102 relations: Aeron (kingdom), Alliteration, Aneirin, Angles, Anglo-Saxons, Áedán mac Gabráin, Æthelfrith, Bard, Battle of Catraeth, Battle of Degsastan, Bernicia, Book of Aneirin, Breton language, Brittany, Cadwallon ap Cadfan, Catterick, North Yorkshire, Celtic Britons, Clackmannanshire, Clydno Eiddin, Common Brittonic, Cornish language, Cumbria, Cumbric language, Cunedda, Cynon ap Clydno, Dafydd Benfras, David Jones (artist-poet), Dál Riata, Deira, Domnall Brecc, Dumbarton, Eanflæd, Edinburgh, Elegy, Elmet, Epic poetry, Eugein I of Alt Clut, Firth of Forth, Gaels, Galloway, Gododdin, Gweith Gwen Ystrat, Hen Ogledd, Historia Brittonum, History of the Welsh language, Ida of Bernicia, Ifor Williams, In Parenthesis, Industrial music, John James (writer), ..., John Williams (Ab Ithel), Kenneth H. Jackson, King Arthur, Kingdom of Gwynedd, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Strathclyde, Lancashire, Latin, Leeds, Llywarch Hen, Llywelyn the Great, Lothian, Manaw Gododdin, Mead, Menai Strait, Middle Welsh, Mynyddog Mwynfawr, National Library of Wales, Nennius, North Yorkshire, Northumberland, Old Welsh, Oliver Padel, Origin myth, Oswiu, Owain Cyfeiliog, Owen Jones (antiquary), Panegyric, Picts, Rheged, Rhyme, Richard Caddel, Richard J. Denning, River Ayr, River Wear, Roman Britain, Rosemary Sutcliff, Scottish Borders, South Glamorgan County Council, Stirling, Strathclyde, Syncope (phonology), Talhaearn Tad Awen, Taliesin, Test Dept, The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales, Thomas Stephens (historian), Urien, Votadini, Wales, Welsh language, William Forbes Skene. Expand index (52 more) » « Shrink index
Aeron was a kingdom of the Brythonic-speaking Hen Ogledd (Old North), presumed to have been located in the region of the River Ayr in what is now southwestern Scotland.
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Alliteration is a stylistic literary device identified by the repeated sound of the first consonant in a series of multiple words, or the repetition of the same sounds or of the same kinds of sounds at the beginning of words or in stressed syllables of a phrase.
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Aneirin or Neirin was an early Medieval Brythonic poet.
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The Angles (Anglii) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period.
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The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
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Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced in Old Irish) was a king of Dál Riata from circa 574 until circa 609.
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Æthelfrith (died c. 616) was King of Bernicia from c. 593 until his death.
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In medieval Gaelic and British culture, a bard was a professional poet/story teller, employed by a patron, such as a monarch or nobleman, to commemorate one or more of the patron's ancestors and to praise the patron's own activities.
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The Battle of Catraeth was fought around AD 600 between a force raised by the Gododdin, a Brythonic people of the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain, and the Angles of Bernicia and Deira.
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The Battle of Degsastan was fought around 603 between king Æthelfrith of Bernicia and the Gaels under Áedán mac Gabráin, king of Dál Riada.
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Bernicia (Old English: Bernice, Beornice; Latin: Bernicia) was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom established by Anglian settlers of the 6th century in what is now southeastern Scotland and North East England.
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The Book of Aneirin (Llyfr Aneirin) is a late 13th century Welsh manuscript containing Old and Middle Welsh poetry attributed to the late 6th century Northern Brythonic poet, Aneirin.
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Breton (Brezhoneg) is a Celtic language spoken in Brittany (Breton: Breizh; Bretagne), France.
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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the north-west of France.
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Cadwallon ap Cadfan (died 634A difference in the interpretation of Bede's dates has led to the question of whether Cadwallon was killed in 634 or the year earlier, 633. Cadwallon died in the year after the Battle of Hatfield Chase, which Bede reports as occurring in October 633; but if Bede's years are believed to have actually started in September, as some historians have argued, then Hatfield Chase would have occurred in 632, and therefore Cadwallon would have died in 633. Other historians have argued against this view of Bede's chronology, however, favoring the dates as he gives them.) was the King of Gwynedd from around 625 until his death in battle.
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Catterick is a village, civil parish and electoral ward in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England.
The Britons were an ancient Celtic people who lived on Great Britain from the Iron Age through the Roman and Sub-Roman periods.
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Clackmannanshire is a historic county and council area in Scotland, bordering the council areas of Stirling, Fife and Perth & Kinross.
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Clydno Eiddin was a ruler in the Hen Ogledd, the Brythonic-speaking area in what is now Northern England and southern Scotland during the Early Middle Ages.
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Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
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Cornish (Kernowek or Kernewek) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language historically spoken by the Cornish people.
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Cumbria (locally) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England.
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Cumbric was a variety of the Common Brittonic language spoken during the Early Middle Ages in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" in what is now Northern England and southern Lowland Scotland.
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Cunedda ap Edern or Cunedda Wledig (5th century) was an important early Welsh leader, and the progenitor of the royal dynasty of Gwynedd.
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Cynon ap Clydno or in some translations KynonIn her translation of The Mabinogion, Guest uses the spelling Kynon, but in the notes to her translation she acknowledges the character as Cynon ap Clydno or Cynan was an Arthurian hero from Welsh mythology.
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Dafydd Benfras (fl. 1230-1260) was a Welsh language court poet regarded by Saunders Lewis and others as one of the greatest of the 'Poets of the Princes' (Beirdd y Tywysogion).
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David Jones CH (1 November 1895 – 28 October 1974) was both a painter and one of the first-generation British modernist poets.
Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ulster in Ireland, across the North Channel.
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Deira (Old English: Derenrice or Dere) was a kingdom (559-664 AD) in Northern England which probably emerged when Anglian warriors conquered the Derwent Valley in the third quarter of the fifth century.
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Domnall Brecc (Welsh: Dyfnwal Frych; English: Donald the Freckled) (d. 642 in Strathcarron) was king of Dál Riata, in modern Scotland, from about 629 until 642.
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Dumbarton is a town and burgh which is the administrative centre of the council area of West Dunbartonshire, and formerly of the historic county of Dunbartonshire, in the West-Central Lowlands of Scotland.
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Eanflæd (19 April 626 – after 685, also known as Enfleda) was a Kentish princess, queen of Northumbria and later, the abbess of an influential Christian monastery in Whitby, England.
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Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann) is the capital city of Scotland, located in Lothian on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth.
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In English literature, an elegy is a mournful, melancholic or plaintive poem, especially a funeral song or a lament for the dead.
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Elmet was an independent Brittonic kingdom covering a region of what later became the West Riding of Yorkshire in the Early Middle Ages, between about the 5th century and early 7th century.
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An epic (from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός (epikos), from ἔπος (epos) "word, story, poem") is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.
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Eugein I was a ruler of Alt Clut, the Brittonic kingdom later known as Strathclyde, sometime in the mid-7th century.
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The Firth of Forth (Scottish Gaelic: Linne Foirthe) is the estuary or firth of Scotland's River Forth, where it flows into the North Sea, between Fife to the north and Lothian to the south.
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The Gaels (Na Gaeil; Na Gàidheil), also known as Goidels, are an ethnolinguistic group indigenous to northwestern Europe.
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Galloway (Gaelic: Gall-ghàidheil; Latin: Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the counties of Wigtown and Kirkcubright.
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The Gododdin were a Brittonic people of north-eastern Britannia, the area known as the Hen Ogledd or Old North (modern south-east Scotland and north-east England), in the sub-Roman period.
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Gweith Gwen Ystrat (in English: The Battle of Gwen Ystrad, is a late Old Welsh or Middle Welsh heroic poem found uniquely in the Book of Taliesin, where it forms part of the Canu Taliesin, a series of poems attributed to the 6th-century court poet of Rheged, Taliesin. Put in the mouth of a first-person eyewitness, the poem glorifies a victory by Urien, prince of Rheged, in which he led his warband in defence against a host of invaders at a site called Llech Gwen in Gwen Ystrad (Gwen valley). The heavy, prolonged fighting is said to have taken place since dawn at the entrance to a ford. Sir Ifor Williams suggests that the personal name Gwên may lie behind the forms Llech Gwen and possibly Gwen Ystrad, but the site cannot be identified. Urien's champions are described as the "men of Catraeth" (line 1), a place often equated with Catterick (North Yorkshire), and the enemy forces as the "men of Britain" (gwyr Prydein, line 6), who have come in large numbers to attack the land. Sir John Morris-Jones and John T. Koch prefer to emend Prydein to Prydyn "land of the Picts". Ifor Williams offers some support for their identification as Picts, pointing out that the adversaries are envisaged as horsemen, to judge by the allusion to rawn eu kaffon "manes of their horses" (line 22). This description would fit the Picts but rules out the Saxons, who fought on foot. However, the emendation is not universally accepted. In the commentary to his edition of the poem Y Gododdin, Koch argues that the Gwen Ystrad poem offers a vital clue for an understanding of the 6th-century Battle of Catraeth portrayed in Y Gododdin, in which the Gododdin are said to have suffered a catastrophic defeat. Koch breaks with the long-held view that the disaster at Catraeth was a battle against the Angles of Deira and Bernicia and points to the participation of warriors from Rheged. He equates the two battles of the poems, suggesting that they both refer to a conflict between the dynasty of Urien, i.e. the Coeling or descendants of Coel Hen, and the Gododdin, who in Gweith Gwen Ystrat, as in Y Gododdin, are shown assisted by the Pictish troops (see above) but are not otherwise named. The Gwen Ystrad poem would then present a victor's view of the same event. However, Koch's interpretation of the poem has been challenged on a number of counts. He relies on an early date for Gweith Gwen Ystrat, classifying its language as what he calls 'Archaic Neo-Brittonic', a form of Old Welsh spoken in the 6th century, which he regards as the language in which Y Gododdin was originally composed. However, on re-editing the poem, Graham Isaac argues against Koch's methods and conclusions and suggests instead that Gweith Gwen Ystrat may have been composed in the 11th century or later. Moreover, the Gododdin are not mentioned in the poem and the presumed presence of Picts hinges on an unnecessary emendation for a word which makes sense on its own right. Responding to Koch's perception of the 6th-century heroic age as a possible but distant milieu for the production of literature, Isaac says that a "'heroic age' cannot produce literature, because a 'heroic age' is itself produced through literature".
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Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North) is a Welsh term used by scholars to refer to those parts of what is now northern England and southern Scotland in the years between 500 and the Viking invasions of c. 800, with particular interest in the Brittonic-speaking peoples who lived there.
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The History of the Britons (Historia Brittonum) is a purported history of the indigenous British (Brittonic) people that was written around 828 and survives in numerous recensions that date from after the 11th century.
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The history of the Welsh language spans over 1400 years, encompassing the stages of the language known as Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, and Modern Welsh.
Ida (died c. 559) is the first known king of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which he ruled from around 547 until his death in 559.
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Sir Ifor Williams (16 April 1881 - 4 November 1965) was a Welsh scholar who laid the foundations for the academic study of Old Welsh, particularly early Welsh poetry.
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In Parenthesis is an epic poem of World War I by David Jones first published in England in 1937.
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Industrial music is a genre of experimental music that draws on transgressive and provocative themes.
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David John James (30 November 1923 – 2 October 1993) was a Welsh author of historical novels.
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John Williams (bardic name: Ab Ithel) (7 April 1811–27 August 1862), was an antiquary and Anglican priest.
Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson (1 November 1909 – 20 February 1991) was an English linguist and a translator who specialised in the Celtic languages.
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King Arthur is a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th to early 6th century A.D. The details of Arthur's story are mainly composed of folklore and literary invention, and his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians.
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The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia or Norwallia; Middle Welsh: Guynet) was one of several successor states to Rome which emerged in 5th-century Britain during the Coming of the Saxons.
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The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþhymbra rīce, "kingdom of the Northumbrians") was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland, which subsequently became an earldom in a unified English kingdom.
Strathclyde (lit. "Strath of the River Clyde"), originally Ystrad Clud or Alclud, was one of the early medieval kingdoms of the Britons in the Hen Ogledd, the Brittonic-speaking parts of what is now southern Scotland and northern England.
Lancashire (archaically the County Palatine of Lancaster; abbreviated Lancs.) is a county in north west England.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England.
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Llywarch Hen (meaning 'Llywarch the Old') was a 6th-century prince and poet of the Brythonic kingdom of Rheged, a ruling family in the Hen Ogledd or "Old North" of Britain (modern southern Scotland and northern England).
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Llywelyn the Great (Llywelyn Fawr), full name Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, (c. 117211 April 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd in north Wales and eventually de facto ruler over most of Wales.
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Lothian (Lodainn) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills.
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Manaw Gododdin was the narrow coastal region on the south side of the Firth of Forth, part of the Brythonic-speaking Kingdom of Gododdin in the post-Roman Era.
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Mead (archaic and dialectal "medd"; from Old English "meodu") is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.
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The Menai Strait (Afon Menai, the "River Menai") is a narrow stretch of shallow tidal water about long, which separates the island of Anglesey from the mainland of Wales.
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Middle Welsh (Cymraeg Canol) is the label attached to the Welsh language of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period.
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Mynyddog Mwynfawr (variant orthographies include: Old Welsh Mynydawc Mwynvawr; Middle Welsh; Mynyddawg Mwynfawr) was, according to Welsh tradition founded on the early Welsh language poem Y Gododdin (attributed to Aneirin) a Brythonic ruler of the kingdom of Gododdin in the Hen Ogledd (southern Scotland).
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The National Library of Wales (Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru), Aberystwyth, is the national legal deposit library of Wales and is one of the Welsh Government sponsored bodies.
Nennius (also known as Nemnius or Nemnivus) was a Welsh monk of the 9th century.
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North Yorkshire is a county in England.
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Northumberland (RP pronunciation) is a county in North East England.
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Old Welsh (Hen Gymraeg) is the label attached to the Welsh language from about 800 AD until the early 12th century when it developed into Middle Welsh.
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Oliver James Padel (born 31 October 1948 in St Pancras, London, England) is an English academic who is an authority on the origin and meaning of place-names, currently Honorary Research Fellow in the Department of Anglo-Saxon, Norse, and Celtic in the University of Cambridge and Visiting Professor of Celtic at the University of the West of England.
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An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
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Oswiu, also known as Oswy or Oswig (Ōswīg) (c. 612 – 15 February 670), was King of Bernicia from 642 until his death.
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Owain ap Gruffydd (c. 1130–1197) was a prince of the southern part of Powys and a poet.
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Owen Jones (3 September 1741 – 26 September 1814), known by his bardic name of Owain Myfyr, was a Welsh antiquary.
A panegyric is a formal public speech, or (in later use) written verse, delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and discriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical.
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The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
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Rheged is described in poetic sources as one of the kingdoms of the Hen Ogledd ("Old North"), the Brittonic-speaking region of what is now Northern England and southern Scotland, in the Early Middle Ages.
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A rhyme is a repetition of similar sounds (or the same sound) in two or more words, most often in the final syllables of lines in poems and songs.
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Richard Caddel (13 July 1949 – 1 April 2003) was a poet, publisher and editor who was a key figure in the British Poetry Revival.
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Richard John Denning (born 11 August 1967) is an English author of historical novels and fantasy novels.
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The River Ayr (pronounced like air, Uisge Àir in Gaelic) is a river in Ayrshire, Scotland.
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The River Wear (pronounced) in North East England rises in the Pennines and flows eastwards, mostly through County Durham to the North Sea in the City of Sunderland.
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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.
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Rosemary Sutcliff CBE (14 December 1920 – 23 July 1992) was an English novelist best known for children's books, especially historical fiction and retellings of myths and legends.
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The Scottish Borders (The Mairches) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
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South Glamorgan County Council (Welsh: Cyngor Sir De Morgannwg) was the local government authority that administered the county of South Glamorgan, Wales from 1974 till 1996.
Stirling (Stirlin; Sruighlea) is a city in central Scotland.
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Strathclyde (Srath Chluaidh in Gaelic, meaning "valley of the River Clyde") was one of nine former local government regions of Scotland created by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and abolished in 1996 by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.
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In phonology, syncope (Greek: syn- + koptein "to strike, cut off") is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
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Talhaearn Tad Awen (fl mid-6th century), was, according to medieval Welsh sources, a celebrated British poet of the sub-Roman period.
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Taliesin (6th century; was an early Brythonic poet of Sub-Roman Britain whose work has possibly survived in a Middle Welsh manuscript, the Book of Taliesin. Taliesin was a renowned bard who is believed to have sung at the courts of at least three Brythonic kings. Eleven of the preserved poems have been dated to as early as the 6th century, and were ascribed to the historical Taliesin. The bulk of this work praises King Urien of Rheged and his son Owain mab Urien, although several of the poems indicate that he also served as the court bard to King Brochfael Ysgithrog of Powys and his successor Cynan Garwyn, either before or during his time at Urien's court. Some of the events to which the poems refer, such as the Battle of Arfderydd (c. 583), are referred to in other sources. His name, spelled as Taliessin in Alfred, Lord Tennyson's Idylls of the King and in some subsequent works, means "shining brow" in Middle Welsh. In legend and medieval Welsh poetry, he is often referred to as Taliesin Ben Beirdd ("Taliesin, Chief of Bards" or chief of poets). He is mentioned as one of the five British poets of renown, along with Talhaearn Tad Awen ("Talhaearn Father of the Muse"), Aneirin, Blwchfardd, and Cian Gwenith Gwawd ("Cian Wheat of Song"), in the Historia Brittonum, and is also mentioned in the collection of poems known as Y Gododdin. Taliesin was highly regarded in the mid-12th century as the supposed author of a great number of romantic legends.Griffin (1887) According to legend Taliesin was adopted as a child by Elffin, the son of Gwyddno Garanhir, and prophesied the death of Maelgwn Gwynedd from the Yellow Plague. In later stories he became a mythic hero, companion of Bran the Blessed and King Arthur. His legendary biography is found in several late renderings (see below), the earliest surviving narrative being found in a manuscript chronicle of world history written by Elis Gruffydd in the 16th century.
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Test Dept. were an industrial music group from London, one of the most important and influential early industrial music acts.
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The Myvyrian Archaiology of Wales is a printed collection of medieval Welsh literature, published in three volumes by the Gwyneddigion Society between 1801 and 1807.
Thomas Stephens (April 21, 1821 – January 4, 1875) was a Welsh apothecary, historian and critic.
Urien, often referred to as Urien Rheged or Uriens, was a late 6th-century king of Rheged, an early British kingdom of the Hen Ogledd (northern England and southern Scotland).
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The Votadini (the Wotādīni, Votādīni, or Otadini) were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain.
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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain, bordered by England to its east, the Irish Sea to its north and west, and the Bristol Channel to its south.
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Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg, pronounced) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages spoken natively in Wales, by some along the Welsh border in England, and in Y Wladfa (the Welsh colony in Chubut Province, Argentina).
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William Forbes Skene (7 June 1809 – 29 August 1892), was a Scottish historian and antiquary.
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