Welsh is the dialect of Welsh which is spoken in the region of the Argentine Patagonia in South America.

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Pembrokeshire

Pembrokeshire (or; Sir Benfro) is a county in the south west of Wales.

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Pencader, Carmarthenshire

Pencader is a small village in the Welsh county of Carmarthenshire, and is part of the Community and Parish of Llanfihangel-ar-Arth.

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Periphrasis

In linguistics, periphrasis is a device by which grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more free morphemes (typically one or more function words accompanying a content word), instead of by inflectional affixes or derivation.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it).

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Pitch (music)

Pitch is a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale, or more commonly, pitch is the quality that makes it possible to judge sounds as "higher" and "lower" in the sense associated with musical melodies.

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Plaid Cymru

Plaid Cymru (officially Plaid Cymru – the Party of Wales, often referred to simply as Plaid) is a social-democratic political party in Wales advocating for an independent Wales from the United Kingdom within the European Union.

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Poetry

Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Powys

Powys (or; Welsh) is a principal area, local-government county and preserved county in Mid Wales.

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Predictive text

Predictive text is an input technology used where one key or button represents many letters, such as on the numeric keypads of mobile phones and in accessibility technologies.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or marking various semantic roles (of, for).

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Preterite

The preterite (in English also preterit) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.

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Pro-drop language

A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are in some sense pragmatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).

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Rebecca Riots

The Rebecca Riots took place between 1839 and 1843 in South and Mid Wales.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, also called tremulants or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Rhyl

Rhyl (Y Rhyl) is a seaside resort town and community in Denbighshire, situated on the north east coast of Wales, at the mouth of the River Clwyd (Welsh: Afon Clwyd).

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Royal Mint

The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, the coins of the United Kingdom.

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Royal Welch Fusiliers

The Royal Welch Fusiliers was a line infantry regiment of the British Army, part of the Prince of Wales' Division.

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S4C

S4C (from the Welsh Sianel Pedwar Cymru, meaning "Channel Four Wales") is a Welsh-language public-service television channel based in Cardiff and broadcast throughout Wales.

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Samsung

Samsung is a South Korean multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Samsung Town, Seoul.

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Scotland

Scotland (Scots:; Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.

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Short Message Service

Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, Web, or mobile communication systems.

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Statutory Instrument

In many countries, a statutory instrument is a form of delegated or secondary legislation.

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Statutory Instrument (UK)

A statutory instrument (SI) is the principal form in which delegated legislation is made in Great Britain.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.

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Taliesin

Taliesin (6th century; was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard who is believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. Eleven of the preserved poems have been dated to as early as the 6th century, and were ascribed to the historical Taliesin. The bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he also served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd (c. 583), are referred to in other sources. His name, spelled as Taliessin in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King and in some subsequent works, means "shining brow" in Middle Welsh. In legend and medieval Welsh poetry, he is often referred to as Taliesin Ben Beirdd ("Taliesin, Chief of Bards" or chief of poets). He is mentioned as one of the five British poets of renown, along with Talhaearn Tad Awen ("Talhaearn Father of the Muse"), Aneirin, Blwchfardd, and Cian Gwenith Gwawd ("Cian Wheat of Song"), in the Historia Brittonum, and is also mentioned in the collection of poems known as Y Gododdin. Taliesin was highly regarded in the mid-12th century as the supposed author of a great number of romantic legends.Griffin (1887) According to legend Taliesin was adopted as a child by Elffin, the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, and prophesied the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd from the Yellow Plague. In later stories he became a mythic hero, companion of Bran the Blessed and King Arthur. His legendary biography is found in several late renderings (see below), the earliest surviving narrative being found in a manuscript chronicle of world history written by Elis Gruffydd in the 16th century.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London.

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Toll road

A toll road, also known as a turnpike or tollway, is a public or private roadway for which a fee (or toll) is assessed for passage.

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Treachery of the Blue Books

The Treachery of the Blue Books or Treason of the Blue Books (Brad y Llyfrau Gleision) was the name given in Wales to the Reports of the commissioners of enquiry into the state of education in Wales published in 1847.

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Turnpike trusts

Turnpike trusts were bodies set up by individual acts of Parliament, with powers to collect road tolls for maintaining the principal roads in Britain from the 17th but especially during the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Tywyn

Tywyn (Welsh), formerly Towyn, is a town and seaside resort on the Cardigan Bay coast of southern Gwynedd, Wales.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Kingdom Census 2001

A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.

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United Kingdom Census 2011

A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the federal military forces of the United States.

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University of Wales Press

The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.

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Verb–subject–object

In linguistic typology, a verb–subject–object (VSO) language is one in which the most typical sentences arrange their elements in that order, as in Ate Sam oranges (Sam ate oranges).

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Verbnoun

A verbnoun is the basic form of a verb in Celtic languages such as Welsh, and is the form usually listed in the dictionary.

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Vigesimal

The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten).

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Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative

The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voicelessness

In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vowel

In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Voyager Golden Record

The Voyager Golden Records are phonograph records that were included aboard both Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977.

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Wales

Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.

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Walhaz

*Walhaz is a reconstructed Proto-Germanic word, meaning "foreigner", "stranger", "Roman", "Romance-speaker", or "Celtic-speaker".

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Welsh (surname)

Welsh is a surname from the Anglo-Saxon language given to the Celtic Britons.

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Welsh Braille

Welsh Braille is the braille alphabet of the Welsh language.

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Welsh Government

The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the executive branch of the devolved government in Wales.

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Welsh Language Act 1993

The Welsh Language Act 1993, is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which put the Welsh language on an equal footing with the English language in Wales with regard to the public sector.

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Welsh Language Board

The Welsh Language Board (Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg) was a statutory body set up by Her Majesty's Government under the Welsh Language Act 1993.

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Welsh Language Commissioner

The role of the Welsh Language Commissioner was created by the Welsh Language (Wales) Measure 2011 on 1 April 2012 with the appointment of Meri Huws as Wales' first Commissioner.

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Welsh Language Society

The Welsh Language Society (Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, often abbreviated to Cymdeithas or Cymdeithas yr Iaith) is a direct action pressure group in Wales campaigning for the right of Welsh people to use the Welsh language in every aspect of their lives.

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Welsh law

Welsh law is the primary and secondary legislation generated by the National Assembly for Wales, according to devolved authority granted in the Government of Wales Act 2006.

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Welsh Marches

"The Welsh Marches" (Y Mers) as a term in modern usage denotes an imprecisely defined area along and around the border between England and Wales in the United Kingdom.

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Welsh nationalism

Welsh nationalism (Cenedlaetholdeb Cymreig) emphasises the distinctiveness of Welsh language, culture, and history, and calls for more self-determination for Wales, which may include more devolved powers for the Welsh Assembly or full independence from the United Kingdom.

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Welsh Not

The Welsh Not or Welsh Note was a punishment used in some schools in Wales in the late 19th and early 20th century to dissuade children from speaking Welsh.

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Welsh orthography

Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.

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Welsh toponymy

The placenames of Wales derive in most cases from the Welsh language, but have also been influenced by linguistic contact with the Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Anglo-Normans and modern English.

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Welsh Tract

The Welsh Tract, also called the Welsh Barony, was a portion of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania settled largely by Welsh-speaking Quakers.

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Welsh Wikipedia

The Welsh Wikipedia (Welsh: Wicipedia Cymraeg or plain Wicipedia) is the Welsh-language edition of Wikipedia.

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Welsh-language literature

Welsh-language literature has been produced continuously since the emergence of Welsh from Brythonic as a distinct language c. 5th-century.

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Western Brittonic languages

Western Brittonic languages comprise two dialects into which Common Brittonic split during the Early Middle Ages; its counterpart was the ancestor of the Southwestern Brittonic languages.

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Wikivoyage

Wikivoyage is a free web-based travel guide for travel destinations and travel topics written by volunteer authors.

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William Morgan (Bible translator)

William Morgan (1545 – 10 September 1604) was Bishop of Llandaff and of St Asaph, and the translator of the first version of the whole Bible into Welsh from Greek and Hebrew.

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William Salesbury

William Salesbury also Salusbury (c. 1520 – c. 1584) was the leading Welsh scholar of the Renaissance and the principal translator of the 1567 Welsh New Testament.

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Windows 7

Windows 7 (codenamed Vienna, formerly Blackcomb) is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows Vista

Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.

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Windows XP

Windows XP (codenamed Whistler) is a personal computer operating system that was produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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Y Byd

Y Byd (The World) was an attempt to launch the first Welsh language daily newspaper.

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Y Cymro

Y Cymro (Welsh for The Welshman) is a Welsh language newspaper, first published in 1932.

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Y Wladfa

Y Wladfa ('The Colony'), or more fully Y Wladfa Gymreig ('The Welsh Colony'), also historically and occasionally Y Wladychfa and Y Wladychfa Gymreig, is a Welsh settlement in Argentina, which began in 1865 and occurred mainly along the coast of Chubut Province in the far southern region of Patagonia.

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Ysgol Glan Clwyd

Ysgol Glan Clwyd (or Ysgol Uwchradd Glan Clwyd) is a Welsh medium secondary school, and was the first of its kind.

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Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen

Ysgol Syr Hugh Owen (which translates as "Sir Hugh Owen School"), is a Welsh language medium comprehensive secondary school for pupils aged 11–18, situated in Caernarfon, Gwynedd, Wales.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Welsh_language

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