278 relations: Abdomen, Abdominal x-ray, Absorbed dose, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Absorption edge, Acute radiation syndrome, Airport security, Aluminium, Amputation, Angiography, Angstrom, Anode, Ascites, Assassination, Assassination of William McKinley, Astronomy, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Attenuation coefficient, Attenuation length, Auger effect, Auger electron spectroscopy, Background radiation, Backscatter X-ray, Birmingham, Black hole, Bone, Border control, Bowel obstruction, Bremsstrahlung, Calcium, Cancer, Carcinogen, Cathode, Cathode ray, Cell (biology), Chandra X-ray Observatory, Characteristic X-ray, Charge-coupled device, Charles Glover Barkla, Chest radiograph, Clarence Madison Dally, Cobalt, Cold cathode, Collimated light, Compton scattering, Conservation of energy, Continuous spectrum, Contrast (vision), ..., Copper, Coronary circulation, Coulomb, Covalent bond, Crookes tube, Cross section (physics), Crystal, CT scan, Czech Technical University in Prague, Dartmouth College, Death ray, Dental caries, Dental radiography, Detective quantum efficiency, Diffraction, Digital data, Diode, DNA, Dosimeter, Effective dose (radiation), Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electric current, Electric power, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electron shell, Electronvolt, Elihu Thomson, Emission spectrum, Energy, England, Equivalent dose, Esophagus, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Experiment, Fernando Sanford, Fiber diffraction, Fine-art photography, Flat panel detector, Fluorescence, Fluoroscopy, Frequency, Gallium, Gallstone, Gamma ray, Gangrene, Gas-filled tube, German language, Germany, Gray (unit), Hair removal, Heinrich Hertz, Hermann von Helmholtz, Hertz, High-energy X-rays, Hot cathode, Human brain, Imaging science, Indium, Industrial computed tomography, Industrial radiography, Inelastic scattering, International Agency for Research on Cancer, International System of Units, Ionization, Ionization chamber, Ionizing radiation, Iron, Ivan Puluj, Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanov, Johann Wilhelm Hittorf, John Ambrose Fleming, John Hall-Edwards, Joule, K-alpha, Kidney stone, Kilogram, Klein–Nishina formula, Life (magazine), Linear no-threshold model, Linear polarization, Lung cancer, Malignancy, Max von Laue, Mayo Clinic, Medical imaging, Medical radiography, Medscape, Metonymy, Mica, Microscope, Mineral, Molybdenum, Momentum, Muscle, N ray, Nanometre, NASA, Nature (journal), Neutron radiation, Neutron star, Nikola Tesla, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear medicine, Nucleic acid double helix, NuSTAR, Oncology, Order of magnitude, Palliative care, Particle accelerator, Particle-induced X-ray emission, Pathology, Paul Peter Ewald, Penetration depth, Pentimento, Phase-contrast X-ray imaging, Philipp Lenard, Phosphorescence, Photoelectric effect, Photographic film, Photographic plate, Photon, Photostimulated luminescence, Physical Review, Physician, Pigment, Platinocyanide, Pneumonia, Presidency of George W. Bush, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, Proton, Pulmonary edema, Rad (unit), Radiation burn, Radiation protection, Radiation therapist, Radiation therapy, Radiation-induced cancer, Radioactive decay, Radiocontrast agent, Radiodensity, Radiographer, Radiography, Radiology, Rayleigh scattering, Reflection (physics), Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, Rhenium, Rhodopsin, Roentgen (unit), Roentgen equivalent man, Roentgen stereophotogrammetry, Rosalind Franklin, Scattering, Scheelite, Septic shock, Shoe-fitting fluoroscope, Sievert, Silver, Small-angle X-ray scattering, Soft tissue, Spectral line, Spectrometer, Spectrum, Stane Jagodič, Stanford University, Statcoulomb, Sternum, Strategic Defense Initiative, Surface science, Surgeon, Synchrotron, Synchrotron radiation, Talbot effect, Tesla coil, The San Francisco Examiner, Thomas Edison, Three-dimensional space (mathematics), Tissue (biology), Tomography, Transmittance, Triboelectric effect, Triboluminescence, Tungsten, Ukrainians, Ultraviolet, Underdrawing, United States, United States national missile defense, University of Strasbourg, University of Vienna, Vacuum, Vacuum tube, Vanderbilt University, Video camera, Vincent van Gogh, Volt, Voltage, Wavelength, Würzburg, Welding, White lead, Wiggler (synchrotron), Wilhelm Röntgen, William D. Coolidge, William Henry Bragg, William J. Morton, William Lawrence Bragg, William Lofland Dudley, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray astronomy, X-ray crystallography, X-ray filter, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray generator, X-ray image intensifier, X-ray laser, X-ray marker, X-ray microscope, X-ray nanoprobe, X-ray optics, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray tube, X-ray vision, X-ray welding. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
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An abdominal x-ray is an x-ray of the abdomen.
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Absorbed dose is a physical dose quantity D representing the mean energy imparted to matter per unit mass by ionizing radiation.
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In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
An absorption edge, absorption discontinuity or absorption limit is a sharp discontinuity in the absorption spectrum of a substance.
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Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation poisoning, radiation sickness or radiation toxicity, is a collection of health effects which present within 24 hours of exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation.
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Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting passengers, staff and aircraft which use the airports from accidental/malicious harm, crime and other threats.
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Aluminium (or aluminum; see) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
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Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
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Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers.
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The ångström or angstrom is a unit of length equal to (one ten-billionth of a metre) or.
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An anode is an electrode through which conventional current flows into a polarized electrical device.
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Ascites (from Greek askites, "baglike") is a gastroenterological term for an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
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Assassination is the murder of a prominent person, often but not always a political leader or ruler, usually for political reasons or payment.
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The 25th President of the United States, William McKinley, was shot and fatally wounded on September 6, 1901, inside the Temple of Music on the grounds of the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York.
Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
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The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.
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In chemistry and physics, the atomic number of a chemical element (also known as its proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element, and therefore identical to the charge number of the nucleus.
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Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
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In physics, the attenuation length or absorption length is the distance \lambda into a material when the probability has dropped to 1/e that a particle has not been absorbed.
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The Auger effect is a physical phenomenon in which the filling of an inner-shell vacancy of an atom is accompanied by the emission of an electron from the same atom.
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Hanford scientist uses an Auger electron spectrometer to determine the elemental composition of surfaces. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES; pronounced in French) is a common analytical technique used specifically in the study of surfaces and, more generally, in the area of materials science.
Background radiation is the ubiquitous ionizing radiation that people on the planet Earth are exposed to, including natural and artificial sources.
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Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology.
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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
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A black hole is a geometrically defined region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—including particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebral skeleton.
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Border controls are measures taken by a country to monitor or regulate its borders.
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Bowel obstruction or intestinal obstruction is a mechanical or functional obstruction of the intestines, preventing the normal transit of the products of digestion.
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Bremsstrahlung (from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation", i.e. "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation") is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
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A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer.
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A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
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Cathode rays (also called an electron beam or e-beam) are streams of electrons observed in vacuum tubes.
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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
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The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
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Characteristic X-rays are emitted when outer-shell electrons fill a vacancy in the inner shell of an atom, releasing X-rays in a pattern that is "characteristic" to each element.
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A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.
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Charles Glover Barkla FRS FRSE (7 June 1877 – 23 October 1944) was a British physicist, and the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1917 for his work in X-ray spectroscopy and related areas in the study of X-rays (Roentgen rays).
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In medicine, a chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
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Clarence Madison Dally (1865–1904) was an American glassblower, noted as an assistant to Thomas Edison in his work on X-rays and as an early victim of radiation dermatitis and its complications.
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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
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A cold cathode is a cathode that is not electrically heated by a filament.
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Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
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Compton scattering is the inelastic scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
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In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
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In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers.
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Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
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Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
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Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).
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The coulomb (unit symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
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A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
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A Crookes tube is an early experimental electrical discharge tube, with partial vacuum, invented by English physicist William Crookes and others around 1869-1875, in which cathode rays, streams of electrons, were discovered.
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The cross section is an effective area that quantifies the intrinsic likelihood of a scattering event when an incident beam strikes a target object, made of discrete particles.
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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
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A CT scan, also called X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) or computerized axial tomography scan (CAT scan), makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual 'slices') of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
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Czech Technical University in Prague (České vysoké učení technické v Praze – ČVUT in Czech, is one of the largest universities in the Czech Republic, and is one of the oldest institutes of technology in Central Europe. It is also the oldest non-military technical university in Europe. In the academic year 2012/2013 8 faculties and 1 university institute of Czech Technical University offered 105 degree programs and 419 fields of study, which enrolled more than 24,500 students.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university located in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
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The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Harry Grindell Matthews, Edwin R. Scott, and Graichen, as well as others.
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Dental caries (caries is Latin for "rottenness"), also known as tooth decay, cavities, or caries, is a breakdown of teeth due to activities of bacteria.
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Dental Radiographs are commonly called x-rays.
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The detective quantum efficiency (often abbreviated as DQE) is a measure of the combined effects of the signal (related to image contrast) and noise performance of an imaging system, generally expressed as a function of spatial frequency.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena which occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
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Digital data, in information theory and information systems, are discrete, discontinuous representations of information or works, as contrasted with continuous, or analog signals which behave in a continuous manner, or represent information using a continuous function.
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In electronics, a diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance to the flow of current in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
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A radiation dosimeter is a device that measures exposure to ionizing radiation.
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The radiation dose quantity effective dose is the tissue-weighted sum of the equivalent doses in all specified tissues and organs of the body and represents the stochastic health risk, which is the probability of cancer induction and genetic effects of ionizing radiation delivered to those body parts.
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Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.
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Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
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An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
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Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.
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Electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) is the radiant energy released by certain electromagnetic processes.
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The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.
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In chemistry and atomic physics, an electron shell, or a principal energy level, may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom's nucleus.
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In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV; also written electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately 160 zeptojoules (symbol zJ) or joules (symbol J).
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Elihu Thomson (March 29, 1853 – March 13, 1937) was an English engineer and inventor who was instrumental in the founding of major electrical companies in the United States, the United Kingdom and France.
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The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
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In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.
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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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Equivalent dose is a dose quantity used in radiological protection to represent the stochastic health effects (probability of cancer induction and genetic damage) of low levels of ionizing radiation on the human body.
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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the foodpipe or gullet, is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a fibromuscular tube through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.
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The European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) is a joint research facility situated in Grenoble, France, and supported by 21 countries (13 member countries: France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, The Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Russia and 8 associate countries: Austria, Portugal, Israel, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, South Africa).
An experiment is an orderly procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, refuting, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis.
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Fernando Sanford (1854–1948) was an American physicist and university professor.
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Fiber diffraction is a subarea of scattering, an area in which molecular structure is determined from scattering data (usually of X-rays, electrons or neutrons).
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Fine art photography is photography created in accordance with the vision of the artist as photographer.
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Flat panel detectors are a class of solid-state x-ray digital radiography devices similar in principle to the image sensors used in digital photography and video.
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Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
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Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
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Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time.
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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
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A gallstone, also called a cholelith, is a calculus (stone) formed within the gallbladder as a concretion of bile components.
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Gamma radiation, also known as gamma rays, and denoted by the Greek letter γ, refers to electromagnetic radiation of an extremely high frequency and therefore consists of high-energy photons.
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Gangrene (or gangrenous necrosis) is a type of necrosis caused by a critically insufficient blood supply.
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A gas-filled tube, also known as a discharge tube, is an arrangement of electrodes in a gas within an insulating, temperature-resistant envelope.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.
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The gray (symbol: Gy) is a derived unit of ionizing radiation dose in the International System of Units (SI).
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Hair removal, also known as epilation or depilation, is the deliberate removal of body hair.
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Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.
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Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (August 31, 1821 – September 8, 1894) was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science.
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The hertz (symbol Hz) is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
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High-energy X-rays or HEX-rays are very hard X-rays, with typical energies of 80–1000 keV (1 MeV), about one order of magnitude higher than conventional X-rays (and well into gamma-ray energies over 120 keV).
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In vacuum tubes, a hot cathode or thermionic cathode is a cathode electrode which is heated to make it emit electrons due to thermionic emission.
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The human brain is the main organ of the human nervous system.
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Imaging science is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the generation, collection, duplication, analysis, modification, and visualization of images,Joseph P. Hornak, Encyclopedia of Imaging Science and Technology (John Wiley & Sons, 2002) ISBN 9780471332763 including imaging things that the human eye cannot detect.
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Indium is a chemical element with symbol In and atomic number 49.
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Industrial computed tomography (CT) scanning is any computer-aided tomographic process, usually x-ray computed tomography, that (like its medical imaging counterparts) uses irradiation (usually with x-rays) to produce three-dimensional representations of the scanned object both externally and internally.
Industrial radiography is the use of ionizing radiation to view objects in a way that cannot be seen otherwise.
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In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
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The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre international de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The International System of Units (Système International d'Unités, SI) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Ionization is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
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The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and measurement of certain types of ionizing radiation; X-rays, gamma rays and beta particles.
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Ionizing (or ionising in British English) radiation is radiation that carries enough energy to free electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
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Ivan Pavlovich Puluj (Іва́н Па́влович Пулю́й; Johann Puluj; 2 February 1845 – 31 January 1918) was a Austrian-born Ukrainian physicist and inventor, who has been championed as an early developer of the use of X-rays for medical imaging.
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Ivan Romanovich Tarkhanov (Иван Романович Тарханов) or Ivane Tarkhnishvili (ივანე თარხან-მოურავი; 1846–1908) was a Russian physiologist and science populariser from the Georgian Tarkhan-Mouravi noble family.
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Johann Wilhelm Hittorf (27 March 1824 – 28 November 1914) was a German physicist who was born in Bonn and died in Münster, Germany.
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Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS (29 November 1849 – 18 April 1945) was a British electrical engineer and physicist.
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John Francis Hall-Edwards (19 December 1858 – 15 August 1926) was a pioneer in the medical use of X-rays in the United Kingdom.
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The joule, symbol J, is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
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In X-ray spectroscopy, K-alpha emission lines result when an electron transitions to the innermost "K" shell (principal quantum number 1) from a 2p orbital of the second or "L" shell (with principal quantum number 2).
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A kidney stone, also known as a renal calculus or nephrolith, is a solid piece of material which is formed in the kidneys from minerals in urine.
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The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg), is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI) (the Metric system) and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK).
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The Klein–Nishina formula gives the differential cross section of photons scattered from a single free electron in lowest order of quantum electrodynamics.
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Life magazine, stylized LIFE, was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1972, published initially as a humor and general interest magazine.
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The linear no-threshold model (LNT) is a model used in radiation protection to quantify radiation exposition and set regulatory limits.
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In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.
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Lung cancer, also known as carcinoma of the lung or pulmonary carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
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Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
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Max Theodor Felix von Laue (9 October 1879 – 24 April 1960) was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals.
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Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit medical practice and medical research group based in Rochester, Minnesota.
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Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention.
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Radiography is the use of ionizing electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays to view objects.
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Medscape is a web resource for physicians and health professionals.
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Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is called not by its own name but rather by the name of something associated in meaning with that thing or concept.
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The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.
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A mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and inorganic, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure.
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Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
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In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.
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N rays (or N-rays) were a hypothesized form of radiation, described by French physicist Prosper-René Blondlot in 1903, and initially confirmed by others, but subsequently found to be illusory.
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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (m).
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
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Nature is a British interdisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
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Neutron radiation is a kind of ionizing radiation which consists of free neutrons.
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A neutron star is a type of compact star that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star after a supernova.
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Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.
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The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
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Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
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In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.
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NuSTAR (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array) is a space-based X-ray telescope that uses a conical approximation to a Wolter telescope to focus high energy X-rays from astrophysical sources, especially for nuclear spectroscopy, and operates in the range of 3 to 79 keV.
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Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors.
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Orders of magnitude are written in powers of 10.
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Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialised medical care for people with serious illnesses.
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A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.
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Particle-induced X-ray emission or proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a technique used in the determining of the elemental make-up of a material or sample.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering", and -logia (-λογία), "an account of") is a significant component of the causal study of disease and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis.
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Paul Peter Ewald (surname pronounced "Ay-vald"), FRS (January 23, 1888 in Berlin, Germany – August 22, 1985 in Ithaca, New York) was a German crystallographer and physicist, a pioneer of X-ray diffraction methods.
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Penetration depth is a measure of how deep light or any electromagnetic radiation can penetrate into a material.
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A pentimento (plural pentimenti) is an alteration in a painting, evidenced by traces of previous work, showing that the artist has changed his or her mind as to the composition during the process of painting.
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Phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCI) or phase-sensitive X-ray imaging is a general term for different technical methods that use information concerning changes in the phase of an X-ray beam that passes through an object in order to create its images.
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard (7 June 1862 – 20 May 1947) was a German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of many of their properties.
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Phosphorescence is a specific type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
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The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them.
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Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
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Photographic plates preceded photographic film as a capture medium in photography.
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Photostimulated luminescence (PSL) is the release of stored energy within a phosphor by stimulation with visible light, to produce a luminescent signal.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
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A physician is a professional who practices medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
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A platinocyanide is a salt containing the anion Pt(CN)42−.
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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.
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The presidency of George W. Bush began on January 20, 2001, when he was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States of America.
The United States presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan administration, was a Republican administration headed by Ronald Reagan from January 20, 1981, to January 20, 1989.
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Pulmonary edema (American English), or oedema (British English; both words from the Greek οἴδημα), is fluid accumulation in the air spaces and parenchyma of the lungs.
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The rad is a deprecated unit of absorbed radiation dose, defined as 1 rad.
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A radiation burn is damage to the skin or other biological tissue caused by exposure to radiation.
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Radiation protection, sometimes known as radiological protection, is the science and practice of protecting people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation.
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The Radiation Therapist, Therapeutic Radiographer or Radiotherapist is an allied health professional who works in the field of radiation oncology.
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Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells.
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Up to 10% of invasive cancers are related to radiation exposure, including both ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation.
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Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.
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Radiocontrast agents are a type of medical contrast medium used to improve the visibility of internal bodily structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT), radiography, and fluoroscopy.
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Radiodensity (or radiopacity) refers to the relative inability of electromagnetic radiation, particularly X-rays, to pass through a particular material.
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Radiographers, also known as Radiologic Technologists, Diagnostic Radiographers, Medical Radiation Technologists are Healthcare Professionals who specialise in the imaging of human anatomy for the diagnosis and treatment of pathology.
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Radiography is an imaging technique that uses electromagnetic radiation other than visible light, especially X-rays, to view the internal structure of a non-uniformly composed and opaque object (i.e. a non-transparent object of varying density and composition) such as the human body.
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Radiology is a medical specialty that uses imaging to diagnose and treat diseases seen within the body.
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Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
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Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
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Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) is an x-ray spectroscopy technique used to investigate the electronic structure of molecules and materials.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
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Rhodopsin, also known as visual purple, from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhódon, “rose”), due to its pinkish color, and ὄψις (ópsis, “sight”), is a light-sensitive receptor protein.
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The roentgen (R, also röntgen) is a legacy unit of measurement for the exposure of X-rays and gamma rays up to several MeV.
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The roentgen equivalent in man (or mammalThe Effects of Nuclear Weapons, Revised ed., US DOD 1962) (abbreviated rem; symbol rem, or often but incorrectly R) is an older, CGS, unit of equivalent dose, effective dose, and committed dose.
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Roentgen stereophotogrammetry (RSA) is a highly accurate technique for the assessment of three-dimensional migration and micromotion of a joint replacement prosthesis relative to the bone it is attached to.
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.
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Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
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Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.
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Septic shock is a medical condition as a result of severe infection and sepsis, though the microbe may be systemic or localized to a particular site.
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Shoe-fitting fluoroscopes, also sold under the names X-ray Shoe Fitter, Pedoscope and Foot-o-scope, were X-ray fluoroscope machines installed in shoe stores from the 1920s until about the 1970s in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany and Switzerland.
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The sievert (symbol: Sv)Not be confused with the sverdrup, a non-SI unit of volume transport which carries the same symbol.
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Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (άργυρος árguros, argentum, both from the Indo-European root *h₂erǵ- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47.
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Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is a small-angle scattering (SAS) technique where the elastic scattering of X-rays (wavelength 0.1... 0.2 nm) by a sample which has inhomogeneities in the nm-range, is recorded at very low angles (typically 0.1 - 10°).
In anatomy, soft tissues are the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being bone.
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A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
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In physics, a spectrometer is an apparatus to measure a spectrum.
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A spectrum (plural spectra or spectrums) is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum.
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Stane Jagodič (born 15 June 1943) is a Slovenian free-lance painter, photographer, caricaturist, aphorist, and author.
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Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University) is a private research university in Stanford, California, and one of the world's most prestigious institutions, with the top position in numerous rankings and measures in the United States.
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The statcoulomb (statC) or franklin (Fr) or electrostatic unit of charge (esu) is the physical unit for electrical charge used in the esu-cgs ''(centimetre-gram-second system of units)'' and Gaussian units.
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The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone shaped like a necktie located in the center of the chest.
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The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (Intercontinental ballistic missiles and Submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solid–liquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquid–gas interfaces.
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In medicine, a surgeon is a specialist in surgery.
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A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the guiding magnetic field (bending the particles into a closed path) is time-dependent, being synchronized to a particle beam of increasing kinetic energy (see image).
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The electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially (\mathbf\perp \mathbf) is called synchrotron radiation. It is produced, for example, in synchrotrons using bending magnets, undulators and/or wigglers.
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The Talbot effect is a near-field diffraction effect first observed in 1836 by Henry Fox Talbot.
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A Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit invented by Nikola Tesla around 1891.
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The San Francisco Examiner is a longtime daily newspaper distributed in and around San Francisco, California.
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Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman.
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Three-dimensional space (also: tri-dimensional space) is a geometric three-parameter model of the physical universe (without considering time) in which all known matter exists.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organ.
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Tomography refers to imaging by sections or sectioning, through the use of any kind of penetrating wave.
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Transmittance of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in transmitting radiant energy.
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The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictive contact with a different material.
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Triboluminescence is an optical phenomenon in which light is generated through the breaking of chemical bonds in a material when it is pulled apart, ripped, scratched, crushed, or rubbed (see tribology).
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Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74.
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Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.
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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
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Underdrawing is the drawing done on a painting ground before paint is applied, for example, an imprimatura or an underpainting.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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National missile defense (NMD) is a generic term for a type of missile defense intended to shield an entire country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) or other ballistic missiles.
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the second largest university in France (after Aix-Marseille University), with about 46,000 students and over 4,000 researchers.
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The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
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Vacuum is space void of matter.
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In electronics, vacuum tube, electron tube, tube (in North America), or valve (in Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
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Vanderbilt University (also known informally as Vandy) is a private research university located in Nashville, Tennessee, founded in 1873.
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A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition (as opposed to a movie camera, which records images on film), initially developed for the television industry but now common in other applications as well.
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Vincent Willem van Gogh (The pronunciation of "Van Gogh" varies in both English and Dutch. Especially in British English it is or sometimes. U.S. dictionaries list, with a silent gh, as the most common pronunciation. In the dialect of Holland, it is, with a voiceless V. He grew up in Brabant (although his parents were not born there), and used Brabant dialect in his writing; it is therefore likely that he himself pronounced his name with a Brabant accent:, with a voiced V and palatalized G and gh. In France, where much of his work was produced, it is 30 March 185329 July 1890) was a Post-Impressionist painter.
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The volt (symbol) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.
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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (denoted or) is the difference in electric potential energy between two points per unit electric charge.
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In physics, the wavelength of a sinusoidal wave is the spatial period of the wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats, and the inverse of the spatial frequency.
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Würzburg (Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, Northern Bavaria, Germany.
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Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
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White lead is the basic lead carbonate (2PbCO3·Pb(OH)2).
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A wiggler is an insertion device in a synchrotron.
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Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
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William David Coolidge (October 23, 1873 – February 3, 1975) was an American physicist, who made major contributions to X-ray machines.
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Sir William Henry Bragg OM, KBE, PRS (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician and active sportsman who uniquelyThis is still a unique accomplishment, because no other parent-child combination has yet shared a Nobel Prize (in any field).
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William James Morton (July 3, 1845 in Boston – March 26, 1920) was a United States physician, an authority in electrotherapeutics.
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Sir William Lawrence Bragg (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of the Bragg law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.
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William Lofland Dudley (April 16, 1859 – September 8, 1914) was an American chemistry professor at the University of Cincinnati and Vanderbilt University.
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X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is a widely used technique for determining the local geometric and/or electronic structure of matter.
X-ray astronomy is an observational branch of astronomy which deals with the study of X-ray observation and detection from astronomical objects.
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X-ray crystallography is a tool used for identifying the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
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An X-ray filter is a device to block or filter out some or all wavelengths(low energy) in the X-ray spectrum.
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X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
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An X-ray generator is a device used to generate X-rays.
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An x-ray image intensifier (XRII) is an image intensifier that converts x-rays into visible light at higher intensity than mere fluorescent screens do.
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An X-ray laser (or Xaser) is a device that uses stimulated emission to generate or amplify electromagnetic radiation in the near X-ray or extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum, that is, usually on the order of several of tens of nanometers (nm) wavelength.
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X-ray Markers, also known as: anatomical side markers, Pb markers, lead markers, x-ray lead markers, or radiographic film identification markers, are used to mark x-ray films, both in hospitals and in industrial workplaces (such as on aeroplane parts and motors).
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An X-ray microscope uses electromagnetic radiation in the soft X-ray band to produce images of very small objects.
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The hard X-ray nanoprobe at the Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM), Argonne National Lab advanced the state of the art by providing a hard X-ray microscopy beamline with the highest spatial resolution in the world.
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X-ray optics is the branch of optics that manipulates X-rays instead of visible light.
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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a surface-sensitive quantitative spectroscopic technique that measures the elemental composition at the parts per thousand range, empirical formula, chemical state and electronic state of the elements that exist within a material.
X-ray reflectivity sometimes known as X-ray specular reflectivity, X-ray reflectometry, or XRR, is a surface-sensitive analytical technique used in chemistry, physics, and materials science to characterize surfaces, thin films and multilayers.
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X-ray spectroscopy is a gathering name for several spectroscopic techniques for characterization of materials by using x-ray excitation.
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An X-ray tube is a vacuum tube that produces X-rays.
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In science fiction stories or Superhero comics, X-ray vision is the ability to see through physical objects at the discretion of the holder of this superpower.
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X-ray Welding is an experimental welding process that uses a high powered X-ray source to provide thermal energy required to weld materials.
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