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ABC-CLIO, or ABC-Clio, is a publisher of reference works for the study of history and social studies in academic, secondary school, and public library settings.
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Ad beatissimi Apostolorum is an encyclical of Pope Benedict XV given at St.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
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The M15 Adrian helmet (Casque Adrian) was a combat helmet issued to the French Army during World War I. It was the first standard helmet of the French Army and was designed when millions of French troops were engaged in trench warfare, and head wounds from the falling shrapnel generated by the new technique of indirect fire became a frequent cause of battlefield casualties.
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The aerial bombing of cities in warfare is an optional element of strategic bombing which was first seen in 1915 during World War I. The bombing of cities grew to a vast scale in World War II, and is still practiced today.
Aerial photography is the taking of photographs of the ground from an elevated position.
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An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
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Salt (السلط Al-Salt — pronounced Es-Sult or Es-Salt) is an ancient agricultural town and administrative centre in west-central Jordan.
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Sir Albert Ernest Kitson KBE, CMG (21 March 1868 – 8 March 1937) was a British/Australian geologist and naturalist, winner of the Lyell Medal in 1927.
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Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is the largest city in Syria and serves as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most populous Syrian governorate.
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Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Aléxandros; 1 August 1893 – 25 October 1920) was King of Greece from 11 June 1917 until his death from the effects of a monkey bite at the age of 27.
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Alexandra Feodorovna (Императрица Александра Фёдоровна, Imperatritsa Aleksandra Fyodorovna) (6 June 1872 – 17 July 1918), was Empress consort of Russia as the spouse of Nicholas II, the last Emperor of the Russian Empire.
Alexandru Marghiloman (July 4, 1854 – May 10, 1925) was a Romanian conservative statesman who served for a short time in 1918 (March–October) as Prime Minister of Romania, and had a decisive role during World War I.
Alfred Peter Friedrich von Tirpitz (19 March 1849 – 6 March 1930) was a German Großadmiral (grand admiral), Secretary of State of the German Imperial Naval Office, the powerful administrative branch of the German Imperial Navy from 1897 until 1916.
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All Quiet on the Western Front (lit) is a novel by Erich Maria Remarque, a German veteran of World War I. The book describes the German soldiers' extreme physical and mental stress during the war, and the detachment from civilian life felt by many of these soldiers upon returning home from the front.
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.
The Alpini (Italian: alpine), are an elite mountain warfare military corps of the Italian Army.
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Alternative civilian service is a form of national service performed in lieu of conscription for various reasons, such as conscientious objection, inadequate health, or political reasons.
The American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) is a small independent agency of the United States government that administers, operates, and maintains permanent U.S. military cemeteries, memorials and monuments both inside and outside the United States.
The American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) consisted of the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe under the command of General John J. Pershing in 1917 to help fight World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the AEF fought in France alongside French and British allied forces in the last year of the war, against German forces.
American Heritage was a quarterly magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States for a mainstream readership.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
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Amman (عمّان), is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, with an estimated population of 4,000,000 and a land area of.
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Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates stateless societies, often defined as self-governed, voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations.
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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.
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Signed on August 31, 1907, in St. Petersburg, Russia, the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 brought shaky British-Russian relations to the forefront by solidifying boundaries that identified respective control in Persia, Afghanistan, and Tibet.
Ante Trumbić (17 May 1864 – 17 November 1938) was a Croatian politician in the early 20th century.
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Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
The anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo consisted of large-scale anti-Serb violence in Sarajevo on 28 and 29 June 1914 following the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
An anti-submarine weapon (ASW) is any one of a number of devices that are intended to act against a submarine and its crew, to destroy (sink) the vessel or reduce its capability as a weapon of war.
An anti-war movement (also antiwar) is a social movement, usually in opposition to a particular nation's decision to start or carry on an armed conflict, unconditional of a maybe-existing just cause.
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Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served." Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli against the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Some Canadian soldiers, who had signed up for service with the United Kingdom, were among the British forces at Gallipoli.
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The Australian and New Zealand Mounted Division was a mounted infantry division of the British Empire during the First World War.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
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The Arab Revolt (1916–1918; الثورة العربية Al-Thawra al-`Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) was initiated by the Sherif Hussein bin Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
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The Arab–Israeli conflict (الصراع العربي الإسرائيلي Al-Sira'a Al'Arabi A'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-ערבי Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Aravi) refers to the political tension and military conflicts between a number of Arab countries and Israel.
Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863 – 28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1896 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
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Armando Diaz, 1st Duke of the Victory (December 5, 1861 – February 28, 1928) was an Italian general of Spanish descent and a Marshal of Italy.
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The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian Massacres and, traditionally by Armenians, as Medz Yeghern (Armenian: Մեծ Եղեռն, "Great Crime"), was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of its minority Armenian subjects inside their historic homeland, which lies within the territory constituting the present-day Republic of Turkey.
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The denial of the Armenian Genocide is the assertion that the Armenian Genocide did not occur in the manner or to the extent described by scholarship.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
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An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.
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Armistice Day (which coincides with Remembrance Day and Veterans Day, public holidays) is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven o'clock in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918.
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The armistice between the Allies and Germany – known as the Armistice of Compiègne after the location in which it was signed – was the agreement that ended the fighting in western Europe that comprised the First World War.
The Armistice of Mudros (Mondros Mütarekesi), concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS ''Agamemnon'' in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.
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The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside of Padua in the Veneto, northern Italy, and was to take effect 24 hours later.
A military armored (or armoured) car is a wheeled light armored vehicle, lighter than other armored fighting vehicles, primarily being armored and/or armed for self-defense of the occupants.
Armoured warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
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Article 231, often known as the War Guilt Clause, was the opening article of the reparations section of the Treaty of Versailles, which ended the First World War between the German Empire and the Allied and Associated Powers.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
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Asiago (Cimbrian: Slege, German: Schlägen) is the name of both a minor township (population roughly 6,500) and the surrounding plateau region (the Altopiano di Asiago or Altopiano dei Sette Comuni, Asiago plateau) in the Province of Vicenza in the Veneto region of Northeastern Italy.
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On 28 June 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip, one of a group of six assassins (five Serbs and one Bosniak) coordinated by Danilo Ilić, a Bosnian Serb and a member of the Black Hand secret society.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, ("Sword")) ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia (by Ottoman troops) during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq, and Sudan. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2010, 2007, pp. 237–77, 293–294.Khosoreva, Anahit. "The Assyrian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire and Adjacent Territories" in The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2007, pp. 267–274. ISBN 1-4128-0619-4. The Assyrian civilian population of upper Mesopotamia (the Tur Abdin region, the Hakkâri, Van, and Siirt provinces of present-day southeastern Turkey, and the Urmia region of northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by the Muslim Ottoman (Turkish) army, together with other armed and allied Muslim peoples, including Kurds, Chechens and Circassians, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias. The Assyrian genocide took place in the same context as the Armenian and Greek genocides. Since the Assyrian genocide took place within the context of the much more widespread Armenian genocide, scholarship treating it as a separate event is scarce, with the exceptions of the works of David Gaunt and Hannibal Travis, who have classified the genocide as a systematic campaign by the Young Turk government. Other scholars, such as Hilmar Kaiser, Donald Bloxham and Taner Akçam have differing opinions with regards to the extent of governmental involvement and systematic nature of the genocide, asserting a less systematic policy and different treatment in comparison to the Armenians. Unlike the Armenians, there were no orders to deport Assyrians. The attacks against them were not of standardized nature and incorporated various methods of massacre; in some cities, all Assyrian men were slain and the others were forced to flee. These massacres were often carried out upon the initiatives of local politicians and Kurdish tribes, and Assyrian collaboration with Russians prompted some of them. Exposure, disease and starvation during the flight of Assyrians increased the death toll, and women were subjected to widespread sexual abuse in some areas. Estimates on the overall death toll have varied. Providing detailed statistics of the various estimates of the Churches' population after the genocide, David Gaunt accepts the figure of 275,000 deaths as reported by the Assyrian delegation at the Treaty of Lausanne and ventures that the death toll would be around 300,000 because of uncounted Assyrian-inhabited areas, leading to the elimination of half of the Assyrian nation.David Gaunt,, Assyrian Genocide Research Center, 2009 Rudolph Rummel gives the number of Christian deaths in Assyrian-populated regions of Turkey as 102,000 and adds to this the killing of around 47,000 Assyrians in Persia. In 2007, the International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) reached a consensus that "the Ottoman campaign against Christian minorities of the Empire between 1914 and 1923 constituted a genocide against Armenians, Assyrians, and Pontian and Anatolian Greeks. The IAGS referred to the work of Gaunt and Travis in passing this resolution. Gregory Stanton, the President of the IAGS in 2007–2008 and the founder of Genocide Watch, endorsed the "repudiation by the world's leading genocide scholars of the Turkish government's ninety-year denial of the Ottoman Empire's genocides against its Christian populations, including Assyrians, Greeks, and Armenians.".
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Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), also known as Chaldeans, Syriacs, and Arameans, (see names of Syriac Christians) are a Christian, Semitic,James Minahan, Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: A-C, pp.
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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
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An attack submarine or hunter-killer submarine is a submarine specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and merchant vessels.
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Attrition warfare is a military strategy in which a belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
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The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
Australian Light Horse were mounted troops with characteristics of both cavalry and mounted infantry.
The Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force (AN&MEF) was a small volunteer force of approximately 2,000 men, raised in Australia shortly after the outbreak of the First World War to seize and destroy German wireless stations in German New Guinea in the south-west Pacific.
The 1917 Australian plebiscite was held on 20 December 1917.
The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia.
Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.
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The Austrian Littoral (Österreichisches Küstenland, Litorale Austriaco, Avstrijsko primorje, Austrijsko primorje, Tengermellék) was established as a crown land (Kronland) of the Austrian Empire in 1849.
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The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918.
The campaign to establish Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina lasted from 29 July to 20 October 1878 against the local resistance fighters supported by the Ottoman Empire.
The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR; Azərbaycan Demokratik Respublikası) was the first democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world (pre-dating the Republic of Turkey).
Azerbaijanis (Azərbaycanlılar, آذربایجانلیلار) or Azeris are a Turkic-speaking ethnic group living mainly in the country of Azerbaijan and the Iranian region of Azerbaijan in the Caucasus.
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Baghdad (بغداد, Iraqi pronunciation) is the capital of the Republic of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Province.
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Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region.
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At the core of the balance of power theory is the idea that national security is enhanced when military capabilities are distributed so that no one state is strong enough to dominate all others.
The Balfour Declaration (dated 2 November 1917) was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.
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The Balkan League (Балкански съюз Balkanski sŭyuz, Βαλκανική Συμμαχία Balkaniki Symmachia, Балкански савез Balkanski savez) was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan states of Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan peninsula.
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The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical region of Southeast Europe.
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The Baltic states, also known as the Baltics, Baltic nations or Baltic countries (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), are the three countries in northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.
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The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Mureș, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except for a small part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
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The Banjšice Plateau (Banjška planota, also Banjšice or Banjščice, Altopiano della Bainsizza) is a karst plateau in western Slovenia, in the traditional region of Goriška.
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Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).
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The Basmachi movement (Басмачество, Basmachestvo) or Basmachi Revolt was an uprising against Russian Imperial and Soviet rule by the Muslim peoples of Central Asia.
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Battle of Albert (1918) (August 21 – 22, 1918) was the third battle by that name fought during World War I, following the First Battle of Albert, and the Second Battle of Albert, with each of the series of three being fought roughly two years apart.
The Battle of Amiens, also known as the Third Battle of Picardy (3ème Bataille de Picardie), which began on 8 August 1918, was the opening phase of the Allied offensive later known as the Hundred Days Offensive that ultimately led to the end of the First World War.
The Battle of Arara took place on 19 September 1918 during the Battle of Sharon, which along with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Arras (also known as the Second Battle of Arras) was a British offensive during the First World War.
The Battle of Asiago (Battle of the Plateaux) or the Trentino Offensive (in Italian: Battaglia degli Altipiani), nicknamed Strafexpedition ("Punitive expedition") by the Austrians, was a counteroffensive launched by the Austro-Hungarians on the Italian Front on May 15, 1916, during World War I. It was an unexpected attack that took place near Asiago in the province of Vicenza (now in northeast Italy, then on the Italian side of the border between the Kingdom of Italy and Austria-Hungary) after the Fifth Battle of the Isonzo (March 1916).
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Battle of Bakhmach (Bitva u Bachmače in Czech), was a battle between the Czechoslovak Legion in Russia and German forces occupying Ukraine.
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The Battle of Beersheba (Birüssebi Savaşı, Schlacht von Birüssebi),The several battles fought for the Gaza to Beersheba line between 31 October and 7 November, were all assigned the title Third Battle of Gaza although they took place many miles apart, and were fought by different corps.
The Battle of Belleau Wood (1–26 June 1918) occurred during the German 1918 Spring Offensive in World War I, near the Marne River in France.
The Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge (3 October to 27 October 1918) occurred during World War I, northeast of Reims, in Champagne, France.
The Battle of Bucharest, also known as the Argeş-Neajlov Defensive Operation in Romania, was an important battle of the Romanian Campaign in World War I, in which the Central Powers occupied the Romanian capital and forced the Romanian Government, as well as the remnants of the Romanian Army to retreat to Moldova and re-establish its capital at Iaşi.
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The Battle of Cambrai (designated Battle of Cambrai, 1917 by the Battlefield Nomenclature Committee; also sometimes referred to as the First Battle of Cambrai) was a British offensive and German counter-offensive battle in the First World War.
The Battle of Cambrai, 1918 (also known as the Second Battle of Cambrai) was a battle between troops of the British First, Third and Fourth Armies and German Empire forces during the Hundred Days Offensive of the First World War.
The Battle of Caporetto (also known as the Twelfth Battle of the Isonzo, the Battle of Kobarid or the Battle of Karfreit as it was known by the Central Powers), took place from 24 October to 19 November 1917, near the town of Kobarid (now in north-western Slovenia, then part of the Austrian Littoral), on the Austro-Italian front of World War I. The battle was named after the Italian name of the town (also known as Karfreit in German).
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The Battle of Cer was fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in August 1914 during the early stages of the Serbian Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Château-Thierry was fought on July 18, 1918 and was one of the first actions of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) under General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing.
The First World War naval Battle of Coronel took place on 1 November 1914 off the coast of central Chile near the city of Coronel.
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The Battle of Doberdò was one of the bloodiest battlefields of World War I, fought in August 1916 between the Italian and Austro-Hungarian Armies, composed mostly of Hungarian and Slovenian regiments.
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The Battle of Dobro Pole (Пробив при Добро Поле), was a World War I battle, fought between 15 and 18 September 1918.
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The Battle of Flers–Courcelette was a battle within the Franco-British Somme Offensive which took place in the summer and autumn of 1916.
The Battle of Galicia, also known as the Battle of Lemberg, was a major battle between Russia and Austria-Hungary during the early stages of World War I in 1914.
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The Battle of Haifa was fought on 23 September 1918 towards the end of the Battle of Sharon which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September during the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle of Jerusalem occurred during the British Empire's "Jerusalem Operations" against the Ottoman Empire, when fighting for the city developed from 17 November, continuing after the surrender until 30 December 1917, to secure the final objective of the Southern Palestine Offensive during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. Before Jerusalem could be secured, two battles were recognised by the British as being fought in the Judean Hills to the north and east of the Hebron–Junction Station line.
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The Battle of Jutland (Skagerrakschlacht) was a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer during the First World War.
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The Battle of Kolubara was fought between Austria-Hungary and Serbia in November and December 1914, during the Serbian Campaign of World War I. It commenced on 16 November, when the Austro-Hungarians under command of Oskar Potiorek reached the Kolubara River during their third invasion of Serbia that year, having captured the strategic town of Valjevo and forced the Serbian Army to undertake a series of retreats.
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The Battle of Magdhaba (officially known by the British as the Affair of Magdhaba) took place on 23 December 1916 during the Defence of Egypt section of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the First World War.
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The Battle of Más a Tierra was a First World War sea battle fought on 14 March 1915, near the Chilean island of Más a Tierra, between a British squadron and a German light cruiser.
The Battle of Mecca occurred in the Muslim holy city of Mecca in June and July 1916.
The Battle of Megiddo (Megiddo Muharebesi) also known in Turkish as the Nablus Hezimeti ("Rout of Nablus"), the Nablus Yarması ("Breakthrough at Nablus") was fought between 19 and 25 September 1918, on the Plain of Sharon, in front of Tulkarm, Tabsor and Arara in the Judean Hills as well as on the Esdralon Plain at Nazareth, Afulah, Beisan, Jenin and Samakh.
The Battle of Mojkovac (Serbian: Бој на Мојковцу, Boj na Mojkovcu) was a World War I battle fought between 6 January and 7 January 1916 near Mojkovac, Montenegro, between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Montenegro.
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The Battle of Mughar Ridge, officially known by the British as the Action of El Mughar, took place on 13 November 1917 during the Pursuit phase of the Southern Palestine Offensive of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the First World War.
The Battle of Mulhouse or Mülhausen, also called the Battle of Alsace (Bataille d'Alsace), which began on August 7, 1914, was the opening attack of World War I by the French army against Germany.
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The Battle of Nablus took place, together with the Battle of Sharon during the set piece Battle of Megiddo between 19 and 25 September 1918 in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Battle of Nazareth began on 20 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon, which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought during the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Passchendaele, also known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was a campaign of the First World War, fought by the Allies against the German Empire.
The Battle of Penang occurred on 28 October 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action in the Strait of Malacca, in which the German cruiser sank two Allied warships.
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The Battle of Rafa, also known as the Action of Rafah, fought on 9 January 1917, was the third and final battle to complete the recapture of the Sinai Peninsula by British forces during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Romani was the last ground attack of the Central Powers on the Suez Canal at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign during the First World War.
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The Battle of Samakh was fought on 25 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought from 19 to 25 September 1918, in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Sarikamish (Սարիղամիշի ճակատամարտ (Sarighamishi chakatamart), Сражение при Сарыкамыше; Sarıkamış Harekatı) was an engagement between the Russian and Ottoman empires during World War I. It took place from December 22, 1914 to January 17, 1915 as part of the Caucasus Campaign.
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The Battle of Tabsor was fought on 19–20 September 1918 beginning the Battle of Sharon, which along with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Tannenberg was fought between Russia and Germany from 26 August to 30 August 1914, during the first month of World War I. The battle resulted in the almost complete destruction of the Russian Second Army and the suicide of its commanding general, Alexander Samsonov.
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The Battle of the Falkland Islands was a British naval victory over the Imperial German Navy on 8 December 1914 during the First World War in the South Atlantic.
The Battle of the Frontiers was a series of battles fought along the eastern frontier of France and in southern Belgium shortly after the outbreak of World War I. The battles resolved the military strategies of the French Chief of Staff General Joseph Joffre with Plan XVII and an offensive interpretation of the German Aufmarsch II deployment plan by Helmuth von Moltke the Younger.
The Battle of the Lys also known as the Lys Offensive, the Fourth Battle of Ypres, the Third Battle of Flanders, Operation Georgette, Batalha de La Lys and 3ème Bataille des Flandres, was part of the 1918 German offensive in Flanders during World War I, also known as the Spring Offensive.
The Battle of the Piave River, fought between 15 and 23 June 1918, was a decisive victory for the Italian Army during World War I.
The Battle of the Somme (Bataille de la Somme, Schlacht an der Somme), also known as the Somme Offensive, was a battle of the First World War fought by the armies of the British and French empires against the German Empire.
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The Battle of Transylvania was the first major operation of the Romanian Campaign during World War I, beginning on 27 August 1916.
The Battle of Tulkarm took place on 19 September 1918, beginning of the Battle of Sharon, which along with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September in the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of Verdun (Bataille de Verdun,, Schlacht um Verdun) was fought from 21 February – 18 December 1916 during the First World War on the Western Front between the German and French armies, on hills north of Verdun-sur-Meuse in north-eastern France.
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The Battle of Vimy Ridge was a military engagement fought primarily as part of the Battle of Arras, in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais region of France, during the First World War.
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The Battle of Vittorio Veneto was fought from 24 October to 3 November 1918 near Vittorio Veneto on the Italian Front during World War I. The Italian victory marked the end of the war on the Italian Front, secured the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and contributed to the end of the First World War less than two weeks later.
The Battle of Zborov (Зборовское сражение in Russian, Schlacht bei Zborów in German, bitva u Zborova in Czech, bitka pri Zborove in Slovak) was a small part of the Kerensky Offensive, (the last Russian offensive in World War I, taking place in July 1917).
The Battles of the Isonzo (known as the Isonzo Front by historians, and "Soška fronta" by the territory's mainly Slovene population) were a series of 12 battles between the Austro-Hungarian and Italian armies in World War I mostly on the territory of present-day Slovenia, and the remainder in Italy along the Isonzo River on the eastern sector of the Italian Front between June 1915 and November 1917.
Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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Belgrade (Beograd / Београд;; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
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The Belle Époque or La Belle Époque (French for "Beautiful Era") was a period of Western European history.
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Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
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Bermuda, also referred to in legal documents as, fully, "the Bermudas or Somers Isles", is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean, located off the east coast of North America.
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Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.
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Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
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List of World War I books is a bibliography using APA style citations of a selection of the most useful books on World War I as selected by the editors.
Big Bertha (Dicke Bertha)—literal translation "Fat or heavy Bertha"—is the name of a type of super-heavy howitzer developed by the armaments manufacturer Krupp in Germany on the eve of World War I. Its official designation was the L/12, i.e., the barrel was 12 calibre in length, 42-cm (16.5 inch) Type M-Gerät 14 (M-Equipment 1914) Kurze Marine-Kanone ("short naval gun", a name intended to camouflage the weapon's real purpose).
William Morris "Billy" Hughes, (25 September 186228 October 1952), Australian politician, was the seventh Prime Minister of Australia, from 1915 to 1923.
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Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
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Unification or Death (Уједињење или смрт/Ujedinjenje ili smrt), popularly known as the Black Hand (Црна рука/Crna ruka), was a secret military society formed on 9 May 1911 by officers in the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia, originating in the conspiracy group that assassinated the Serbian royal couple (1903), led by captain Dragutin Dimitrijević "Apis".
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A blimp, or non-rigid airship, is an airship (dirigible) without an internal structural framework or a keel.
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The Blockade of Germany, or the Blockade of Europe, occurred from 1914 to 1919.
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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
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Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 80% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
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Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian Bosna i Hercegovina,; Cyrillic script: Боснa и Херцеговина), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, abbreviated BiH, and in short often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosniaks, or less commonly Bosniacs, (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly homeland Bosnia and Herzegovina along with a native minority present in other countries of the Balkan Peninsula; especially in the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro (where Bosniaks form a regional majority), in Croatia, and in Kosovo.
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The mid 1870s witnessed a series of violent rebellions against Ottoman rule in the Balkans, and equally violent and repressive responses from the Turks.
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The British Army is the United Kingdom's principal land warfare force.
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The British Expeditionary Force or BEF was the British Army sent to the Western Front during the First World War.
British heavy tanks were a series of related vehicles developed by the British Army during the First World War.
The Indian Army was the principal army of India before independence from the United Kingdom in 1947.
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The occupation of the Jordan Valley by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) began in February 1918 during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. After the Capture of Jericho in February the Auckland Mounted Rifle Regiment began patrolling an area of the Jordan Valley near Jericho at the base of the road from Jerusalem.
The R-class submarines were a class of 12 small British diesel-electric submarines built for the Royal Navy during World War I, and were forerunners of the modern attack submarine, in that they were designed specifically to attack and sink enemy submarines, their battery capacity and hull shape being optimized for underwater performance.
The Brodie helmet, called Helmet, steel, Mark I helmet in Britain and the M1917 Helmet in the U.S., is a steel combat helmet designed and patented in 1915 by Englishman John Leopold Brodie.
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The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv), also known as the "June Advance", of June-September 1916 was the Russian Empire's greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.
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Bucharest (București) is the capital municipality, cultural, industrial, and financial centre of Romania.
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Budapest (names in other languages) is the capital and the largest city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
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A cadet is a trainee.
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John Calvin Coolidge Jr. (July 4, 1872 – January 5, 1933) was the 30th President of the United States (1923–1929).
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The Canadian Corps was a World War I corps formed from the Canadian Expeditionary Force in September 1915 after the arrival of the 2nd Canadian Division in France.
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The Canadian War Museum (CWM) (Musée canadien de la guerre) is Canada's national museum of military history.
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The capital ships of a navy are its most important warships; they generally possess the heaviest firepower and armor and are traditionally much larger than other naval vessels.
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The Capture of Afulah and Beisan occurred on 20 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon which together with the Nablus, formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought during the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Capture of Jenin occurred on 20 September 1918, during the Battle of Sharon which together with the Battle of Nablus formed the set piece Battle of Megiddo fought between 19 and 25 September during the last months of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Capture of Jericho occurred between 19 and 21 February 1918 to the east of Jerusalem beginning the Occupation of the Jordan Valley during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Carpathian Mountains or Carpathians are a range of mountains forming an arc roughly long across Central Europe, making them the second-longest mountain range in Europe (after the Scandinavian Mountains). They provide the habitat for the largest European populations of brown bears, wolves, chamois and lynxes, with the highest concentration in Romania, as well as over one third of all European plant species.
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The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
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Casus belli is a Latin expression meaning "An act or event that provokes or is used to justify war".
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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black and the Caspian seas.
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CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on CBC Television, Radio and online services.
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The centenary of the outbreak of World War I was commemorated in Europe in late July and early August 2014.
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
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The Central-Caspian Dictatorship (Диктатура Центрокаспия, Diktatura Tsentrokaspiya), or the Centro-Caspian Dictatorship, was a short-lived anti-Soviet administration proclaimed in the city of Baku during World War I. Created from an alliance of Russian Socialist-Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and the Dashnaks, it replaced the Bolshevik Baku Commune in a bloodless coup d'état on July 26, 1918, and fell on September 15, 1918, when Ottoman-Azerbaijani forces captured Baku.
Cevat Çobanlı (September 14, 1870 or 1871 – March 13, 1938) was a military commander of the Ottoman Army, War Minister (Harbiye Nazırı) of the Ottoman Empire and a general of the Turkish Army.
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Chaim Azriel Weizmann (חיים עזריאל ויצמן, Хаим Вейцман Khaim Veytsman; (27 November 1874 –9 November 1952) D.Sc, Sc.D, LL.D was a Zionist leader and Israeli statesman who served as President of the Zionist Organization and later as the first President of Israel. He was elected on 16 February 1949, and served until his death in 1952. Weizmann convinced the United States government to recognize the newly formed state of Israel. Weizmann was also a biochemist who developed the acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation process, which produces acetone through bacterial fermentation. His acetone production method was of great importance for the British war industry during World War I. He founded the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel and was instrumental in the establishment of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
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Champagne is a historic province in the northeast of France, now best known as the Champagne wine region for the sparkling white wine that bears its name.
Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.
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Charles I of Austria or Charles IV of Hungary (Karl Franz Joseph Ludwig Hubert Georg Otto Marie; 17 August 18871 April 1922) was, among other titles, the last ruler of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
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Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
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Chemical weapons in World War I were primarily used to demoralize, injure, and kill entrenched defenders, against whom the indiscriminate and generally slow-moving or static nature of gas clouds would be most effective.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
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Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson (13 August 1889–7 October 1946) was a British figure and landscape painter, etcher and lithographer, who was one of the most famous war artists of World War I. He is often referred to by his initials C. R. W. Nevinson, and was also known as Richard.
A civilian under the laws of war (also known as international humanitarian law) is a person who is not a legitimate member of the armed forces to a conflict.
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Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
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In military tactics, close air support (CAS) is defined as air action by fixed or rotary-winged aircraft against hostile targets, that are close to friendly ground or naval forces, and which requires detailed integration of each air mission with fire and movement of these forces.
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Cobh, known from 1850 until the late 1920s as Queenstown, is a tourist seaport town on the south coast of County Cork, Ireland.
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A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
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Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war.
A combatant is a person who takes a direct part in the hostilities of an armed conflict.
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Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
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The Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) is an intergovernmental organisation of six independent member states whose principal function is to mark, record and maintain the graves and places of commemoration of Commonwealth of Nations military service members who died in the two World Wars.
Compiègne is a commune in the Oise department in northern France.
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A conscientious objector (CO) is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, and/or religion.
Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
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The Conscription Crisis of 1917 (French: Crise de la conscription de 1917) was a political and military crisis in Canada during World War I. It was mainly caused by disagreement on whether men should be conscripted to fight in WWI.
Constantine I (Κωνσταντῖνος Αʹ, Βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων, Konstantínos Αʹ, Vasiléfs ton Ellínon; – 11 January 1923) was King of Greece from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis or Κωνσταντινούπολη Konstantinoúpoli; Constantinopolis; قسطنطینية, Kostantiniyye; Цариград; modern Istanbul) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine (330–1204 and 1261–1453), the Latin (1204–1261), and the Ottoman (1453–1924) empires.
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A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
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The convoy—a group of merchantmen or troopships travelling together with a naval escort—was revived during World War I (1914–18), after having been discarded at the start of the Age of Steam.
The Russian Council of Ministers is an executive governmental council that brings together the principal officers of the Executive Branch of the Russian government.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit, 4900 member organization, publisher, and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs, headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C..
Counter-battery fire (sometimes called counter-fire) is a battlefield military activity to defeat the enemy's indirect fire elements (guns, Rocket launchers, Artillery and Mortars), including their target acquisition, command and control components.
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A neutral country in a particular war is a sovereign state which officially declares itself to be neutral towards the belligerents.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.
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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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Croats (Hrvati) are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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The Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (War Cross) is a French military decoration, the first version of the Croix de guerre.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
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Cvjetko Popović (1896 – 9 June 1980) was a Bosnian Serb who was involved in the 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
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The Czechoslovak Legion (Československé legie in Czech, Československé légie in Slovak) or Czech legion were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs with a small amount of Slovaks (approximately 8 percent) fighting together with the Entente powers during World War I. The name "Czechoslovak" originated after the war.
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Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko, in both of those languages) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
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Dalmatia (Dalmacija,; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.
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Damascus (دمشق) is the capital and the second-largest city of Syria after Aleppo.
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Daraa (درعا, Levantine Arabic), also Darʿā, Dara’a, Deraa, Dera, and Derʿā ("fortress", compare Dura-Europos), is a city in southwestern Syria, just north of the border with Jordan.
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David A. Andelman (born October 6, 1944 in Cambridge, Massachusetts) is the editor-in-chief of World Policy Journal, having previously served as the American executive editor at Forbes.com and was a news reporter for The New York Times, based in New York, Southeast Asia and Eastern Europe, and CBS News, based in Paris.
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Admiral of the Fleet David Richard Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty (17 January 1871 – 11 March 1936) was a Royal Navy officer.
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British Liberal politician and statesman.
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According to the CIA World Factbook, as of July 2012, the global crude death rate is 7.99 deaths/1,000 population.
The Democratic Republic of Georgia (DRG; საქართველოს დემოკრატიული რესპუბლიკა Sakartvelos Demokratiuli Respublika) existed from May 1918 to February 1921 and was the first modern establishment of a Republic of Georgia.
A depth charge is an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) weapon intended to destroy or cripple a target submarine by being dropped into the water close to its target and detonating, subjecting the target to a powerful and destructive hydraulic shock.
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The Desert Mounted Corps was an army corps of the British Army during the First World War, of three mounted divisions renamed in August 1917 by General Edmund Allenby from Desert Column.
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In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
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A diktat is a statute, harsh penalty or settlement imposed upon a defeated party by the victor, or a dogmatic decree.
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Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.
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Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928) was a British senior officer during the First World War.
The Doullens Conference was held in Doullens, France on March 26, 1918 between French and British military leaders.
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The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on 7 October 1879 as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent/limit war.
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"Dulce et Decorum est" is a poem written by Wilfred Owen during World War I, and published posthumously in 1920.
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East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945.
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The Easter Rising (Éirí Amach na Cásca), also known as the Easter Rebellion, was an armed insurrection in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916.
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During World War I, the Eastern Front (Восточный фронт, sometimes called the "Second Fatherland War" or "Second Patriotic War" (Вторая Отечественная война) in Russian sources) was a theatre of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between the Russian Empire and Romania on one side and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and Germany on the other.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.
Field Marshal Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby (23 April 1861 – 14 May 1936) was an English soldier and British Imperial Governor.
The Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) was a British Army formation, formed on 10 March 1916 under the command of General Archibald Murray from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt (1914–15), at the beginning of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Eighth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Sekizinci Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.
Eleftherios Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος;; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was an eminent Greek leader of the Greek national liberation movement and a charismatic statesman of the early 20th century remembered for his promotion of liberal-democratic policies.
Embedded journalism refers to news reporters being attached to military units involved in armed conflicts.
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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
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The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and of Judaism.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
The English Channel (Manche, "Sleeve"; Mor Breizh, "Bretons Sea"; Mor Bretannek, "British Sea"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and joins the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
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Enrico Millo (12 February 1865 - 14 June 1930) was an Italian admiral and politician.
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The Entente Cordiale was a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France, marking the start of the alliance against Germany and Austria-Hungary.
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Ismail Enver Pasha (اسماعیل انور پاشا; İsmail Enver Paşa; 22 November 1881 – 4 August 1922), commonly known as Enver Pasha, was an Ottoman military officer and a leader of the 1908 Young Turk Revolution.
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Epidemic typhus (also called "camp fever", "jail fever", "hospital fever", "ship fever", "famine fever", "putrid fever", "petechial fever", "Epidemic louse-borne typhus," and "louse-borne typhus") is a form of typhus so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters.
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Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes incorrectly referred to as von Ludendorff) (9 April 1865 – 20 December 1937) was a German general, victor of Liège and of the Battle of Tannenberg.
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General Erich Georg Anton von Falkenhayn (11 September 1861 – 8 April 1922) was a German soldier and Chief of the General Staff during the first two years of the First World War.
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Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, stem cell, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.
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The Espionage Act of 1917 is a United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or religious groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
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Eugene Victor "Gene" Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American union leader, one of the founding members of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies), and five times the candidate of the Socialist Party of America for President of the United States.
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The European Civil War is a term of historical argumentation in the form of an overarching construct tying a series of 20th century conflicts between sovereign nations in the now most unified continent of Europe.
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Fakhri Pasha or Fahreddin Pasha (1868 – 22 November 1948), known as Ömer Fahrettin Türkkan after 1934, was the commander of the Ottoman army and governor of Medina from 1916 to 1919.
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The Italian Fasci of Combat (Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, FIC), until 1919 called Fasci of Revolutionary Action (Fasci d'Azione Rivoluzionaria, FAR), was an Italian fascio organization, created by Benito Mussolini in 1914.
Fascio, plural -sci /'faʃʃo, ʃi/ is an Italian word literally meaning "a bundle" or "a sheaf", and figuratively league, and which was used in the late 19th century to refer to political groups of many different (and sometimes opposing) orientations.
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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
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The February Revolution (p) of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917.
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The government of the United States of America is the federal government of the republic of fifty states that constitute the United States, as well as one capital district, and several other territories.
Marshal Ferdinand Foch, (2 October 1851 – 20 March 1929) was a French soldier, military theorist and the Allied Généralissime during the First World War.
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Field marshal is a very senior military rank, ordinarily senior to the general officer ranks.
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Field marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
Field telephones are mobile telephones intended for military use, designed to withstand wartime conditions.
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A fifth column is any group of people who undermine a larger group—such as a nation or a besieged city—from within, usually in favor of an enemy group or nation.
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A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
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The First Balkan War (Балканска война, Α΄ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος, Први балкански рат Prvi Balkanski rat, Birinci Balkan Savaşı), which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, comprised actions of the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire.
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The First Battle of Gaza was fought on 26 March 1917 during the first attempt by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) to invade the south of Palestine in the Ottoman Empire during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
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The Battle of the Marne (Première bataille de la Marne, also known as the Miracle of the Marne) was a First World War battle fought from It resulted in an Allied victory against the German Army (Chief of Staff Helmuth von Moltke the Younger).
The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front during the early stages of World War I. It pushed the Russian First Army back across its entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany.
The first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916, was the opening day of the Battle of Albert the name given by the British to the first two weeks of the Battle of the Somme.
The First Republic of Armenia, known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia (classical Հայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն), was the first modern Armenian state since the fall of the Kingdom of Cilicia in 1375.
The First Transjordan attack on Amman (known to the British as the First Attack on Amman)Battles Nomenclature Committee 1922 p. 33 and to their enemy as the First Battle of the JordanErickson 2001 p. 195 took place between 21 March and 2 April 1918, as a consequence of the successful Battle of Tell 'Asur which occurred after the Capture of Jericho in February and the Occupation of the Jordan Valley began, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of World War I. During the First Transjordan attack large incursions into Ottoman territory occurred.
The First World War Centenary is the centenary of the First World War, which started in 2014 with commemorations of the outbreak of the war and will continue until 2018.
A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an aeroplane, which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.
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A flamethrower is a mechanical incendiary device designed to project a long, controllable stream of fire.
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The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the British Government.
Fourteen Points is a blueprint for world peace that was to be used for peace negotiations after World War I, elucidated in a January 8, 1918, speech on war aims and peace terms by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson.
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The Fourth Army of the Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Dördüncü Ordu) was one of the field armies of the Ottoman Army.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, lit. German-French War, Guerre franco-allemande, lit. Franco-German War), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871), was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
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The Franco-Russian Alliance (also known as the Dual Alliance) was a military alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire that ran from 1894 to 1917.
Francs-tireurs (French for "free shooters") was a term for irregular military applied to formations deployed by France during the early stages of the Franco-Prussian War (1870–71).
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The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns in the surrounding areas.
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The French Army Mutinies of 1917 took place amongst the French troops on the Western Front in Northern France during World War I. They started just after the disastrous Second Battle of the Aisne, the main action in the Nivelle Offensive in April 1917.
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French Canadians (also referred to as Franco-Canadians or Canadiens; Canadien(ne)s français(es)) are a major North American ethnic group of Canadian citizens who trace their French ancestry from the descendants of colonists from France who arrived in New France (Canada) in the 17th and 18th centuries.
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The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (April 24, 1870 – October 16, 1948) was a German General from Nuremberg.
The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces toward the front of an enemy force (as compared to the flanks or rear of the enemy).
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Gabriele D'Annunzio, Prince of Montenevoso and Duke of Gallese (12 March 1863 – 1 March 1938), sometimes spelled d'Annunzio, was an Italian writer, poet, journalist, playwright and soldier during World War I. He occupied a prominent place in Italian literature from 1889 to 1910 and after that political life from 1914 to 1924.
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The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916.
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The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
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Gavrilo Princip (Гаврило Принцип,; 28 April 1918) was a Bosnian Serb who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914.
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A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
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Genocide is the systematic elimination of all or a significant part of a racial, ethnic, religious, cultural or national group.
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This is the German Army order of battle on the outbreak of war in August 1914.
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included what are now Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of present Tanzania (formerly known as Tanganyika).
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The German East Asia Squadron (Ger Kreuzergeschwader or Ostasiengeschwader) was an Imperial German Navy cruiser squadron which operated mainly in the Pacific Ocean between the mid-1890s and 1914.
The German Emperor (German: Deutscher Kaiser) was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire.
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The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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The German General Staff, originally the Prussian General Staff and officially Great General Staff (Großer Generalstab), was a full-time body at the head of the Prussian Army and later, the German Army, responsible for the continuous study of all aspects of war, and for drawing up and reviewing plans for mobilization or campaign.
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German New Guinea (Deutsch-Neuguinea) was the first part of the German colonial empire.
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The German Revolution or November Revolution (German: Novemberrevolution) was the politically driven civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War, which resulted in the replacement of Germany's imperial government with a republic.
German Samoa (Deutsch-Samoa) was a German protectorate from 1900 to 1914, consisting of the islands of Upolu, Savai'i, Apolima and Manono, now wholly within the independent state Samoa, formerly Western Samoa.
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German South-West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika, DSWA) was a colony of the German Empire from 1884 until 1915.
The German War Graves Commission (Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge in German) is responsible for the maintenance and upkeep of German war graves in Europe and North Africa.
Ansaldo was one of Italy's oldest and most important engineering companies, existing for 140 years from 1853 to 1993.
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Captain Godfrey Herbert, DSO and bar, (28 February 1884 – 8 August 1961) was an officer of the Royal Navy who was sometimes referred to as 'Baralong Herbert', in reference to the Baralong incidents that took place during World War I. In a naval career stretching from 1898 to 1919, and with a return to duty between 1939 and 1943 in World War II, Herbert had several close encounters with death.
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The Gold Coast is a name given to several former european colonies in Africa that today form the nation of Ghana.
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Gorizia (Gorica, Görz, Friulian: Guriza) is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.
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Grand Duke Nikolay Nikolayevich Romanov of Russia (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший – the younger); 6 November 1856 – 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main front in the first year of the war, and was later a successful commander in the Caucasus.
The Grand Fleet was the main fleet of the British Royal Navy during the First World War.
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The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the 1930s.
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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
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The term Greater Romania (România Mare) usually refers to the borders of the Kingdom of Romania in the interwar period.
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The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, known as the Western Front (Batı Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey and the Asia Minor Campaign (Μικρασιατική Εκστρατεία) or the Asia Minor Catastrophe (Μικρασιατική Καταστροφή) in Greece, was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.
The Greek genocide, part of which is known as the Pontic genocide, was the systematic ethnic cleansing of the Christian Ottoman Greek population from its historic homeland in Anatolia during World War I and its aftermath (1914–23).
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Gregory H. Stanton is the Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention at the George Mason University in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
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Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (p) was a Russian peasant, mystical faith healer and a trusted friend to the family of Nicholas II, the last Tsar of Russia.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
Guelph (Canada 2011 Census population 121,668) is a city in southwestern Ontario, Canada.
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Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
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(May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923–1929, during the Weimar Republic.
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The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.
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The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire (occasionally also styled as the Austrian Monarchy and Danubian Monarchy) is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
A hand grenade is any small bomb that can be thrown by hand.
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is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.
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Hartmannswillerkopf, also known as the Vieil Armand or Hartmannsweiler Kopf (Hartmansweiler Head) is a pyramidal rocky spur in the Vosges mountains of Alsace.
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A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.
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Helmut Patzig, also known as Helmut Brümmer-Patzig (26 October 1890 – 11 March 1984) was a German U-boat commander in the Kaiserliche Marine in World War I, and the Kriegsmarine in World War II.
Henry Tonks, FRCS (9 April 1862 – 8 January 1937) was a British surgeon and later draughtsman and painter of figure subjects, chiefly interiors, and a caricaturist.
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Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator who won fame for his imperial campaigns and later played a central role in the early part of World War I, although he died halfway through it.
The Hindenburg Line (Siegfriedstellung) was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne.
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The Hindu–German Conspiracy(Note on the name) was a series of plans between 1914 and 1917 by radical Indian nationalist groups to attempt Pan-Indian rebellion against the British Raj during World War I, formulated between the Indian revolutionary underground and exiled or self-exiled nationalists who formed, in the United States, the Ghadar Party, and in Germany, the Indian independence committee, in the decade preceding the Great War.
HMHS Llandovery Castle, built in 1914 in Glasgow as RMS Llandovery Castle for the Union-Castle Line, was one of five Canadian hospital ships that served in the First World War.
HMS Baralong, also known as HMS Wyandra was a Royal Navy warship that was active during World War I. She was a "Special Service Vessel" (also known as a Q-ship) whose function was to act as a decoy, inviting attack by a U-boat in order to engage and (if possible) destroy it.
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The Holy Alliance (Heilige Allianz; Священный союз, Svyashchennyy soyuz; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia.
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A homeland for the Jewish people is an idea rooted in Jewish culture and religion.
General Sir Horace Lockwood Smith-Dorrien, (26 May 1858 – 12 August 1930) was a British soldier.
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The House of Habsburg, also called House of Hapsburg, or House of Austria, was one of the most important royal houses of Europe.
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The House of Hohenzollern is a dynasty of former princes, electors, kings, and emperors of Hohenzollern, Brandenburg, Prussia, the German Empire, and Romania.
The House of Romanov (Рома́нов) was the second imperial dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, which reigned from 1613 until the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
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A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles at relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
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The Hundred Days Offensive was the final period of the First World War, during which the Allies launched a series of offensives against the Central Powers on the Western Front from 8 August to 11 November 1918, beginning with the Battle of Amiens.
Hussein bin Ali, GCB (الحسين بن علي الهاشمي, al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī al-Hāshimī; 18544 June 1931) was the Emir and Grand Sharif of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself King of the Hejaz.
A hydrophone (Ancient Greek ὕδωρ.
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Il Popolo d'Italia ("The People of Italy"), was an Italian newspaper founded by Benito Mussolini in 1914, after his split from the Italian Socialist Party.
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The Imperial German Navy was the Imperial Navy – the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
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Imperial War Museums (IWM) is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London.
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"In Flanders Fields" is a war poem in the form of a rondeau, written during the First World War by Canadian physician Major John McCrae.
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The All India Home Rule League was a national political organisation founded in april 1916 to lead the national demand for self-government, termed Home Rule, and to obtain the status of a Dominion within the British Empire as enjoyed by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time.
The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses activities and ideas aiming to end first East India Company rule (1757–1858), then the British Raj (1858–1947).
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indirect fire is aiming and firing a projectile without relying on a direct line of sight between the gun and its target, as in the case of direct fire.
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In warfare, infiltration tactics involve small, lightly equipped infantry forces attacking enemy rear areas while bypassing enemy front line strongpoints and isolating them for attack by follow-up troops with heavier weapons.
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The International Association of Genocide Scholars (IAGS) is an international non-partisan organization that seeks to further research and teaching about the nature, causes, and consequences of genocide, and to advance policy studies on the prevention of genocide.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
In the context of the history of the twentieth century, the interwar period or interbellum (Latin: inter-, "between" + bellum, "war") was the period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II—the period beginning with the Armistice with Germany that concluded World War I in 1918 and the following Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and ending in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and the start of World War II.
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Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.
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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.
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Irish nationalism asserts that the Irish people are a nation.
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The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (النزاع الفلسطيني - الإسرائيلي al-Niza'a al'Filastini al 'Israili; הסכסוך הישראלי-פלסטיני Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.
Italian irredentism (irredentismo italiano) was a nationalist movement during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Italy with irredentist goals which promoted the unification of geographic areas in which indigenous ethnic Italians and Italian-speaking persons formed a majority, or substantial minority, of the population.
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The Italian Liberal Party (Partito Liberale Italiano, PLI) was a liberal and conservative political party in Italy.
Italian nationalism is the nationalism asserts that Italians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Italians.
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The Italian Socialist Party (PSI) was a socialist and later social-democratic political party in Italy founded in Genoa in 1892.
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The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (Trablusgarp Savaşı, "Tripolitanian War"; also known in Italy as Guerra di Libia, "Libyan War") was fought between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Italy from September 29, 1911, to October 18, 1912.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Ivan "Ivo" Andrić (Иван "Иво" Андрић) (9 October 1892 – 13 March 1975) was a Yugoslav novelist, short story writer, and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature (1961).
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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
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The Jezreel Valley (עמק יזרעאל, translit. Emek Yizra'el), (مرج إبن عامر "Marj Ibn Amer") is a large fertile plain and inland valley south of the Lower Galilee region in Israel.
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Joachim Gauck (born 24 January 1940) is the President of Germany, serving since March 2012.
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John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was the general in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces to victory over Germany in World War I, 1917–18.
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Admiral of the Fleet John Rushworth Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe, (5 December 1859 – 20 November 1935) was a Royal Navy officer.
Lieutenant Colonel John McCrae, MD (November 30, 1872 – January 28, 1918) was a Canadian poet, physician, author, artist and soldier during World War I, and a surgeon during the Second Battle of Ypres, in Belgium.
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John Northcote Nash CBE RA (11 April 1893 – 23 September 1977) was a British painter of landscapes and stilllifes, and a woodengraver and illustrator, particularly of botanic works.
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The Jones–Shafroth Act —also known as the Jones Act of Puerto Rico, Jones Law of Puerto Rico, or as the Puerto Rican Federal Relations Act of 1917— was an Act of the United States Congress, signed by President Woodrow Wilson on March 2, 1917.
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The Jordan River (in traditional English River Jordan) (נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן nehar hayarden; نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ nahr al-urdun) is a -long river in West Asia flowing to the Dead Sea.
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The July Crisis was a diplomatic crisis among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914 that led to World War I. Immediately after Gavrilo Princip, a Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo, a series of diplomatic maneuverings led to an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary to the Kingdom of Serbia, and ultimately to war.
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Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as Cimbrian Peninsula (Den Kimbriske Halvø Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and the northern portion of Germany.
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The Kaiserschützen (English: Imperial Infantry) were three regiments of Austro-Hungarian mountain infantry during the K.U.K. Monarchy.
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German Cameroon (Kamerun) was a West African colony of the German Empire from 1884 to 1916 in the region of today's Republic of Cameroon.
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Kansas City, or K.C., is the largest city in the state of Missouri.
(13 August 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany.
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Kaunas (also see Kaunas' other names) is the second-largest city in Lithuania and has historically been a leading centre of Lithuanian economic, academic, and cultural life.
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The Khamseh is a tribal confederation in the province of Fars in southwestern Iran.
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Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 240,832 (June 2014).
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The Kiel mutiny was a major revolt by sailors of the German High Seas Fleet on 3 November 1918.
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King and Country (stylised as King & Country) is a 1964 British war film directed by Joseph Losey, shot in black and white, and starring Dirk Bogarde and Tom Courtenay.
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The Kingdom of Bohemia, sometimes also referred to as the Czech Kingdom (České království; Königreich Böhmen; Regnum Bohemiae), was a state located in the region of Bohemia in Central Europe, whose territory is currently included in the modern-day Czech Republic.
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The Kingdom of Bulgaria, also referred to as the Tsardom of Bulgaria and the Third Bulgarian Tsardom was a constitutional monarchy, created on 22 September 1908 (old style), as а result of an elevation of the Bulgarian state to kingdom from principality.
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The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, also known as Austrian Poland, was a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy since the First Partition of Poland in 1772, when it became a Kingdom under Habsburg rule.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000-1946 with the exception of 1918-1920).
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866, 1923, 1938).
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The Kingdom of Serbia (Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija), often rendered Servia in English at the time of its existence, was created when Prince Milan Obrenović, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was crowned king in 1882.
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The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed during the interwar period (1918–1939) and first half of World War II (1939–1943).
The Knox–Porter Resolution was a joint resolution of the United States Congress signed by President Warren G. Harding on July 2, 1921, officially ending United States involvement in World War I. The documents were signed on the estate of Joseph Sherman Frelinghuysen, Sr. in Raritan, New Jersey.
Kobarid (Caporetto, Cjaurêt, Karfreit) is a settlement in Slovenia, the administrative centre of the Municipality of Kobarid.
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The Kosovo Offensive Operation (Косовска настъпателна операция), the third major battle in history to have been fought there, occurred between 10 November 1915 and 4 December 1915.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, have become famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
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The Kurds (کورد Kurd) are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern or Turkish Kurdistan), western Iran (Eastern or Iranian Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern or Iraqi Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan or Rojava).
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The labour movement or labor movement (see spelling differences), or, respectively, labourism or laborism, are broad terms for the collective organization of working people developed to represent and campaign for better working conditions and treatment from their employers and, through the implementation of labour and employment law, their governments.
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A lancer was a type of cavalryman who fought with a lance.
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Le Souvenir français is a French association for maintaining war memorials and war memory, comparable to the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
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The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
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The League of the Three Emperors (Dreikaiserabkommen, Союз трёх императоров) was an alliance between the German Empire, the Russian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from 1873 to 1887.
Leonard Porter Ayres (September 15, 1879 – October 29, 1946) was an American educator, soldier, and statistician.
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Leonida Bissolati (Cremona, February 20, 1857 -- Rome, March 6, 1920) was a leading exponent of the Italian socialist movement at the turn of the nineteenth century.
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Leuven (Louvain,, often used in English) is the capital of the province of Flemish Brabant in the Flemish Region, Belgium.
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The Lewis gun (or Lewis automatic machine gun or Lewis automatic rifle) is a World War I-era light machine gun of American design that was perfected and widely used by the British Empire.
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Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism.
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The Liberty Memorial, located at the National World War I Museum and Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri, USA, is a memorial to service men and women who served in World War I., theworldwar.org.
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A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.
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This is a list of wars and anthropogenic disasters by death toll.
When a World War I medal was issued to a member of Commonwealth forces, it was issued with a Service Number, Rank, Name and Regiment.
This is a list of World War I-related topics.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by many of America's finest writers.
Ljubljana (locally also, Laibach, Lubiana, Labacum or Aemona) is the capital and largest city of Slovenia.
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The London Agreement on German External Debts, also known as the London Debt Agreement (German: Londoner Schuldenabkommen), was a debt relief treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and creditor nations.
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten, that use the same words with different meanings:;Long scale: Every new term greater than million is one million times larger than the previous term.
The Duchy of Lorraine (Lorraine,; Lothringen), was a duchy roughly corresponding with the present-day region of Lorraine in northeastern France, its capital was Nancy.
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The "Lost Generation" was the generation that came of age during World War I. The term was popularized by Ernest Hemingway, who used it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude Stein, who was then his mentor and patron.
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Luigi Cadorna (4 September 1850, Verbania, Piedmont-Sardinia – 21 December 1928) was an Italian Field Marshal, most famous for being the chief of staff of the Italian army during the first part of World War I.
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Lurs (also Lors, Lurish: لور, Persian:لُر) are an Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran.
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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The Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR) is a family of United States automatic rifles (or machine rifles) and light machine guns used by the United States and numerous other countries during the 20th century.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, designed to fire bullets in quick succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of three hundred to eighteen hundred rounds per minute.
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Maclean's is a Canadian weekly news magazine, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.
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Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
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Margarine is an imitation butter spread used for spreading, baking, and cooking.
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Martial law is the imposition of the highest-ranking military officer as the military governor or as the head of the government, thus removing all power from the previous executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government.
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Materiel (from the French matériel for equipment or hardware, related to the word material, and sometimes so spelled in English) is military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
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Mecca (مكة), also transliterated Makkah, is a city in the Hejaz in Saudi Arabia.
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Medina (المدينة المنورة,, "the radiant city"; or المدينة,, "the city"), also transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejaz, and the capital of the Al Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia.
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Memorial Day is a federal holiday in the United States for remembering the people who died while serving in the country's armed forces.
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The Menin Gate Memorial to the Missing is a war memorial in Ypres, Belgium, dedicated to the British and Commonwealth soldiers who were killed in the Ypres Salient of World War I and whose graves are unknown.
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Mesopotamia (from the Μεσοποταμία " between rivers"; بلاد الرافدين bilād ar-rāfidayn; میانرودان miyān rodān; ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") is a name for the area of the Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq, Kuwait, the northeastern section of Syria, as well as parts of southeastern Turkey and of southwestern Iran.
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The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from the Indian Empire and Australia, and the Central Powers, mostly of the Ottoman Empire.
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, also known as the Maas-Argonne Offensive and the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire Western Front.
Milan (or; Milano; Milanese: Milan), the second-most populous city in Italy, serves as the capital of Lombardy.
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The history of military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.
Military personnel are members of the armed forces.
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Military tactics are the science and art of organizing a military force, and the techniques for combining and using weapons and military units to engage and defeat an enemy in battle.
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Minenwerfer ("mine launcher") is the German name for a class of short range mortars used extensively during the First World War by the German Army.
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Monastir Offensive was an Allied military operation against the forces of the Central Powers during World War I, intended to break the deadlock on the Macedonian Front by forcing the capitulation of Bulgaria and relieving the pressure on Romania.
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Mounted infantry were infantry who rode horses instead of marching, but, as infantry does in general, fought on foot (in the modern era with muskets or rifles, but before that with swords, spears, bows, or crossbows).
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The MP 18.1 manufactured by Theodor Bergmann Abteilung Waffenbau was the first practical submachine gun used in combat.
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Muhamed Mehmedbašić (1886 – 29 May 1943) was a Serbian revolutionary and conspirator in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
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Sir Muirhead Bone (23 March 1876 – 21 October 1953) was a Scottish etcher, drypoint and watercolour artist who became known for his depiction of industrial and architectural subjects and his work as a war artist in both World War One and World War Two.
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Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 (conventional) – 10 November 1938) was a Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and the first President of Turkey.
Mutatis mutandis is a Medieval Latin phrase meaning "the necessary changes having been made" or "once the necessary changes have been made".
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The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
National identity is the sense of a nation as a cohesive whole, as represented by distinctive traditions, culture, language and politics.
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The National Schism (Εθνικός Διχασμός, Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) was a series of disagreements between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos regarding the foreign policy of Greece in the period of 1910–22 of which the tipping point was whether Greece should enter World War I. Venizelos was in support of the Allies and wanted Greece to join the war on their side, while the pro-German King wanted Greece to remain neutral, which would favor the plans of the Central Powers.
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The National World War I Museum and Memorial of the United States is located in Kansas City, Missouri.
The Nationalist Party of Australia was an Australian political party.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.
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Nedeljko Čabrinović (Cyrillic: Недељко Чабриновић; 2 February 1895 – 20 January 1916) was a Bosnian Serb member of the pro-Yugoslav Young Bosnia movement and one of seven young men of secret society known as The Black Hand who conspired to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria during his June 1914 announced visit to Sarajevo.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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New Britain, or Niu Briten, is the largest island in the Bismarck Archipelago (named after Otto von Bismarck) of Papua New Guinea.
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Nicholas II (r) (– 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.
Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Никола́й Никола́евич Юде́нич) (October 5, 1933) was a commander of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. He was a leader of the anti-communist White movement in Northwestern Russia during the Civil War.
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Nitrogen fixation is a process in which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH4+) or nitrogen dioxide, for example.
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The Nivelle Offensive in 1917, was a Franco-British offensive on the Western Front in the First World War.
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The Noemvriana (Νοεμβριανά, "November Events") of November–December 1916, or the Greek Vespers, was a political dispute, which led to an armed confrontation in Athens between the royalist government of Greece and the forces of the Allies over the issue of Greece's neutrality during World War I. Friction existed between the two sides from the beginning of World War I. The unconditional surrender of the border fortress of Rupel, in May 1916, to the Central Powers' forces, mainly composed of Bulgarian troops, was the first event that led to Noemvriana.
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Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations, but still retain diplomacy, and avoid all wars not related to direct self-defense.
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The North Russia Intervention, also known as the Northern Russian Expedition, the Archangel Campaign, and the Murman Deployment, was part of the Allied Intervention in Russia after the October Revolution.
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
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The Oberste Heeresleitung (Supreme Army Command) or OHL was Germany's highest echelon of command of the German Army (Heer) in World War I. In the later phase of the war, the so-called "Third OHL" assumed dictatorial powers and was de facto in control of German government policies.
Observation balloons are balloons that are employed as aerial platforms for intelligence gathering and artillery spotting.
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The Occupation of Samoa – the takeover and subsequent administration of the Pacific colony of German Samoa – started in August 1914 with landings by an expeditionary force from New Zealand called the "Samoa Expeditionary Force".
The Occupation of the Rhineland took place following the armistice that brought the fighting of World War I to a close on 11 November 1918.
The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
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The Officers' Training Corps (OTC), more fully called the University Officers' Training Corps (UOTC), is a separate section of the British Army Reserve (formerly the Territorial Army) which provides military leadership training to students at British universities.
Operation Michael was a First World War German military operation that began the Spring Offensive on 21 March 1918.
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Optimism is a mental attitude or world view.
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Oskar Emil von Hutier (27 August 1857 – 5 December 1934) was an Imperial Germany general during the First World War.
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Generalleutnant Otto Viktor Karl von Sanders (February 17, 1855 – August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as an adviser and military commander to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890.
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The Ottoman dynasty, made up of the members of the House of Osman (Osmanlı Hanedanı), ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1299 to 1922, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, Ertuğrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until Orhan Bey declared himself sultan.
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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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The Ottoman–German Alliance was an alliance between the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire that was ratified on August 2, 1914, shortly following the outbreak of World War I. The alliance was created as part of a joint-cooperative effort that would strengthen and modernize the failing Ottoman military, as well as provide Germany safe passage into neighboring British colonies.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to war: War – organised and often prolonged armed conflict that is carried out by states and/or non-state actors.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to World War I: World War I – major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
Padua (or; Padova, Latin: Patavium, Padoa, German Padua) is a city and comune in the Veneto, northern Italy.
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The Pale of Settlement (Черта́ осе́длости,, דער תּחום-המושבֿ,, תְּחוּם הַמּוֹשָב) was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was generally prohibited.
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Pan-Arabism is an ideology espousing the unification of the countries of North Africa and West Asia from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea, referred to as the Arab world.
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Pan-Slavism, a movement which crystallised in the mid-19th century, aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples.
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Paolo Boselli (June 8, 1838 – March 10, 1932) was an Italian politician who served as the 34th Prime Minister of Italy during World War I.
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A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag, or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift.
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The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.
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The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors, following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918.
Paths of Glory is a 1957 American anti-war filmhttp://www.tcm.com/this-month/article/191157|0/The-Big-Idea-Paths-of-Glory.html by Stanley Kubrick based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb.
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Paul Fussell, Jr. (22 March 1924 – 23 May 2012) was an American cultural and literary historian, author and university professor.
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Paul Nash (11 May 1889 – 11 July 1946) was a British surrealist painter and war artist, as well as a photographer, writer and designer of applied art.
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Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg, known universally as Paul von Hindenburg (2 October 1847 – 2 August 1934) was a German Generalfeldmarschall, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany (1925–34).
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Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck (20 March 1870 – 9 March 1964) was a general in the Imperial German Army and the commander of its forces in the German East Africa campaign.
The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia (اشغال ایران در جنگ جهانی اول) was a series of engagements at northern Persian Azerbaijan and western Persia between the British Empire, Russian Empire and Armenian and Assyrian forces against the Ottoman Empire, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. The Russian operations were halted by the Russian Revolution on February 23, 1917 when the Russian Caucasus Army was replaced with Armenian units and an Allied force named Dunsterforce.
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The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy sovet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
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A petroleum reservoir or oil and gas reservoir is a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations.
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Philipp Heinrich Scheidemann (26 July 1865 – 29 November 1939) was a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
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Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain, Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain or The Lion of Verdun), was a French general who reached the distinction of Marshal of France, and was later Chief of State of Vichy France (Chef de l'État Français), from 1940 to 1944.
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Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.
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A pogrom is a violent riot aimed at massacre or persecution of an ethnic or religious group, particularly one aimed at Jews.
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A polemic is a contentious argument that is intended to affirm a specific understanding via attacks on a contrary position.
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The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka) are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland.
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Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus XV; Benedetto XV) born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa, (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was Pope from 3 September 1914 to his death in 1922.
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Pope Saint Pius X (Pio X) born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914), was Pope from 4 August 1903 to his death in 1914.
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Poppies of Flanders is a 1927 British drama film directed by Arthur Maude and starring Jameson Thomas, Eve Gray and Henry Vibart.
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The 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey (Ἡ Ἀνταλλαγή, Mübâdele) stemmed from the "Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations" signed at Lausanne, Switzerland, on 30 January 1923, by the governments of Greece and Turkey.
Posttraumatic stress disorderAcceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
The "Powder keg of Europe", sometimes alternately known as the "Balkan Powder Keg", refers to the Balkans in the early part of the 20th century preceding World War I. In this time period there were a number of overlapping claims to territories and spheres of influence between the major European powers such as Russia, Austria-Hungary, Imperial Germany, and to a lesser degree, the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, and Italy.
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Maximilian Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm Margrave of Baden (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929), also known as Max von Baden, was a German prince and politician.
Prince Sixtus of Bourbon-Parma (1 August 1886 – 14 March 1934) was a son of Robert I, the last reigning Duke of Parma.
A princely state (also called native state (legally) or Indian state) was a nominally sovereign entity of India during the British Raj that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler under a form of indirect rule, subject to a subsidiary alliance and the suzerainty or paramountcy of the British Crown.
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The Principality of Albania (Albanian: Principata e Shqipnis` or Shteti Shqiptar) refers to the Albanian Republic during the short-lived monarchy in Albania that was headed by William, Prince of Albania and to the state after the First World War; the monarchy was abolished in 1925 and a republic declared.
A prisoner of war (POW, PoW, PW, P/W, WP, PsW, enemy prisoner of war (EPW) or "missing-captured") is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
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A prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of enemy combatants captured by a belligerent power in time of war.
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Prize rules or cruiser rules govern the taking of prizes: vessels captured on the high seas during war.
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The Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus, Provisional National Government of South West Caucasia (Modern Turkish: Güneybatı Kafkas Geçici Milli Hükûmeti; Ottoman Turkish: Cenub-ı Garbi Kafkas Hükûmet-i Muvakkate-i Milliyesi Cənub-Qərbi Qafqaz Cümhuriyyəti) or Kars Republic was a short-lived nominally-independent provisional government based in Kars, northeastern Turkey.
Prussia (Prusy) was a historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and centered on the region of Prussia.
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A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.
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The Public Schools Act 1868 was enacted by the British Parliament to reform and regulate seven of the leading English boys' schools of the time, most of which had grown out of ancient charity schools for the education of a certain number of poor scholars, but were then, as they do today, also educating many sons of the English upper and upper-middle classes on a fee-paying basis.
Pula or Pola (Pola Italian and Istro-Romanian; Colonia Pietas Iulia Pola Pollentia Herculanea; Slovene and Chakavian: Pulj, Polei, Ancient Greek: Πόλαι, Polae) is the largest city in Istria County, Croatia, situated at the southern tip of the Istria peninsula, with a population of 57,460 (2011).
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Punch, or The London Charivari was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire established in 1841 by Henry Mayhew and engraver Ebenezer Landells.
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Q-ships, also known as Q-boats, decoy vessels, special service ships, or mystery ships, were heavily armed merchant ships with concealed weaponry, designed to lure submarines into making surface attacks.
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Qashqai (pronounced; also spelled Qeshqayı, Ghashghai, Ghashghay, Gashgai, Gashgay, Kashkai, Qashqay, Qashqa'i and Qashqai: قشقایی) are a conglomeration of clans of different ethnic origins, mostly Turkic, but also Arab, Kurdish, and Luri.
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Qingdao (formerly Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
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The Race to the Sea took place from about 1914, after the Battle of the Frontiers (7 August–13 September) and the German advance into France, which had been stopped at the First Battle of the Marne and was followed by the First Battle of the Aisne a Franco-British counter-offensive.
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A railway gun, also called a railroad gun, is a large artillery piece, often surplus naval artillery, mounted on, transported by, and fired from a specially designed railway wagon.
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The Rapallo Conference was convened by the Allied powers of World War I, on the fifth of November 1917 in Rapallo, Italy, following their defeat by Germany at the Battle of Caporetto.
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In military operations, reconnaissance is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and enemy presence.
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Red Week was the name given to a week of unrest which occurred in June, 1914.
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Reims (also spelt Rheims), a city in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
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Reinhard Scheer (30 September 1863 – 26 November 1928) was an Admiral in the German Kaiserliche Marine.
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The Reinsurance Treaty of 18 June 1887 was an attempt by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to continue to ally with Russia after the League of the Three Emperors had broken down in the aftermath of the 1885 Serbo-Bulgarian War.
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Rijeka (Reka; Italian and Fiume /; Pflaum) is the principal seaport and the third-largest city in Croatia (after Zagreb and Split).
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RMS Lusitania was a British ocean liner, holder of the Blue Riband, and briefly the world's largest passenger ship.
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Robert Georges Nivelle (15 October 1856 – 22 March 1924) was a French artillery officer who served in the Boxer Rebellion, and the First World War.
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Rosa Luxemburg (also Rozalia Luxenburg; Róża Luksemburg; 5 March 1871 – 15 January 1919) was a Marxist theorist, philosopher, economist and revolutionary socialist of Polish-Jewish descent who became a naturalized German citizen.
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The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's principal naval warfare force.
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Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor emeritus of political science at the University of Hawaii.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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The Russian Caucasus Army (Кавказскaя армия) of World War I was the Russian field army that fought in the Caucasus Campaign and Persian Campaign of World War I. It was renowned for inflicting heavy casualties on the opposing forces of the Ottoman Empire, particularly at the Battle of Sarikamish.
The Russian Civil War (Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917-October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
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Zhemchug (Жемчуг, "Pearl") was the second of the two-vessel of protected cruisers built for the Imperial Russian Navy.
The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.
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The Russian Expeditionary Force was a World War I military force sent to France by the Russian Empire.
The Russian famine of 1921, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Bolshevik Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian invasion of East Prussia occurred during the First World War, lasting from August to September 1914.
The Russian Provisional Government (Временное правительство России, translit.) was a provisional government of the Russian Republic established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II (March 15, 1917).
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union.
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Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).
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A salient is a battlefield feature that projects into enemy territory.
Salisbury Plain is a chalk plateau in central southern England covering.
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Sarajevo is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with an estimated population of 369,534.
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Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, United Kingdom, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.
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The Schlieffen Plan (Schlieffen-Plan) was a 1905 German General Staff thought-experiment which later became a deployment plan and set of recommendations for German commanders to implement, with a considerable measure of discretion to adapt to local circumstances.
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The Schutzkorps was an auxiliary volunteer militia established by Austro-Hungarian authorities in the newly annexed province of Bosnia and Herzegovina to track down Bosnian Serb opposition (members of the Chetniks and the Komiti).
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A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
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The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא, بحيرة طبريا), is the largest freshwater lake in Israel, and it is approximately in circumference, about long, and wide.
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The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.)/29 June 1913.
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The Second Battle of Gaza was fought between 17 to 19 April 1917, following the defeat of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) at the First Battle of Gaza in March, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Second Battle of the Marne (Seconde Bataille de la Marne), or Battle of Reims (15 July – 6 August 1918) was the last major German Spring Offensive on the Western Front during the First World War.
During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.
The Second Polish Republic, also known as the Second Commonwealth of Poland or the interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Second Transjordan attack on Shunet Nimrin and Es Salt, officially known by the British as the Second action of Es Salt Battles Nomenclature Committee 1922 p. 33 and by others as the Second Battle of the Jordan,Erickson 2001 p. 195 was fought east of the Jordan River between 30 April and 4 May 1918 following the failure of the First Transjordan attack on Amman fought at the beginning April, during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War.
The Sedition Act of 1918 was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.
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The Selective Service Act or Selective Draft Act authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment of people.
The right of nations to self-determination (from) is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms.
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Self-propelled artillery (also called mobile artillery or locomotive artillery) is artillery equipped with its own propulsion system to move towards its target.
The Senussi or Sanussi (السنوسية) are a Muslim political-religious Sufi order and tribe in Libya and the Sudan region founded in Mecca in 1837 by the Grand Senussi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Senussi.
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The Senussi Campaign took place in north Africa, from November 1915 to February 1917, during the First World War between the British Empire, the Kingdom of Italy and the Senussi.
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The Serbian Campaign of World War I was fought from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia at the outset of World War I, until the war's conclusion in November 1918.
The Ottoman Seventh Army was a large military formation of the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Shandong, is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
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A shell is a payload-carrying projectile which, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and proof shot).
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Ship transport is watercraft carrying people (passengers) or goods (cargo).
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The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into exile – notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov – were shot in Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918.
Shoulder Arms is Charlie Chaplin's second film for First National Pictures.
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Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
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The Siege of Kut Al Amara (7 December 1915 – 29 April 1916), also known as the First Battle of Kut, was the besieging of an 8,000 strong British-Indian garrison in the town of Kut, 100 miles south of Baghdad, by the Ottoman Army.
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Medina, an Islamic holy city in Arabia, underwent a long siege during World War I. Medina was at the time part of the Ottoman Empire.
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The Siege of Tsingtao, sometimes Siege of Tsingtau, was the attack on the German port of Tsingtao (Qingdao) in China during World War I by Japan and the United Kingdom.
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Siegfried Loraine Sassoon, (8 September 1886 – 1 September 1967) was an English poet, writer, and soldier.
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The Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I was fought between the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire supported by the German Empire.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (سيناء; سينا), or "סיני" in Hebrew, is a triangular peninsula in Egypt about in area.
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The sinking of the Cunard ocean liner RMS ''Lusitania'' occurred on 7 May 1915 during the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.
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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
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SM U-20 was a German Type U 19 U-boat built for service in the Imperial German Navy.
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SM U-27 was a German Type ''U-27'' U-boat built for service in the Imperial German Navy.
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SM U-41 was one of the 329 submarines serving in the Imperial German Navy in World War I. U-41 engaged in naval warfare and took part in the First Battle of the Atlantic.
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SM U-86 was a Type U 81 style submarine manufactured in the Germaniawerft, Kiel shipyard for the German Empire during World War I. On 27 June 1918, under the command of Lieutenant Helmut Patzig, U-86 sank the Canadian hospital ship off the coast of Ireland, in violation of international law and standing orders of the Imperial German Navy. When the crew took to the lifeboats, U-86 surfaced, ran down all the lifeboats except one, and shot at the people in the water. Only the 24 people in the remaining lifeboat survived. They were rescued shortly afterwards and testified as to what had happened. The 234 others on board the Llandovery Castle were lost, including fourteen nursing sisters., the former Hamburg America ocean liner SS Cincinnati, was torpedoed by U-86 on 1 July 1918 and sank the next day. Covington was the 17th largest ship sunk or damaged by Uboats during the war. After the war, the captain of U-86 Helmut Patzig, and two of his lieutenants were arraigned for trial on war crimes, but Patzig fled to the Free City of Danzig, and his trial was stopped on 20 March 1931 by virtue of the Laws of Amnesty. Lieutenants Ludwig Dithmar and Johan Boldt were convicted and sentenced to four years in prison, but were released after only 4 months. U-86 was surrendered after the war and sank in the English Channel on the way to be broken up in 1921.
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The Soča (in Slovene) or Isonzo (in Italian) (other names Lusinç, archaic Sontig, Aesontius or Isontius) is a long river that flows through western Slovenia and northeastern Italy.
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The Social Democratic Party of Germany (Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD) is a social-democratic political party in Germany.
The Socialist Party of America (SPA) was a multi-tendency democratic-socialist political party in the United States, formed in 1901 by a merger between the three-year-old Social Democratic Party of America and disaffected elements of the Socialist Labor Party which had split from the main organization in 1899.
Solitary confinement is a form of imprisonment in which an inmate is isolated from any human contact, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.
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Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
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Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg (Žofie Marie Josefína Albína hraběnka Chotková z Chotkova a Vojnína, Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Gräfin Chotek von Chotkow und Wognin), born Sophie Maria Josephine Albina Countess Chotek of Chotkov and Wognin (1 March 1868 – 28 June 1914) was a Bohemian (Czech) aristocrat from the then-Kingdom of Bohemia, the morganatic wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
The Sopwith Camel was a British First World War single-seat biplane fighter introduced on the Western Front in 1917.
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Southern Dobruja (Bulgarian: Южна Добруджа, Yuzhna Dobrudzha or simply Добруджа, Dobrudzha) is an area of north-eastern Bulgaria comprising the administrative districts named for its two principal cities of Dobrich and Silistra.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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Spa is a municipality in the Walloon Region and Province of Liège, Belgium, in a valley in the Ardennes mountains southeast of Liège and southwest of Aachen.
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The stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende) was the notion, widely believed in right-wing circles in Germany after 1918, that the German Army did not lose World War I but was instead betrayed by the civilians on the home front, especially the republicans who overthrew the monarchy.
Stahlhelm (plural Stahlhelme) is German for "steel helmet".
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The Standschützen (singular: StandesschützeThe German word Standschütze is derived from Schützenstand or Schießstand, which means "firing point" or "firing range", and generally refers to the members of a local shooting club – the Schießstand, Schützenstand or Schützenverein – in German-speaking countries. These were in essence volunteer militia. They still exist today, albeit their role is purely social and ceremonial.) were originally rifle guilds and rifle companies that had been formed in the 15th and 16th centuries, and were involved time and again in military operations within the borders of the Austrian County of Tyrol.
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Starvation is a severe deficiency in caloric energy intake.
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The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs (Država Slovenaca, Hrvata i Srba, Држава Словенаца, Хрвата и Срба,; Država Slovencev, Hrvatov in Srbov) was a short-lived entity formed at the end of World War I by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs residing in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Stephen Henry Hobhouse (5 August 1881 – 2 April 1961) was a prominent English peace activist, prison reformer, and religious writer.
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Stormtroopers (in German Sturmtruppen; the term "thrust troops", Stoßtruppe was also used) were specialist soldiers of the German Army in World War I. In the last years of the war, Stoßtruppe were trained to fight with "infiltration tactics", part of the Germans' new method of attack on enemy trenches.
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A strategic bomber is a medium to long range bomber designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
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A submachine gun (SMG) is an air-cooled, magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.
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A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
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Submarine warfare is one of the four divisions of underwater warfare, the others being anti-submarine warfare, mine warfare and mine countermeasures.
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The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
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Suffragettes were members of women's organisation (right to vote) movements in the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly militants in Great Britain such as members of the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
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Mustard agent, or the sulphur mustards, commonly, but erroneously, known as mustard gas, is a class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs.
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A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
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The Supreme War Council was a central command created by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George to coordinate Allied military strategy during World War I. It was founded in 1917, and was based in Versailles.
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Surplus women is a phrase coined during the Industrial Revolution referring to a perceived excess of unmarried women in Britain.
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Syndicalism is a type of proposed economic system, a form of socialism, considered a replacement for capitalism.
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In 1917 the armies on the Western Front continued to change their fighting methods, due to the consequences of increases in fire-power, greater numbers of automatic weapons, the decentralisation of authority and the integration of specialised branches, equipment and techniques into the traditional structures of infantry, artillery and cavalry.
Tangestan County (شهرستان تنگستان) is a county in Bushehr Province in Iran.
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A tank is a large type of armoured fighting vehicle with tracks, designed for front-line combat.
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The development of tanks in World War I was a response to the stalemate that trench warfare had created on the Western Front.
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The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Ancient Greek: Όρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, dividing the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
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Tønder (Tondern) is a town in the Region of Southern Denmark.
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The Tehcir Law (from tehcir, a word of Arabic origin in Ottoman Turkish and meaning "deportation" or "forced displacement" as defined by the Turkish Language Institute), or, officially by the Republic of Turkey, the "Sevk ve İskân Kanunu" (Relocation and Resettlement Law) was a law passed by the Ottoman Parliament on May 27, 1915 authorizing the deportation of the Ottoman Empire's Armenian population.
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The Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act 1918 was an Act of the British Parliament passed in 1918.
The Big Four refers to the four top Allied powers and their leaders who met at the Paris Peace Conference in January 1919.
In jurisprudence in the Commonwealth realms, the Crown dependencies, and any of a realm's provincial or state sub-divisions, the Crown is the state in all its aspects.
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The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.
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The Journal of American History is the official academic journal of the Organization of American Historians.
The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.
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The Rape of Belgium is the usual historical term regarding the treatment of civilians during the 1914–18 German invasion and occupation of Belgium during World War I. The term initially had a propaganda use but recent historiography confirms its reality.
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Theobald Theodor Friedrich Alfred von Bethmann Hollweg (29 November 1856 – 1 January 1921) was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor of the German Empire from 1909 to 1917.
Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or TR, was an American statesman, author, explorer, soldier, naturalist, and reformer who served as the 26th President of the United States, from 1901 to 1909.
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Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη), also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
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The Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme is a war memorial to 72,195 missing British and South African men, who died in the Battles of the Somme of the First World War between 1915 and 1918, with no known grave.
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The Third Anglo-Afghan War (Pashto: د افغان-انګرېز درېمه جګړه), also referred to as the Third Afghan War, began on 6 May 1919 and ended with an armistice on 8 August 1919, and ended in an Afghan victory accodring to some authors.
The Third Battle of the Aisne (3e Bataille de L'Aisne) was a battle of the German Spring Offensive during World War I that focused on capturing the Chemin des Dames Ridge before the American Expeditionary Forces could arrive completely in France.
The Third Transjordan attack by Chaytor's Force, part of the British Empire's Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF), took place between 21 and 25 September 1918, against the Ottoman Empire's Fourth Army and other Yildirim Army Group units.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tveria, Tiveria; طبرية,; Greek: Τιβεριάς Tiberiás, Modern Greek: Τιβεριάδα Tiveriáda) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee (called "the Kinneret" in Hebrew), Lower Galilee, Israel.
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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
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Togoland was a German protectorate in West Africa from 1884 to 1914, encompassing what is now the nation of Togo and most of what is now the Volta Region of Ghana.
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A Tomb of the Unknown Soldier refers to a monument in dedication to the services of an unknown soldier and to the common memories of all soldiers killed in any war.
The Tondern raid, officially designated Operation F.7, was a British bombing raid mounted by the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force against the Imperial German Navy's airship base at Tønder, Denmark, then a part of Germany.
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The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье) or the South Caucasus is a geopolitical region located on the border of Eastern Europe and Southwest Asia.
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The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic (TDFR; Закавказская демократическая Федеративная Республика (ЗКДФР); Zakavkazskaya Demokraticheskaya Federativnaya Respublika (ZKDFR); FebruaryMay 1918), also known as the Transcaucasian Federation, was a short-lived South Caucasian state extending across what are now the modern-day countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia.
Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Polish: Siedmiogród, Latin: Transsilvania, Turkish: Erdel) is a historical region in the central part of Romania.
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The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest, Belarus), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty of Bucharest was a peace treaty between Romania on one side and Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany and the Ottoman Empire on the other, following the stalemate reached after campaign of 1916–17 and Romania's isolation after Russia's unilateral exit from World War I (see Treaty of Brest-Litovsk).
The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923.
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The Treaty of London was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912-1913.
London Pact (Patto di Londra), or more correctly, the Treaty of London, 1915, was a secret pact between the Triple Entente and Italy, signed in London on 26 April 1915 by the United Kingdom, France, Russia, and the Kingdom of Italy.
The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies of World War I on the one hand and by the Republic of German-Austria on the other.
The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) was one of a series of treaties that the nations that constituted the Central Powers were made to sign subsequent to their defeat that marked the end of World War I. It was signed on 10 August 1920, which marked the beginning of the partition of, and the ultimate annihilation of, the Ottoman Empire.
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The Treaty of Trianon was the peace agreement of 1920 to formally end World War I between most of the Allies of World War I and the Kingdom of Hungary, the latter one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.
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The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
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Trench railways represented military adaptation of early 20th century railway technology to the problem of keeping soldiers supplied during the static trench warfare phase of World War I. The large concentrations of soldiers and artillery at the front lines required delivery of enormous quantities of food, ammunition and fortification construction materials where transport facilities had been destroyed.
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Trench warfare is a form of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of trenches, in which troops are significantly protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.
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Trentino is an autonomous province of Italy in the country's far north.
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Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (Trentino-Alto Adige,; Trentino-Südtirol; Trentin-Südtirol) is an autonomous region in Northern Italy.
Trieste (Triestine Trièst; Slovene, Trst;Spezialortsrepertorium der österreichischen Länder. Bearbeiten auf Grund der Ergebnisse der Volkszälung vom 31. Dezember 1910, vol. 7: Österreichisch-Illyrisches Küstenland. 1918. Vienna: K. k. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, pp. 1, 3. Triest) is a city and seaport in northeastern Italy.
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Trifun "Trifko" Grabež (Трифко Грабеж; – 21 October 1916) was a Bosnian Serb member of the organization the Black Hand involved in the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria.
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The Triple Alliance was a military alliance among Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") was the alliance linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
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The Turkish National Movement (Türk Ulusal Hareketi) encompasses the political and military activities of the Turkish revolutionaries that resulted in the creation and shaping of the modern Republic of Turkey, as a consequence of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. In the aftermath, Turkish revolutionaries rebelled against the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire by the Allies under the terms of the Armistice of Mudros, which ended the Empire's participation in World War I; they also rebelled against the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920, similarly signed by the Ottoman government, and partitioned portions of Anatolia itself.
The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: İstiklâl Harbi, literally "Independence War" or Kurtuluş Savaşı literally "Liberation War" or Millî Mücadele literally "National Campaign"; May 19, 1919 – July 24, 1923) was fought between the Turkish nationalists and the proxies of the Allies, namely Greece on the Western front, Armenia on the Eastern, France on the Southern and with them, the United Kingdom and Italy in Constantinople (now Istanbul), after the country was occupied and partitioned following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in World War I. Although present, few British, French, Italian or Georgian troops were deployed or engaged in combat.
U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
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Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
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Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), lawful compulsion, or other extreme hardship to themselves or to members of their families.
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The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace in the Hall of Mirrors in France.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established on 1 January 1801 under the terms of the Acts of Union 1800, by which the nominally separate kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland were united.
The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.
The United States Army Command and General Staff College (CGSC or, obsolete, USACGSC) at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, and international military officers.
United States Battleship Division Nine was a division of four, later five, dreadnought battleships of the United States Navy's Atlantic Fleet that constituted the American contribution to the British Grand Fleet during World War I. Although the U.S. entered the war on 6 April 1917, hesitation among senior officers of the U.S. Navy as to the wisdom of dividing the American battle fleet prevented the immediate dispatch of any capital ships for service in the war zone.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.
On April 6, 1917, the United States Congress declared war upon the German Empire; on April 2, President Woodrow Wilson had asked a special joint session of Congress for this declaration.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
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The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916.
The University of Washington Press is an American academic publishing house.
Unrestricted submarine warfare is a type of naval warfare in which submarines sink vessels such as freighters and tankers without warning, as opposed to attacks per prize rules (also known as "cruiser rules").
Vasilije "Vaso" Čubrilović (14 January 1897 – 11 June 1990) was a Bosnian Serb politician and scholar.
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Verdun (medieval Wirten, official name before 1970 Verdun-sur-Meuse) is a small city in the Meuse department in Lorraine in north-eastern France.
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The Victorian era of British history (and that of the British Empire) was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death, on 22 January 1901.
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Vienna (Wien) is the capital and largest city of Austria, and one of the nine states of Austria.
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
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Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the East) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
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The Volga Germans (Wolgadeutsche or Russlanddeutsche, Поволжские немцы, Povolzhskie nemtsy) were ethnic Germans living along the River Volga in the region of southeastern European Russia around Saratov and to the south.
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Volhynia, Volynia, or Volyn (Волинь, Волы́нь, Volyn'; Wołyń, Voluinė or Volynė; Volyň, Volhinia, Wolhynien or Wolynien, Volin װאָלין) is a historic region in Central and Eastern Europe straddling Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus.
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Wall Street is a street running eight blocks, roughly northwest to southeast, from Broadway to South Street on the East River in the Financial District of lower Manhattan, New York City.
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In politics and military planning, a war effort refers to a coordinated mobilization of society's resources—both industrial and human—towards the support of a military force.
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A war memorial is a building, monument, statue or other edifice to celebrate a war or victory, or (predominating in modern times) to commemorate those who died or were injured in a war.
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Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was the 29th President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1921 until his death.
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Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
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The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) was the federal republic and semi-presidential representative democracy established in 1919 in Germany to replace the German Empire.
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Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France.
White flags have had different meanings throughout history and depending on the locale.
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The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армiя/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардiя/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) or the Whites (Белые and белогвардейцы, "White Guardsmen"), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks (большевики, "Majority") in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
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Wilfred Edward Salter Owen MC (18 March 1893 – 4 November 1918) was an English poet and soldier, one of the leading poets of the First World War.
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Wilhelm II or William II (Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albrecht von Preußen; Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; 27 January 18594 June 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918.
Wilhelmshaven is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
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William D. Rubinstein (born August 12, 1946) is a historian and author.
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Wireless communication is the transfer of information between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.
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Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American politician and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
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A world war is a war involving some of the world's most powerful and populous countries.
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The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was over 37 million: over 17 million deaths and 20 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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The XX Corps was an army corps of the British Army during World War I.
The XXI Corps was an Army Corps of the British Army during World War I. The Corps was formed in Egypt in June 1917 under the command of Lieutenant General Edward Bulfin.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized as Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located in the middle of the Eurasian continent, on the border of Europe and Asia.
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Yeomanry is a designation used by a number of units or sub-units of the British Army Reserve, descended from volunteer cavalry regiments.
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Young Bosnia (Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: Mlada Bosna/Млада Босна) was a Yugoslavist (Pan-Slavist) revolutionary movement active in the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina before World War I. The members were predominantly school students.
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Yugoslav Committee (Jugoslavenski odbor) was a political interest group formed by South Slavs from Austria-Hungary during World War I aimed at joining the existing south Slavic nations in an independent state.
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'Yugoslavia' (Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Jugoslavija, Југославија), once spelled and called "Jugoslavia", was a country in Southeast Europe during most of the 20th century.
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Yugoslavism refers to nationalism or patriotism centred upon the Yugoslavs - an identity referring to a united singular South Slav people and the South Slav populated territories of southeastern Europe.
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Yugoslavs (Serbian and Macedonian: Југословени; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslaveni; Slovene: Jugoslovani) is a designation that was originally designed to refer to a united South Slav people.
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Zbyněk Anthony Bohuslav Zeman (18 October 1928 – 22 June 2011) was a British historian of Czech origin.
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A Zeppelin was a type of rigid airship named after the German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin who pioneered rigid airship development at the beginning of the 20th century.
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The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note) was an internal diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January, 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the event of the United States entering World War I against Germany.
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1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
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The 1918 flu pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.
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This article is about the infantry regiment made famous for their nickname, the Harlem Hellfighters.
The 52nd (Lowland) Infantry Division was an infantry division of the British Army that was originally formed as the Lowland Division, in 1908 as part of the Territorial Force.
The 8th Army (8.) was an army level command of the German Army in World War I. It was formed on mobilization in August 1914 from the I Army Inspectorate.
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